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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20201735, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830071

RESUMO

The environmental and health risks associated with the application of synthetic chemical inputs in agriculture increased the demand for technologies that allow higher performance and quality of vegetable crops by implementing synergistic materials with the principles of sustainability. In this work, the seed coating with the biomass of Dunaliella salina incorporated in a bioplastic film of Manihot esculenta (cassava) was evaluated as an initial growth and secondary compounds stimulator of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) plants. The obtained results demonstrated that the coating stimulated an increase in the germination percentage (28.75%) and also in concentration of bioactive compounds, such as the six-fold increment of caffeic acid (13.33 mg 100 g-1). The carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins present in the microalgae biomass seem to be responsible for these increments once they are known for providing energy to the seedling development and coordinating the secondary metabolites synthesis. As conclusion, we consider the coating with biomass of D. salina an alternative for crop improvement that contributes to the development of sustainable agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Clorofíceas , Coriandrum , Microalgas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Metabolismo Secundário , Sementes , Ácidos Cafeicos , Carboidratos , Clorofíceas/química , Coriandrum/química , Coriandrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Coriandrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coriandrum/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Lipídeos , Manihot/química , Microalgas/química , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2201761119, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709319

RESUMO

The BABY BOOM (BBM) AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) AP2/ERF domain transcription factor is a major regulator of plant cell totipotency, as it induces asexual embryo formation when ectopically expressed. Surprisingly, only limited information is available on the role of BBM during zygotic embryogenesis. Here we reexamined BBM expression and function in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) using reporter analysis and newly developed CRISPR mutants. BBM was expressed in the embryo from the zygote stage and also in the maternal (nucellus) and filial (endosperm) seed tissues. Analysis of CRISPR mutant alleles for BBM (bbm-cr) and the redundantly acting AIL gene PLETHORA2 (PLT2) (plt2-cr) uncovered individual roles for these genes in the timing of embryo progression. We also identified redundant roles for BBM and PLT2 in endosperm proliferation and cellularization and the maintenance of zygotic embryo development. Finally, we show that ectopic BBM expression in the egg cell of Arabidopsis and the dicot crops Brassica napus and Solanum lycopersicon is sufficient to bypass the fertilization requirement for embryo development. Together these results highlight roles for BBM and PLT2 in seed development and demonstrate the utility of BBM genes for engineering asexual embryo development in dicot species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Endosperma , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269548

RESUMO

Grain size, grain number per panicle, and grain weight are crucial determinants of yield-related traits in cereals. Understanding the genetic basis of grain yield-related traits has been the main research object and nodal in crop science. Sorghum and maize, as very close C4 crops with high photosynthetic rates, stress tolerance and large biomass characteristics, are extensively used to produce food, feed, and biofuels worldwide. In this review, we comprehensively summarize a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with grain yield in sorghum and maize. We placed great emphasis on discussing 22 fine-mapped QTLs and 30 functionally characterized genes, which greatly hinders our deep understanding at the molecular mechanism level. This review provides a general overview of the comprehensive findings on grain yield QTLs and discusses the emerging trend in molecular marker-assisted breeding with these QTLs.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 112, 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oil palm is the most efficient oil-producing crop in the world, and the yield of palm oil is associated with embryonic development. However, a comprehensive understanding of zygotic embryo development at the molecular level remains elusive. In order to address this issue, we report the transcriptomic analysis of zygotic embryo development in oil palm, specifically focusing on regulatory genes involved in important biological pathways. RESULTS: In this study, three cDNA libraries were prepared from embryos at S1 (early-stage), S2 (middle-stage), and S3 (late-stage). There were 16,367, 16,500, and 18,012 genes characterized at the S1, S2, and S3 stages of embryonic development, respectively. A total of 1522, 2698, and 142 genes were differentially expressed in S1 vs S2, S1 vs S3, and S2 vs S3, respectively. Using Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis to identify key genes and pathways. In the hormone signaling pathway, genes related to auxin antagonize the output of cytokinin which regulates the development of embryo meristem. The genes related to abscisic acid negatively regulating the synthesis of gibberellin were strongly up-regulated in the mid-late stage of embryonic development. The results were reported the early synthesis and mid-late degradation of sucrose, as well as the activation of the continuous degradation pathway of temporary starch, providing the nutrients needed for differentiation of the embryonic cell. Moreover, the transcripts of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were also abundantly accumulated in the zygotic embryos. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our research provides a new perspective on the developmental and metabolic regulation of zygotic embryo development at the transcriptional level in oil palm.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arecaceae/genética , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Óleo de Palmeira
6.
Planta ; 255(4): 90, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318532

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The entire process of embryo development is under the tight control of various transcription factors. Together with other proteins, they act in a combinatorial manner and control distinct events during embryo development. Seed development is a complex process that proceeds through sequences of events regulated by the interplay of various genes, prominent among them being the transcription factors (TFs). The members of WOX, HD-ZIP III, ARF, and CUC families have a preferential role in embryonic patterning. While WOX TFs are required for initiating body axis, HD-ZIP III TFs and CUCs establish bilateral symmetry and SAM. And ARF5 performs a major role during embryonic root, ground tissue, and vasculature development. TFs such as LEC1, ABI3, FUS3, and LEC2 (LAFL) are considered the master regulators of seed maturation. Furthermore, several new TFs involved in seed storage reserves and dormancy have been identified in the last few years. Their association with those master regulators has been established in the model plant Arabidopsis. Also, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay coupled with transcriptomics, genome-wide target genes of these master regulators have recently been proposed. Many seed-specific genes, including those encoding oleosins and albumins, have appeared as the direct target of LAFL. Also, several other TFs act downstream of LAFL TFs and perform their function during maturation. In this review, the function of different TFs in different phases of early embryogenesis and maturation is discussed in detail, including information about their genetic and molecular interactors and target genes. Such knowledge can further be leveraged to understand and manipulate the regulatory mechanisms involved in seed development. In addition, the genomics approaches and their utilization to identify TFs aiming to study embryo development are discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 113, 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many seed plants produce winged diaspores that use wind to disperse their seeds. The morphology of these diaspores is directly related to the seed dispersal potential. The majority of winged diaspores have flat wings and only seeds; however, some angiosperms, such as Firmiana produce winged fruit with a different morphology, whose seed dispersal mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, we observed the fruit development of F. simplex and determined the morphological characteristics of mature fruit and their effects on the flight performance of the fruit. RESULTS: We found that the pericarp of F. simplex dehisced early and continued to unfold and expand during fruit development until ripening, finally formed a spoon-shaped wing with multiple alternate seeds on each edge. The wing caused mature fruit to spin stably during descent to provide a low terminal velocity, which was correlated with the wing loading and the distribution of seeds on the pericarp. When the curvature distribution of the pericarp surface substantially changed, the aerodynamic characteristics of fruit during descent altered, resulting in the inability of the fruit to spin. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the curved shape and alternate seed distribution are necessary for the winged diaspore of F. simplex to stabilize spinning during wind dispersal. These unique morphological characteristics are related to the early cracking of fruits during development, which may be an adaptation for the wind dispersal of seeds.


Assuntos
Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malvaceae/anatomia & histologia , Malvaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dispersão de Sementes , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fenótipo , Vento
8.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262410, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134054

RESUMO

Ecological restoration frequently involves the addition of native plants, but the effectiveness (in terms of plant growth, plant survival, and cost) of using seeds versus container plants has not been studied in many plant communities. It is also not known if plant success would vary by species or based on functional traits. To answer these questions, we added several shrub species to a coastal sage scrub restoration site as seeds or as seedlings in a randomized block design. We measured percent cover, density, species richness, size, survival, and costs. Over the two years of the study, shrubs added to the site as seeds grew more and continued to have greater density than plants added from containers. Seeded plots also had greater native species richness than planted plots. However, shrubs from containers had higher survival rates, and percent cover was comparable between the planted and seeded treatments. Responses varied by species depending on functional traits, with deep-rooted evergreen species establishing better from container plants. Our cost analysis showed that it is more expensive to use container plants than seed, with most of the costs attributed to labor and supplies needed to grow plants. Our measurements of shrub density, survival, species richness, and growth in two years in our experimental plots lead us to conclude that coastal sage scrub restoration with seeds is optimal for increasing density and species richness with limited funds, yet the addition of some species from container plants may be necessary if key species are desired as part of the project objectives.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , California , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/economia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148345

RESUMO

Wheat is an important crop, used as staple food in numerous countries around the world. However, wheat productivity is low in the developing world due to several biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly drought stress. Non-availability of drought-tolerant wheat genotypes at different growth stages is the major constraint in improving wheat productivity in the developing world. Therefore, screening/developing drought-tolerant genotypes at different growth stages could improve the productivity of wheat. This study assessed seed germination and seedling growth of eight wheat genotypes under polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced stress. Two PEG-induced osmotic potentials (i.e., -0.6 and -1.2 MPa) were included in the study along with control (0 MPa). Wheat genotypes included in the study were 'KLR-16', 'B6', 'J10', '716', 'A12', 'Seher', 'KTDH-16', and 'J4'. Data relating to seed germination percentage, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoot, root/shoot length ratio and chlorophyll content were recorded. The studied parameters were significantly altered by individual and interactive effects of genotypes and PEG-induced osmotic potentials. Seed germination and growth parameters were reduced by osmotic potentials; however, huge differences were noted among genotypes. A reduction of 32.83 to 53.50% was recorded in seed germination, 24.611 to 47.75% in root length, 37.83 to 53.72% in shoot length, and 53.35 to 65.16% in root fresh weight. The genotypes, 'J4', 'KLR-16' and 'KTDH-16', particularly 'J4' better tolerated increasing osmotic potentials compared to the rest of the genotypes included in the study. Principal component analysis segregated these genotypes from the rest of the genotypes included in the study indicated that these can be used in the future studies to improve the drought tolerance of wheat crop. The genotype 'J4' can be used as a breeding material to develop drought resistant wheat genotypes.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/genética , Secas , Genótipo , Pressão Osmótica , Análise de Componente Principal , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263755, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202404

RESUMO

The deep neural network is used to establish a neural network model to solve the problems of low accuracy and poor accuracy of traditional algorithms in screening differentially expressed genes and function prediction during the walnut endocarp hardening stage. The paper walnut is used as the research object to analyze the biological information of paper walnut. The changes of lignin deposition during endocarp hardening from 50 days to 90 days are observed by microscope. Then, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long and Short-term Memory (LSTM) network model are adopted to construct an expression gene screening and function prediction model. Then, the transcriptome and proteome sequencing and biological information of walnut endocarp samples at 50, 57, 78, and 90 days after flowering are analyzed and taken as the training data set of the CNN + LSTM model. The experimental results demonstrate that the endocarp of paper walnut began to harden at 57 days, and the endocarp tissue on the hardened inner side also began to stain. This indicates that the endocarp hardened laterally from outside to inside. The screening and prediction results show that the CNN + LSTM model's highest accuracy can reach 0.9264. The Accuracy, Precision, Recall, and F1-score of the CNN + LSTM model are better than the traditional machine learning algorithm. Moreover, the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) area enclosed by the CNN + LSTM model and coordinate axis is the largest, and the Area Under Curve (AUC) value is 0.9796. The comparison of ROC and AUC proves that the CNN + LSTM model is better than the traditional algorithm for screening differentially expressed genes and function prediction in the walnut endocarp hardening stage. Using deep learning to predict expressed genes' function accurately can reduce the breeding cost and significantly improve the yield and quality of crops. This research provides scientific guidance for the scientific breeding of paper walnut.


Assuntos
Juglans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Juglans/genética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Agricultura , Algoritmos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Internet das Coisas , Juglans/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2461, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165323

RESUMO

Plants living at the edge of their range boundary tend to suffer an overall decline in their fitness, including growth and reproduction. However, the reproductive performance of plants in artificially expanded habitats is rarely investigated, although this type of study would provide a better understanding of range limitations and improved conservation of ex situ plants. In the current study, we transplanted a narrowly dispersed species of Gentiana officinalis H. Smith (Gentianaceae) from its natural area of distribution to two different elevations and natural elevation to comprehensively study its pollination biology, including flowering phenology and duration, floral display, reproductive allocation, pollinator activity, and seed production. The findings indicated that the starting point and endpoint of the flowering phenology of G. officinalis were earlier at the low elevation, but the peak flowering periods did not differ significantly between any of the experimental plots. When transplanted, the flowering duration, especially the female phase, was reduced; the floral display, including spray numbers, flower numbers, and flower size (length and width), decreased, especially at high elevations. Moreover, the pollen numbers and pollen-ovule ratio were decreased at both high and low elevations, although the ovule numbers showed no change, and aboveground reproductive allocation was decreased. Furthermore, pollinator richness and activity were significantly decreased, and the seed-set ratio decreased under both natural conditions and with supplemental pollination. Finally, more severe pollen limitation was found in transplanted individuals. These results indicated an overall decrease in reproductive fitness in plants living outside their original area of distribution when the geographical range of G. officinalis was expanded.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aptidão Genética , Gentiana/genética , Dispersão Vegetal/genética , Polinização/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/genética , Estações do Ano , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263194, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192615

RESUMO

Salt stress is the major risk to the seed germination and plant growth via affecting physiological and biochemical activities in plants. Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) are emerged as a key agent in regulating the tolerance mechanism in plants under environmental stresses. However, the tolerance mechanisms which are regulated by ZnNPs in plants are still not fully understood. Therefore, the observation was planned to explore the role of ZnNPs (applied as priming and foliar) in reducing the harmful influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) stress on the development of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants. Varying concentrations of ZnNPs (0.1%, 0.2% & 0.3%) were employed to the spinach as seed priming and foliar, under control as well as salt stress environment. The alleviation of stress was observed in ZnNPs-applied spinach plants grown under salt stress, with a reduced rise in the concentration hydrogen peroxide, melondialdehyde and anthocyanin contents. A clear decline in soluble proteins, chlorophyll contents, ascorbic acid, sugars, and total phenolic contents was observed in stressed conditions. Exogenous ZnNPs suppressed the NaCl generated reduction in biochemical traits, and progress of spinach plants. However, ZnNPs spray at 0.3% followed by priming was the most prominent treatment in the accumulation of osmolytes and the production of antioxidant molecules in plants.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , /administração & dosagem , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163383

RESUMO

Heterotrimeric G protein signaling is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in diverse organisms that mediates intracellular responses to external stimuli. In rice, the G proteins are involved in the regulation of multiple important agronomic traits. In this paper, we present our finding that two type C G protein gamma subunits, DEP1 and GS3, antagonistically regulated grain yield and grain quality. The DEP1 gene editing we conducted, significantly increased the grain number per panicle but had a negative impact on taste value, texture properties, and chalkiness-related traits. The GS3 gene editing decreased grain number per panicle but significantly increased grain length. In addition, the GS3 gene-edited plants showed improved taste value, appearance, texture properties, and Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) profiles. To combine the advantages of both gs3 and dep1, we conducted a molecular design breeding at the GS3 locus of a "super rice" variety, SN265, which has a truncated dep1 allele with erect panicle architecture, high-yield performance, and which is of mediocre eating quality. The elongated grain size of the sn265/gs3 gene-edited plants further increased the grain yield. More importantly, the texture properties and RVA profiles were significantly improved, and the taste quality was enhanced. Beyond showcasing the combined function of dep1 and gs3, this paper presents a strategy for the simultaneous improvement of rice grain yield and quality through manipulating two type C G protein gamma subunits in rice.


Assuntos
Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Bases , Embaralhamento de DNA , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Edição de Genes , Mutação/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/ultraestrutura
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163496

RESUMO

CCCH zinc finger proteins are a large protein family and are classified as either tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZF) or non-TZF proteins. The roles of TZF genes in several plants have been well determined, whereas the functions of many non-TZF genes in plants remain uncharacterized. Herein, we describe biological and molecular functions of AtC3H12, an Arabidopsis non-TZF protein containing three CCCH zinc finger motifs. AtC3H12 has orthologs in several plant species but has no paralog in Arabidopsis. AtC3H12-overexpressing transgenic plants (OXs) germinated slower than wild-type (WT) plants, whereas atc3h12 mutants germinated faster than WT plants. The fresh weight (FW) and primary root lengths of AtC3H12 OX seedlings were lighter and shorter than those of WT seedlings, respectively. In contrast, FW and primary root lengths of atc3h12 seedlings were heavier and longer than those of WT seedlings, respectively. AtC3H12 was localized in the nucleus and displayed transactivation activity in both yeast and Arabidopsis. We found that the 97-197 aa region of AtC3H12 is an important part for its transactivation activity. Detection of expression levels and analysis of Arabidopsis transgenic plants harboring a PAtC3H12::GUS construct showed that AtC3H12 expression increases as the Arabidopsis seedlings develop. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AtC3H12 negatively affects seed germination and seedling development as a nuclear transcriptional activator in Arabidopsis. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that non-TZF proteins negatively affect plant development as nuclear transcriptional activators.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Germinação , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transativadores/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transativadores/química , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Dedos de Zinco
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263798, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139125

RESUMO

Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis L.) are becoming problematic weeds in summer crops, including cotton in Australia. A series of laboratory and field experiments were performed to examine the germination ecology, and seed persistence of two populations of A. retroflexus and A. viridis collected from the Goondiwindi and Gatton regions of Australia. Both populations of A. retroflexus and A. viridis behaved similarly to different environmental conditions. Initial dormancy was observed in fresh seeds of both species; however, germination reached maximum after an after-ripening period of two months at room temperature. Light was not a mandatory prerequisite for germination of both species as they could germinate under complete darkness. Although both species showed very low germination at the alternating day/night temperature of 15/5 C, these species germinated more than 40% between ranges of 25/15 C to 35/25 C. Maximum germination of A. retroflexus (93%) and A. viridis (86%) was observed at 35/25 C and 30/20, respectively. Germination of A. retroflexus and A. viridis was completely inhibited at osmotic potentials of -1.0 and -0.6 MPa, respectively. No germination was observed in both species at the sodium chloride concentration of 200 mM. A. retroflexus seedling emergence (87%) was maximum from the seeds buried at 1 cm while the maximum germination of A. viridis (72%) was observed at the soil surface. No seedling emergence was observed from a burial depth of 8 cm for both species. In both species, seed persistence increased with increasing burial depth. At 24 months after seed placement, seed depletion ranged from 75% (10 cm depth) to 94% (soil surface) for A. retroflexus, and ranged from 79% to 94% for A. viridis, respectively. Information gained from this study will contribute to an integrated control programs for A. retroflexus and A. viridis.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthus/classificação , Amaranthus/fisiologia , Austrália , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Humanos , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Plantas Daninhas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163676

RESUMO

RcNAC72, a key transcription factor that may respond to drought stress in Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush', was selected in our previous study. In the present study, we found that RcNAC72 is localized in the nucleus and is a transcriptional activator. RcNAC72 expression could be significantly induced by drought, low temperature, salt as well as abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Analysis of the promoter revealed that multiple abiotic stress and hormone response elements were located in the promoter region. The promoter could respond to drought, low temperature, salt and ABA treatments to activate GUS gene expression. Overexpressing RcNAC72 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced sensitivity to ABA and tolerance to drought stress. Silencing of RcNAC72 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in rose leaves significantly reduced leaf water loss tolerance and leaf extension capacity. Physical interaction of RcNAC72 with RcDREB2A was shown by means of the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. RcABF4 was demonstrated to be able to bind to the promoter of RcNAC72 by means of the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay. These results provide new insights into the regulatory network of RcNAC72 response to drought stress in roses.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rosa/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263036, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213549

RESUMO

Seed priming is regarded as a beneficial and effective method enhancing performance of plants grown under stress conditions. This study illustrated the effect of four seed priming agents (2% H2O2, 52 mM NaCl, 50 mM KCl, 250 mM MgSO4) on two sorghum cultivars (Canada sorghum CFSH-30 and sorghum '1230') grown in saline soils. Sorghum growth characteristics and biochemical parameters were investigated. Seed priming treatments alleviated the adverse effects of salt stress by decreasing MDA content and enhancing antioxidant enzymes (CAT, POD and SOD) activities and proline content, and hence increased sorghum fresh and dry weight. In terms of various parameters, sorghum '1230' was more suitable to be grown in saline soil, and 52 mM NaCl and 50 mM KCl were the optimum priming agents to improve the performance of salt-stressed sorghum.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sorghum/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Canadá , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Prolina/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163533

RESUMO

The need to feed 9.9 billion people by 2050 will require the coordination of farming practices and water utilization by nutrient-dense plants and crops. High levels of lead (Pb), a toxic element that can accumulate in plants, can lead to toxicity in humans. With the development of novel treatment technologies, such as atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) and engineered nanoparticles (NPs), the time to germination and levels of heavy metals in food and feed commodities can be reduced. This study provides insight into the impact of plasma-activated water (PAW) on the germination rates and effects of soybean seeds, and the resultant combination effects of zinc oxide uptake in the presence of lead. Soybean seedlings were watered with PAW (treated for 3, 5, and 7 min at 30, 50, and 70 kV), and the germination and growth rate were monitored for 10 days. The germinated seedlings were then grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution, and the biomass of each example was measured. The PAW treatment that resulted in the best growth of soybean seeds was then exposed to Pb and zinc-oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) to investigate heavy metal uptake in the presence of nanoparticles. After acid digestion, the rate of heavy metal uptake by the soybean plants was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The PAW seeds grew and germinated more quickly, demonstrating that the plasma therapy had an effect. The rate of heavy metal uptake by the plants was also shown to be 5x lower in the presence of ZnONP.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Agricultura , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroponia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Metais Pesados/análise , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/química , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Óxido de Zinco/análise
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 70, 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seed germination is a crucial process, which determines the initiation of seed plant life cycle. The early events during this important life cycle transition that called early seed germination is defined as initially water uptake plus radicle growing out of the covering seed layers. However, a specific genome-wide analysis of early seed germination in rice is still obscure. RESULTS: In this study, the physiological characteristics of rice seed during seed germination are determined to define key points of early seed germination. Transcriptome analyses of early phase of seed germination provided deeper insight into the genetic regulation landscape. Many genes involved in starch-to-sucrose transition were differentially expressed, especially alpha-amylase 1b and beta-amylase 2, which were predominantly expressed. Differential exon usage (DEU) genes were identified, which were significantly enriched in the pathway of starch and sucrose metabolism, indicating that DEU events were critical for starch-to-sucrose transition at early seed germination. Transcription factors (TFs) were also dramatic expressed, including the abscisic acid (ABA) responsive gene, OsABI5, and gibberellic acid (GA) responsive genes, GAI. Moreover, GAI transactivated GA responsive gene, GAMYB in vivo, indicating a potential pathway involved in early seed germination process. In addition, CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) genes, such as CIPK13, CIPK14 and CIPK17 were potentially interacted with other proteins, indicating its pivotal role at early seed germination. CONCLUSION: Taken together, gene regulation of early seed germination in rice was complex and protein-to-gene or protein-to-protein interactions were indispensable.


Assuntos
Germinação/genética , Oryza/genética , Sementes/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Éxons , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amido/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Plant Sci ; 317: 111197, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193746

RESUMO

QTLs for yield-related traits in tetraploid cotton have been widely mapped, but QTLs introduced from diploid species into tetraploid cotton background remain uninvolved. Here, a stable introgression line with the traits of small boll and seed on Chr. A12, IL197 derived from Gossypium hirsutum (2n = AADD = 52) × Gossypium arboreum (2n = AA = 26), was employed to construct the F2 and F3 secondary populations for fine-mapping QTLs of yield-related traits. QTL analysis showed eight QTLs were detected for three traits, boll weight (BW), seed index (SI, one-hundred-seed weight in g), and lint percentage, with 3.94-28.13 % of the phenotypic variance explained. Of them, a stable major QTL, q(BW + SI)-A12-1 controlling both BW and SI and covering the shortest region in Chr. A12, was further narrowed into a 60.09 kb-interval through substitution mapping. Finally, five candidate genes were detected in the interval. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed only TIP41-like family protein (TIP41L) kept up-regulated expression and significantly lower in TM-1 than that in IL197 from -1 DPA to 15 DPA during cotton boll rapid developmental stage. Therefore, TIP41L gene is speculated as the most likely candidate gene. Comparative analysis with the other four allotetraploid species showed TIP41L gene was probably diverged after the formation of allotetraploid cotton, which may be selected and swept during domestication of modern upland cotton because small boll and seed are detrimental to fibre yield of cotton. This research would lay a solid foundation for further elucidating the molecular mechanism of cotton boll and seed development.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Gossypium , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium/genética , Fenótipo , Sementes/genética
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