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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126918, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957302

RESUMO

The increasing application of various surfactants nowadays, may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and represent potential threat to terrestrial higher plants. In this article, the effect of 13 surfactants, with dodecyl alkyl chain and various aromatic (imidazolium, pyridinium, thiazolium) and aliphatic (guanidinium, ammonium, thiosemicarbazidium) polar heads, on germination, development and growth of wheat and cucumber was investigated. The study aimed to prove how changes in lipophilicity of surfactants and their various structural modifications (existence of the aliphatic or aromatic polar group, the introduction of oxygen and sulfur) influence toxicity towards investigated plants. The calculated lipophilic parameter (AlogP) is shown to be a useful parameter for predicting potential toxicity of the compound. The strategy of using surfactants with aliphatic polar heads instead of aromatic prove to be a promising strategy in reducing harmful effect, as well as the introduction of polar groups in the structure of cation. From all investigated compounds, surfactants with imidazolium polar head displayed the most harmful effect towards wheat and cucumber. The cucumber seeds were more sensitive to the addition of surfactants comparing to wheat. All obtained experimental results were additionally investigated using computational methods, simulating the transport of surfactants through a lipid bilayer. The influence of cation tendency to fit in lipid bilayer structure was correlated with toxicity. For the first time, it is concluded that cation ability to mimic the structure of bilayer have less harmful effect on plant development.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Compostos de Piridínio/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cátions , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos de Piridínio/química , Compostos de Piridínio/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tensoativos/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790719

RESUMO

Melatonin is effective in enhancing various abiotic stress resistances of plants. However, its underlying mechanisms in drought-resistance in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is not clear. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of melatonin on seed germination and to evaluate leaf antioxidant physiology for two wheat varieties. Experiments included 20% PEG, melatonin plus 20% PEG and a control using two contrasting wheat varieties (JM22- drought sensitive and HG35- drought resistant). Melatonin levels were 0, 1, 10, 100 and 300 µmol L-1. Results revealed that 300 µmol L-1 of melatonin alleviated the negative effect of water stress on germination and increased radicle length, radicle number, and plumule length of the germinated seeds. Principal component analysis showed a significant change in amino acid content during germination and this change was dependent on melatonin concentration and the variety. Lysine (Lys) content in wheat seeds under the PEG plus 300 µmol L-1 melatonin treatment increased compared with that of the seeds under PEG alone. There was a significant and positive correlation between Lys content and morphological index of germination. During seedling growth, soluble protein was involved in osmotic adjustment and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased to mitigate the damage in the cytomembrane of JM 22 leaf under 300 µmol L-1 melatonin plus PEG treatment. The effect of melatonin was dependent on SOD activity increasing significantly for HG35-a drought resistant variety. The results of this work lays a foundation for further studies to determine if melatonin can be economically used to mitigate the impact of dry planting conditions on wheat productivity in North China Plain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Osmose , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649700

RESUMO

The genetic diversity of North American soybean cultivars has been largely influenced by a small number of ancestors. High yielding breeding lines that possess exotic pedigrees have been developed, but identifying beneficial exotic alleles has been difficult as a result of complex interactions of yield alleles with genetic backgrounds and environments as well as the highly quantitative nature of yield. PI 416937 has been utilized in the development of many high yielding lines that have been entered into the USDA Southern States Uniform Tests over the past ~20 years. The primary goal of this research was to identify genomic regions under breeding selection from PI 416937 and introduce a methodology for identifying and potentially utilizing beneficial diversity from lines prevalent in the ancestry of elite cultivars. Utilizing SoySNP50K Infinium BeadChips, 52 high yielding PI 416937-derived lines as well as their parents were genotyped to identify PI 416937 alleles under breeding selection. Nine genomic regions across three chromosomes and 17 genomic regions across seven chromosomes were identified where PI 416937 alleles were under positive or negative selection. Minimal significant associations between PI 416937 alleles and yield were observed in replicated yield trials of five RIL populations, highlighting the difficulty of consistently detecting yield associations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Variação Genética/genética , Soja/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634144

RESUMO

Accurate identification of crop varieties grown by farmers is crucial, among others, for crop management, food security and varietal development and dissemination purposes. One may expect varietal identification to be more challenging in the context of developing countries where literacy and education are limited and informal seed systems and seed recycling are common. This paper evaluates the extent to which smallholder farmers misidentify their wheat varieties in Ethiopia and explores the associated factors and their implications. The study uses data from a nationally representative wheat growing sample household survey and DNA fingerprinting of seed samples from 3,884 wheat plots in major wheat growing zones of Ethiopia. 28-34% of the farmers correctly identified their wheat varieties. Correct identification was positively associated with farmer education and seed purchases from trusted sources (cooperatives or known farmers) and negatively associated with seed recycling. Farmers' varietal identification thereby is problematic and leads to erroneous results in adoption and impact assessments. DNA fingerprinting can enhance varietal identification but remains mute in the identification of contextual and explanatory factors. Thus, combining household survey and DNA fingerprinting approaches is needed for reliable varietal adoption and impact assessments, and generate useful knowledge to inform policy recommendations related to varietal replacement and seed systems development.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645001

RESUMO

Limited information is available that seed biopriming with plant growth-promoting Enterobacter spp. play a prominent role to enhance vegetative growth of plants. Contrary to Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei is a less-studied counterpart despite its vast potential in plant growth-promotion mainly through the inorganic phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) solubilization abilities. To this end, 18 locally isolated bacterial pure cultures were screened and three strains showed high P- and K-solubilizing capabilities. Light microscopy, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that strains 15a1 and 40a were closely related to Enterobacter hormaechei while strain 38 was closely related to Enterobacter cloacae (Accession number: MN294583; MN294585; MN294584). All Enterobacter spp. shared common plant growth-promoting traits, namely nitrogen (N2) fixation, indole-3-acetic acid production and siderophore production. The strains 38 and 40a were able to produce gibberellic acid, while only strain 38 was able to secrete exopolysaccharide on agar. Under in vitro germination assay of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds, Enterobacter spp. significantly improved overall germination parameters and vigor index (19.6%) of seedlings. The efficacy of root colonization of Enterobacter spp. on the pre-treated seedling root tips was confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pot experiment of bioprimed seeds of okra seedling showed significant improvement of the plant growth (> 28%) which corresponded to the increase of P and K uptakes (> 89%) as compared to the uninoculated control plants. The leaf surface area and the SPAD chlorophyll index of bioprimed plants were increased by up to 29% and 9% respectively. This report revealed that the under-explored species of P- and K-solubilizing Enterobacter hormaechei sp. with multiple plant beneficial traits presents a great potential sustainable approach for enhancement of soil fertility and P and K uptakes of plants.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterobacter/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Abelmoschus/classificação , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Abelmoschus/microbiologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Germinação , Tipagem Molecular , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692775

RESUMO

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), being a cash and fiber crop is of high significance in Pakistan. Numerous insect pests and viral diseases in Pakistan and around the world attack cotton crop. Genetically modified cotton (transgenic, resistant to lepidopteran insects), hereafter written as 'Bt-cotton' has been introduced in many regions of the world to combat bollworms. However, cultivars differ in their pest susceptibility, yield response and fiber quality traits. Nonetheless, recent studies have indicated that lepidopteran pests are evolving resistance against 'Bt-cotton'. Several 'Bt-cotton' cultivars have been developed in Pakistan in the past decade; however, limited is known about their pest susceptibility, seed-cotton yield and fiber quality traits. This two-year field study evaluated pest susceptibility, yield and fiber quality traits of thirteen newly developed 'Bt-cotton' cultivars in Pakistan. The cultivars differed in their susceptibility to sucking insects during both years of study. The cultivars 'FH-647', 'SLH-8', 'FH-Lalazar' and 'IUB-013' were more susceptible to jassid, whereas 'BS-52' exhibited higher susceptibility to whitefly during both years of study. Similarly, cultivars 'AGC-999' and 'MNH-992' proved highly susceptible to thrips during each study year. Although 'Bt-cotton' is resistant to bollworms, cultivars 'SLAH-8', 'VH-305' and 'BH-184' were susceptible to spotted bollworm, while 'SLAH-8', 'RH-647' and 'VH-305' were infested by American bollworm. The most susceptible cultivars to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) attack were 'RH-647', 'IR-NIBGE-7' and 'VH-305'. The highest seed-cotton yield was recorded for 'FH-Lalazar' during both years of study. Similarly, the highest ginning out turn was recorded for cultivars 'BS-52', 'VH-305', 'RH-647', 'IUB' and 'AA-919'. The cultivar 'FH-Lalazar' exhibited low pest susceptibility and CLCuV infestation compared to the rest of cultivars. The highest and the lowest gross and net incomes and benefit:cost ratio were noted for 'FH-Lalazar' and 'RH-647, respectively. Keeping in view the low pest susceptibility and high seed-cotton yield, 'FH-Lalazar' could be recommended for higher yield and economic returns in Multan, Pakistan. Nonetheless, regional trials should be conducted for site-specific or region-specific recommendations.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Fibra de Algodão/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Gossypium/virologia , Insetos , Paquistão , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1325-1337, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607601

RESUMO

The main edible organ of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the pod, whose color is a main characteristic affecting its commercial use. Golden pods are popular with consumers; however, color instability affects their commercial exploitation and causes economic losses to the planters. In this study, we focused on the different pod color of two varieties of snap bean. The golden yellow color of snap bean pods is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene located at 1-4.24 Mb of chromosome 2. To explore the physiological and molecular mechanism of the golden pod color, the golden bean line 'A18-1' and the green bean line 'Renaya' were selected as experimental materials. We analyzed the pigment contents, detected the intermediate products of chlorophyll biosynthesis, and identified differentially expressed genes using RNA-seq. The formation of golden bean pods reflects a chlorophyll deficiency, which was speculated to be caused by impairment of the Mg-protoporphyrin IX to chlorophyllide step. In 'A18-1' and 'Renaya' pods on 10, 14, and 18 days, five genes related to this step were differentially expressed, all of which were protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) genes. Among them, the expression changes of the Phvul. 004G112700, Phvul.007G157500, and Phvul. 004G112400 genes were consistent with the color change and physiological data during pod development in 'A18-1' and 'Renaya'. We speculated that the altered expression of these three POR genes might be related to changes in the chlorophyllide content. The results might provide insight into the understanding of chlorophyll biosynthesis and crop breeding for snap bean.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Cor , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555619

RESUMO

Seeds stored in controlled conditions in gene banks, faster or slower lose their viability. The effects of seed moisture content levels (ca. 5, 8, 11%) combined with storage temperatures (-3°, -18°, -196°C) were investigated in terms of the description of seeds defined as orthodox under oxidative stress after seed storage, during germination, and initial seedling growth. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ascorbate (Asc) were analyzed in relation to seed germinability and seedlings emergence in three species: Malus sylvestris L., Prunus avium L. and Prunus padus L. The effect of seed storage conditions on H2O2 levels appeared in germinated seeds after the third year of storage in each species. The H2O2 levels were negatively correlated with the germination and seedling emergence of P. avium seeds after three years of storage under all examined combinations. The emergence of P. padus seedlings was not linked to any of the stress markers tested. The P. padus seed biochemical traits were least altered by storage conditions, and the seeds produced tolerant seedlings of relatively high levels of H2O2 and TBARS. To cope with different H2O2 levels, TBARS levels, and Asc levels in seeds of three species varying storage conditions different molecular responses, i.e. repairing mechanisms, were applied during stratification to compensate for the storage conditions and, as a result, seeds remained viable and seedlings were successfully established.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110796, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505050

RESUMO

1,2-Hexanediol is commonly used in the cosmetic industry as a preservative, an emollient, and a moisturizing agent. However, studies on the scientific toxicity of 1,2-hexanediol are limited. In this study, we evaluated the potential toxic effects of 1,2-hexanediol using phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity testing methods. Phytotoxicity tests using Brassica campestris subsp. napus and Latuca sativa L. showed that 1,2-hexanediol significantly inhibited seed germination and root elongation at the lowest concentration (0.1%). Additionally, plants treated with 1,2-hexanediol failed to survive. In cytotoxicity tests, RAW 264.7 and HK-2 cells treated with 1.0% 1,2-Hexanediol showed a significant decline in viability, followed by death. Since most personal care products contain >2% 1,2-hexanediol, it is highly likely that 1,2-hexanediol is toxic to humans. Moreover, if 1,2-hexanediol enters the human body either via oral intake or through an open wound, it could have critical effects. Furthermore, upon release into the environment, 1,2-hexanediol could cause considerable damage to plants and other organisms. Therefore, further investigation of 1,2-hexanediol is required to prevent toxicity to humans and other living organisms.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Glicóis/toxicidade , Hexanos/toxicidade , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Risco , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Food Chem ; 331: 127282, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559597

RESUMO

Phenolics are important secondary metabolites in plants with strong antioxidant effects. Seeds germination and exogenous stimulation could activate endogenous enzymes to enhance the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Barley seeds geminated under NaCl (1-20 mM) treatment to evaluate the accumulation of phenolics in this study. Results showed that NaCl treatment significantly enhanced the growth of seedlings, especially bud length. NaCl treatment up-regulated genes and proteins expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), resulting in the enhancement of their activities. As a result, phenolic acids and flavonoids contents increased by 11.19% and 32.54%, respectively, in which gallic acid, protocatechuic, fisetin, myricetin and quercetin were affected mostly. Moreover, NaCl treatment enhanced 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity. Hence, NaCl stimulated the synthesis of phenolic components via enhancing gene, protein expression and the activity of key enzymes.


Assuntos
Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 331: 127351, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580126

RESUMO

We processed three quinoa ecotypes as they are commonly consumed in a daily diet. For the treatments, quinoa seeds were washed, cooked, and/or germinated. Following treated, we used 1H NMR-based metabolomic profiling to explore differences between the ecotypes. Then, for a non-targeted and targeted food fingerprint analysis of samples, we performed multivariable data analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and hierarchical cluster analysis. From our study, we were able to discriminate each quinoa ecotype regardless of treatment based on its metabolomic profiling. Additionally, we were able to identify 30 metabolites that were useful to determine the effect of each treatment on nutritional composition. Germination increased the content of most metabolites irrespective of ecotype. In general, ecotype CQE_03 was different from ecotypes CQE_01 and CQE_02. Our phytochemical analysis revealed the effects of washing, cooking, and/or germination, particularly on saponins content.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Culinária , Análise Discriminante , Ecótipo , Equador , Germinação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metabolômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510514

RESUMO

The characterization of gene expression is dependent on RNA quality. In germinating, developing and mature cereal seeds, the extraction of high-quality RNA is often hindered by high starch and sugar content. These compounds can reduce both the yield and the quality of the extracted total RNA. The deterioration in quantity and quality of total RNA can subsequently have a significant impact on the downstream transcriptomic analyses, which may not accurately reflect the spatial and/or temporal variation in the gene expression profile of the samples being tested. In this protocol, we describe an optimized method for extraction of total RNA with sufficient quantity and quality to be used for whole transcriptome analysis of cereal grains. The described method is suitable for several downstream applications used for transcriptomic profiling of developing, germinating, and mature cereal seeds. The method of transcriptome profiling using a microarray platform is shown. This method is specifically designed for gene expression profiling of cereals with described genome sequences. The detailed procedure from microarray handling to final quality control is described. This includes cDNA synthesis, cRNA labelling, microarray hybridization, slide scanning, feature extraction, and data quality validation. The data generated by this method can be used to characterize the transcriptome of cereals during germination, in various stages of grain development, or at different biotic or abiotic stress conditions. The results presented here exemplify high-quality transcriptome data amenable for downstream bioinformatics analyses, such as the determination of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), characterisation of gene regulatory networks, and conducting transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS).


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sementes/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Germinação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Controle de Qualidade , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(6): 597-604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493885

RESUMO

The aim of the present research is to investigate the effect of three harvest date on the composition of apricot seed. Indeed, triacylglycerols (TAGs) content and composition were studied in developing Tunisian apricot varieties bitter (Bargoug), semi-sweet (Oud Rhayem) and sweet (Chechi Bazza) cultivars at intervals of early (14 DAP), mid phase (28 DAP) and full phase (55 DAP) of oil accumulation by UHPLC-ESI-MS method. Eleven molecular species of triacylglycerols were detected and identified as LLL, LLO, LLP, LOO, LLS/LOP, LPP, OOO, LOS, OOP, POP and OOS. At 14 DAP, LLO was the major TAGs molecular species with 35.4-52.6% (maximum reached in semi-sweet apricot). Others major TAGs were founded at lower content as LOO (17.5-40.3%) and OOO (5.7-12.7%). However, among maturity, three distinct profiles of TAGs molecular species were observed: bitter apricot was significantly richer in OOO molecular species than cultivars ones. However, semi-sweet and sweet cultivars were richer in LLO and LOO molecular species at different time-dates. These latter may provide a schedule for harvesting Tunisian apricot seeds with high quality of oil content.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Prunus armeniaca/química , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15305-15315, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541052

RESUMO

Small RNAs are abundant in plant reproductive tissues, especially 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Most 24-nt siRNAs are dependent on RNA Pol IV and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) and establish DNA methylation at thousands of genomic loci in a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In Brassica rapa, RdDM is required in the maternal sporophyte for successful seed development. Here, we demonstrate that a small number of siRNA loci account for over 90% of siRNA expression during B. rapa seed development. These loci exhibit unique characteristics with regard to their copy number and association with genomic features, but they resemble canonical 24-nt siRNA loci in their dependence on RNA Pol IV/RDR2 and role in RdDM. These loci are expressed in ovules before fertilization and in the seed coat, embryo, and endosperm following fertilization. We observed a similar pattern of 24-nt siRNA expression in diverse angiosperms despite rapid sequence evolution at siren loci. In the endosperm, siren siRNAs show a marked maternal bias, and siren expression in maternal sporophytic tissues is required for siren siRNA accumulation. Together, these results demonstrate that seed development occurs under the influence of abundant maternal siRNAs that might be transported to, and function in, filial tissues.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alelos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 326: 108646, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413802

RESUMO

The effects of using contaminated seed and water on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella Newport in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Seeds were contaminated by either immersing in a suspension of Salmonella and then sprouted or were sprouted in Salmonella contaminated water in the dark at 25 °C. After 5 days, germinated sprouts were analyzed for S. Newport population and internalization. Germinated sprouts were potted in soil and grown in a plant incubator for 4 weeks. Leaves, stems and roots were sampled for Salmonella population by plating on CHROMagar™. Plants surface-sterilized with chlorine were analyzed for internalized pathogen. Potting soil and water runoff were sampled for Salmonella after 4 weeks of plant growth. Contaminated seeds and irrigation water had S. Newport populations of 7.64±0.43 log CFU/g and 7.12±0.04 log CFU/ml, respectively. Sprouts germinated using contaminated water or seeds had S. Newport populations of 8.09±0.04 and 8.08±0.03 log CFU/g, respectively and had a Salmonella population that was significantly higher than other spinach tissues (P<0.05). Populations of S. Newport in leaves, stem and roots of spinach plants were as follows: contaminated seed- 2.82±1.69, 1.69±0.86, and 4.41±0.62 log CFU/ml; contaminated water- 3.56±0.90, 3.04±0.31, and 4.03±0.42 log CFU/ml of macerated tissue suspension, respectively. Internalization was observed in plants developing from contaminated seeds and in sprouts germinated using contaminated water. S. Newport populations of 2.82±0.70 log CFU/g and 1.76±0.46 log CFU/ml were recovered from soil and water runoff, respectively. The results indicate that contamination of spinach during germination can result in persistence, internalization and environmental reintroduction of Salmonella.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/microbiologia , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Germinação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407422

RESUMO

Bidens subalternans DC. is a weed found in several tropical countries such as Brazil. Large number of produced seeds and easy dispersion favor the colonization of agricultural fields by this species. To know the factors that affect the germination of B. subalternans can help to understand its ecology, permitting to develop control strategies. Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate how the temperature, photoperiod, burial depth, water deficit, and salt stress affect the seed germination of B. subalternans. The means of the treatments of each experiment were shown in scatter plots with the bars indicating the least significant difference (LSD, p≤0.05). The results showed a germination percentage above 77% for a wide alternating temperature (15/20 C to 30/35 C night/day). The highest germination and uniformity occurred at 25/30°C night/day. Only 11% of the seeds germinated at a temperature of 35/40°C night/day. The deeper burial of seeds reduced their germination. Only 17% of the seeds germinated in darkness conditions. However, in constant light and 12 hours of light/dark conditions the germination percentage was over 96%, confirming the light dependence of the B. subalternans during germination. In constant light and 12 hours of light/dark, the germination was over 96%. B. subalternans seeds showed sensitivity to water and salt stress, and their germination was inhibited under a water potential of -0.4 MPa and 100.09 mM, respectively. The sensitivity of B. subalternans seeds to high temperatures, water stress, and salt stress explains the high frequency of this weed in south-central Brazil. The light and sowing depth showed that burial of seeds by mechanical control is a strategy to reduce the high infestation of B. subalternans.


Assuntos
Bidens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Germinação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotoperíodo , Sais , Estresse Fisiológico , Água
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0225564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380515

RESUMO

Senna tora is an annual herb with rich source of anthraquinones that have tremendous pharmacological properties. However, there is little mention of genetic information for this species, especially regarding the biosynthetic pathways of anthraquinones. To understand the key genes and regulatory mechanism of anthraquinone biosynthesis pathways, we performed spatial and temporal transcriptome sequencing of S. tora using short RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) technologies, and generated two unigene sets composed of 118,635 and 39,364, respectively. A comprehensive functional annotation and classification with multiple public databases identified array of genes involved in major secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways and important transcription factor (TF) families (MYB, MYB-related, AP2/ERF, C2C2-YABBY, and bHLH). Differential expression analysis indicated that the expression level of genes involved in anthraquinone biosynthetic pathway regulates differently depending on the degree of tissues and seeds development. Furthermore, we identified that the amount of anthraquinone compounds were greater in late seeds than early ones. In conclusion, these results provide a rich resource for understanding the anthraquinone metabolism in S. tora.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Extrato de Senna/metabolismo , Senna (Planta)/genética , Senna (Planta)/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407357

RESUMO

Water uptake into seeds is a fundamental prerequisite of germination and commonly influenced by commercial seed enhancement technologies. The effect of fruit orientation and contrasting pelleting materials on germination and biological performance of sugar beet was assessed. The results indicated there was orientation dependent fruit shrinkage of 37% for the operculum side supplied by moisture compared to 4% for the basal pore side. The expansion rate of 5% compared to the original size, which was also observed for non-shrinking seeds, indicated this was a temporary effect. This behaviour has importance for the application pelleting materials to seeds. Pellets composed of materials exhibiting low levels of swelling act as a water distribution layer which increased germination rates. Careful selection of pelleting material is crucial as it has direct implications on germination speed and subsequent establishment rates.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Beta vulgaris/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Germinação , Sementes/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Beta vulgaris/química , Beta vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 485-490, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237504

RESUMO

The study is aimed to create seed materials and dissect the molecular mechanism of sexual propagation of Gastrodia elata. In this research, thirteen characteristics of flowers, flower stem, fruits, seeds and embryo of G.elata f. glauca and G.elata f. elata after bolting at room temperature(RT) and constant temperature(CT, 22 ℃) were determined. It was found that the constant temperature condition could prolong the bolting duration of G.elata and increased the number of flowers, while the variety of G.elata only affected the bolting duration, but had no effect on the number of flowers, and the G.elata f. elata was more likely to bolting than the G.elata f. glauca. The variety of G.elata was the main factor affecting the time of dehiscent fruit of G.elata, the temperature was the main factor affecting the fruits number and fruits diameter, and the constant temperature was more conducive to the fruits shape of G.elata than the room temperature. There was no significant difference in seed phenotype of G.elata varieties, but the seed embryo of G.elata seeds cultivated at constant temperature was fuller than that of G.elata cultivated at room temperature, and temperature had less influence on the seed phenotype of G.elata. But it was interesting to find that temperature and varieties had greater influence on the seed embryo of G.elata, constant temperature cultivation was more conducive to the formation of seed embryo of G.elata, and more the seed embryo of G.elata f. elata was easier to form than the seed embryo of G.elata f. glauca. However, the development of seeds and embryos of G.elata was significantly affected, and the development of seeds and embryos of G.elata f. glauca was more sensitive to temperature than G.elata f. elata. The research suggested that it is advisable for G.elata to produce seed materials by bolting at constant temperature(22 ℃).


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrodia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Fenótipo , Reprodução
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298323

RESUMO

In tropical dry forests, although seed germination and seedling establishment are in general limited by the seasonal availability of water, high interspecific variability, nonetheless, exists in terms of seedling traits and germination dynamics. Differences among species in seed germination and seedling traits may be related to other plant life-history traits, such that assessing these relationships may increase our understanding of factors influencing plant establishment, which would affect the regeneration pathways of tropical dry forest communities. In this study, taking into consideration the effect species' phylogeny, we evaluated the relationships of seed germination metrics (percentage, lag time, and rate of germination) and seedling types (i.e. cotyledons functional morphology), with plant life-history traits (growth form, seed mass, dispersal syndrome and dispersal phenology) for 110 species in a Neotropical dry forest in Mexico. A total of 92% of the species studied disperse their seeds during the dry season, mainly at the beginning of this season (66%), a strategy mostly associated with autochorous herbs. Seed germination was more frequent in species that dispersed seeds at the end of the dry season. Germination percentage was not related to any of the traits studied. However, germination lag time and rate were negatively related to seed mass, a trait that in turn depended on growth form and dispersal syndrome. The dominant seedling type in the community was phanerocotylar epigeal with foliaceous cotyledons (56%), which was mostly associated with small seed mass and herbaceous growth form. Our results provide evidence that several plant life-history traits explain an important part of the variation in seed germination and seedling characteristics observed among species. Therefore, these plant life-history traits may be useful for grouping species in terms of their establishment strategies and roles on the regeneration of tropical dry communities.


Assuntos
Florestas , Germinação , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Germinação/fisiologia , México , Dispersão de Sementes , Fatores de Tempo , Clima Tropical
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