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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11805-11814, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566383

RESUMO

The impact of cross-breeding two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants on the content of phytic acid and the metabolite profile of the resulting double mutant was investigated. Progenies resulting from the cross of Os-lpa-XS110-1, a rice mutant carrying the myo-inositol kinase (OsMIK) mutated gene, and Os-lpa-XS110-2, with the multidrug resistance-associated protein ABC transporter gene 5 (OsMRP5) as the mutation target, were subjected to high-pressure ion chromatography. The reduction of the phytic acid content in the double mutant (-63%) was much more pronounced than in the single mutants (-26 and -47%). Gas chromatography-based metabolite profiling revealed a superimposition of the metabolite profiles inherited from the lpa progenitors in the double mutant progenies; the resulting metabolite signature was predominated by the OsMIK mutation effect. The study demonstrated that cross-breeding of two single lpa mutants can be employed to generate double lpa rice mutants showing both a significant reduction in the content of phytic acid and the imprinting of a specific mutation-induced metabolite signature.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Hibridização Genética , Oryza/química , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11262-11276, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509416

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds are rich in flavonoids. However, the detailed flavonoid compositions and the molecular basis of flavonoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat seeds remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a combined metabolite profiling and transcriptome analysis to identify flavonoid compositions and characterize genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in the developing tartary buckwheat seeds. In total, 234 flavonoids, including 10 isoflavones, were identified. Of these, 80 flavonoids were significantly differential accumulation during seed development. Transcriptome analysis indicated that most structural genes and some potential regulatory genes of flavonoid biosynthesis were significantly differentially expressed in the course of seed development. Correlation analysis between transcriptome and metabolite profiling shown that the expression patterns of some differentially expressed structural genes and regulatory genes were more consistent with the changes in flavonoids profiles during seed development and promoted one SG7 subgroup R2R3-MYB transcription factors (FtPinG0009153900.01) was identified as the key regulatory gene of flavonoid biosynthesis. These findings provide valuable information for understanding the mechanism of flavonoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat seeds and the further development of tartary buckwheat health products.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11436-11443, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553599

RESUMO

Phospholipids and phytic acid are important phosphorus (P)-containing compounds in rice grains. Phytic acid is considered as a major antinutrient, because the negatively charged phytic acid chelates cations, including essential micronutrients, and decreases their bioavailability to human beings and monogastric animals. To gain an insight into the interplay of these two kinds of phosphorus-containing metabolites, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mutants of a phospholipase D gene (OsPLDα1) and analyzed the mutational effect on metabolites, including phytic acid in rice grains. Metabolic profiling of two ospldα1 mutants revealed depletion in the phosphatidic acid production and lower accumulation of cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The mutants also showed significantly reduced phytic acid content as compared to their wild-type parent, and the expression of the key genes involved in the phytic acid biosynthesis was altered in the mutants. These results demonstrate that OsPLDα1 not only plays an important role in phospholipid metabolism but also is involved in phytic acid biosynthesis, most probably through the lipid-dependent pathway, and thus revealed a potential new route to regulate phytic acid biosynthesis in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Fosfolipase D/genética , Ácido Fítico/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9697-9704, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403787

RESUMO

In higher plants, seed size is an important parameter and agricultural trait in many aspects of evolutionary fitness. The loss of water-deficiency-induced crop yield is the largest among all natural hazards. Under water-deficient stress, the most prevalent response to terminal stress is to accelerate the early arrest of floral development and, thereby, to accelerate fruit/seed production, which consequently reduces seed size. This phenomenon is well-known, but its molecular mechanism is not well-reviewed and characterized. However, increasing evidence have indicated that water-deficient stress is always coordinated with three genetic signals (i.e., seed size regulators, initial seed size, and fruit number) that decide the final seed size. Here, our review presents new insights into the mechanism underlying cross-talk water-deficient stress signaling with three genetic signals controlling final seed size. These new insights may aid in preliminary screening, identifying novel genetic factors and future design strategies, or breeding to increase crop yield.


Assuntos
Sementes/citologia , Água/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/análise
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10296-10305, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464437

RESUMO

Grass pea is an orphan legume that is grown in many places in the world. It is a high-protein, drought-tolerant legume that is capable of surviving extreme environmental challenges and can be a sole food source during famine. However, grass pea produces the neurotoxin ß-N-oxalyl-L-α,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP), which can cause a neurological disease. This crop is promising as a food source for both animals and humans if ß-ODAP levels and other antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors are lowered or removed. To understand more about these proteins, a proteomic analysis of grass pea was conducted using three different extraction methods to determine which was more efficient at isolating antinutritional factors. Seed proteins extracted with Tris-buffered saline (TBS), 30% ethanol, and 50% isopropanol were identified by mass spectrometry, resulting in the documentation of the most abundant proteins for each extraction method. Mass spectrometry spectral data and BLAST2GO analysis led to the identification of 1376 proteins from all extraction methods. The molecular function of the extracted proteins revealed distinctly different protein functional profiles. The majority of the TBS-extracted proteins were annotated with nutrient reservoir activity, while the isopropanol extraction yielded the highest percentage of endopeptidase proteinase inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that the 50% isopropanol extraction method was the most efficient at isolating antinutritional factors including protease inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Endopeptidases/química , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 13): 384, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of next generation sequencer (NGS) and the analytical methods allowed the researchers to profile their samples more precisely and easier than before. Especially for agriculture, the certification of the genomic background of their plant materials would be important for the reliability of seed market and stable yield as well as for quarantine procedure. However, the analysis of NGS data is still difficult for non-computational researchers or breeders to verify their samples because majority of current softwares for NGS analysis require users to access unfamiliar Linux environment. MAIN BODY: Here, we developed a web-application, "Soybean-VCF2Genomes", http://pgl.gnu.ac.kr/soy_vcf2genome/ to map single sample variant call format (VCF) file against known soybean germplasm collection for identification of the closest soybean accession. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), we simplified genotype matrix for lowering computational burden while maintaining accurate clustering. With our web-application, users can simply upload single sample VCF file created by more than 10x resequencing strategy to find the closest samples along with linkage dendrogram of the reference genotype matrix. CONCLUSION: The information of the closest soybean cultivar will allow breeders to estimate relative germplasmic position of their query sample to determine soybean breeding strategies. Moreover, our VCF2Genomes scheme can be extended to other plant species where the whole genome sequences of core collection are publicly available.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Soja/genética , Interface Usuário-Computador , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/genética , Soja/classificação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7986-7994, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282158

RESUMO

Compositional analyses were performed on samples of rice grain, straw, and derived bran obtained from golden rice event GR2E and near-isogenic control PSBRc82 rice grown at four locations in the Philippines during 2015 and 2016. Grain samples were analyzed for key nutritional components, including proximates, fiber, polysaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients. Samples of straw and bran were analyzed for proximates and minerals. The only biologically meaningful difference between GR2E and control rice was in levels of ß-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids in the grain. Except for ß-carotene and related carotenoids, the compositional parameters of GR2E rice were within the range of natural variability of those components in conventional rice varieties with a history of safe consumption. Mean provitamin A concentrations in milled rice of GR2E can contribute up to 89-113% and 57-99% of the estimated average requirement for vitamin A for preschool children in Bangladesh and the Philippines, respectively.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Engenharia Genética , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Filipinas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina A/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 292, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oilseed Camelina sativa is grown for a range of applications, including for biofuel, biolubricants, and as a source of omega-3 fatty acids for the aquaculture feed industry. The seed meal co-product is used as a source of protein for animal feed; however, the low value of the meal hinders profitability and more widespread application of camelina. The nutritional quality of the seed meal is largely determined by the abundance of specific seed storage proteins and their amino acid composition. Manipulation of seed storage proteins has been shown to be an effective means for either adjustment of nutritional content of seeds or for enhancing accumulation of high-value recombinant proteins in seeds. RESULTS: CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was used to generate deletions in the first exon of the three homoeologous genes encoding the seed storage protein CRUCIFERIN C (CsCRUC), creating an identical premature stop-codon in each and resulting in a CsCRUC knockout line. The mutant alleles were detected by applying a droplet digital PCR drop-off assay. The quantitative nature of this technique is particularly valuable when applied to polyploid species because it can accurately determine the number of mutated alleles in a gene family. Loss of CRUC protein did not alter total seed protein content; however, the abundance of other cruciferin isoforms and other seed storage proteins was altered. Consequently, seed amino acid content was significantly changed with an increase in the proportion of alanine, cysteine and proline, and decrease of isoleucine, tyrosine and valine. CsCRUC knockout seeds did not have changed total oil content, but the fatty acid profile was significantly altered with increased relative abundance of all saturated fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the plasticity of the camelina seed proteome and establishes a CRUC-devoid line, providing a framework for modifying camelina seed protein composition. The results also illustrate a possible link between the composition of the seed proteome and fatty acid profile.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Globulinas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/genética , Sequência de Bases , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Globulinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/genética
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 304, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In flowering plants, proper seed development is achieved through the constant interplay of fertilization products, embryo and endosperm, and maternal tissues. Communication between these compartments is supposed to be tightly regulated at their interfaces. Here, we characterize the deposition pattern of an apoplastic lipid barrier between the maternal inner integument and fertilization products in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. RESULTS: We demonstrate that an apoplastic lipid barrier is first deposited by the ovule inner integument and undergoes de novo cutin deposition following central cell fertilization and relief of the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED Polycomb group repressive mechanism. In addition, we show that the WIP zinc-finger TRANSPARENT TESTA 1 and the MADS-Box TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 transcription factors act maternally to promote its deposition by regulating cuticle biosynthetic pathways. Finally, mutant analyses indicate that this apoplastic barrier allows correct embryo sliding along the seed coat. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that the deposition of a cutin apoplastic barrier between seed maternal and zygotic tissues is part of the seed coat developmental program.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 308, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Land preparation is an important component of fragrant rice production. However, the effect of tillage on fragrant rice production is unclear, especially regarding the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), which is the main compound of the unique aroma of fragrant rice. This study aimed to explore 2-AP biosynthesis in fragrant rice under different tillage regimes. Three tillage methods were applied in the present study: conventional rotary tillage (CK) as the control, plough tillage (PT), and no-tillage (NT). RESULT: Compared with CK, the PT treatment increased 2-AP content in grain, upregulated the activity of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and increased contents of 1-pyrroline and pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C). Furthermore, the PT treatment increased the grain yield and nitrogen accumulation of fragrant rice. Meanwhile, the 2-AP content in the grain produced under the NT treatment was significantly higher than that in the grain produced under both the PT and CK treatments due to the enhancement of proline content and the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and △1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS). However, the present study observed that the overall production of fragrant rice under NT conditions was inferior due to lower yield, nitrogen accumulation, and anti-oxidative enzymatic activities. Moreover, the organic matter content and soil microorganism quantity increased due to PT and NT treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CK, PT improved fragrant rice grain yield and nitrogen accumulation and induced an increase in OAT activity and led to an increase in 2-AP concentration. No-tillage also produced increased 2-AP content in grain by enhancing PDH and P5CS activities but limited yields and nitrogen accumulation in fragrant rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Pirróis/metabolismo , Odorantes , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/análise , Prolina Oxidase/genética , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia
11.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 183-202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286324

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Isoforms of 2-OGDH E1 subunit are not functionally redundant in plant growth and development of A. thaliana. The tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-OGDH) converts 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to succinyl-CoA concomitant with the reduction of NAD+. 2-OGDH has an essential role in plant metabolism, being both a limiting step during mitochondrial respiration as well as a key player in carbon-nitrogen interactions. In Arabidopsis thaliana two genes encode for E1 subunit of 2-OGDH but the physiological roles of each isoform remain unknown. Thus, in the present study we isolated Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion knockout mutant lines for each of the genes encoding the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH enzyme. All mutant plants exhibited substantial reduction in both respiration and CO2 assimilation rates. Furthermore, mutant lines exhibited reduced levels of chlorophylls and nitrate, increased levels of sucrose, malate and fumarate and minor changes in total protein and starch levels in leaves. Despite the similar metabolic phenotypes for the two E1 isoforms the reduction in the expression of each gene culminated in different responses in terms of plant growth and seed production indicating distinct roles for each isoform. Collectively, our results demonstrated the importance of the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH in both autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues and suggest that the two E1 isoforms are not functionally redundant in terms of plant growth in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isoformas de Proteínas , Subunidades Proteicas , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9501-9509, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334642

RESUMO

Composition of bioactive compounds in cocoa beans is critical to the sensory and nutritional quality of cocoa based products. Twenty-six cocoa bean genotypes were freshly collected from the same plantation location in Indonesia. The bioactive compounds in these raw cocoa genotypes were identified and quantified. The results showed a great diversity in the composition of bioactive compounds among the 26 cocoa samples. The concentrations of methylxanthines, epicatechin, proanthocyanidin (PA) B-type oligomers, clovamide, and anthocyanins were important variables that differentiated these genotypes. MCC 01, SUL 3, ICCRI 03, and ICS 60 genotypes had the highest contents of flavan-3-ols including PAs and have the potential to be developed for "healthy" product formulations. Some genotypes such as DR 1, DR 2, DR 38, ICS 13, KPC 1, KW 617, RCC 71, and TSH 858 could be favored by industries due to the potential to be made into end-products with brighter appearance.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Cacau/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cacau/classificação , Catequina/química , Flavonoides , Genótipo , Indonésia , Proantocianidinas/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Xantinas/química
13.
Food Chem ; 295: 350-360, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174768

RESUMO

The detailed phenolic composition of different berry parts from two novel V. vinifera L. red grape genotypes (Moribel and Tinto Fragoso), together the well-known Tempranillo, was established using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) over two consecutive vintages (2016 and 2017). More than 50 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: 25 anthocyanins, 17 flavonols, 7 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, 2 stilbenes, and several flavan-3-ols. As far as we know, some anthocyanin and flavonol dihexosides were reported for the first time in V. vinifera L. grapes. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to experimental data showed a good separation of the novel grape genotypes and Tempranillo according to the phenolic profile of skins and seeds, mainly based on the proportion of trisubstituted anthocyanin derivatives, flavonols and flavan-3-ols, being a useful tool to differentiate these grape varieties.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/genética , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonóis/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Genótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Estilbenos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Planta ; 250(2): 657-665, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147828

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The grapevine VvßVPE promoter is specifically expressed in the seed. The - 1306~- 1045 bp core region restricts expression in other tissues and organs. Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) is a cysteine proteinase regulating vacuolar protein maturation and executing programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. Vitis vinifera (Vv)ßVPE is a ß-type VPE showing seed-specific expression that processes seed proteins during ovule development. However, the regulation of the seed-specific gene expression is far from understood. In this study, we characterize VvßVPE promoter (pVvßVPE) from 12 seeded and seedless grape genotypes. 94.56% of the pVvßVPE coding sequence is consistent. Two ßVPE promoters were constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana via ß-glucuronidase (GUS) fused expression vectors, using cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson as seed and seedless candidates. GUS staining in different tissues and organs revealed that VvßVPE expresses specifically in the embryo, including the cotyledon, hypocotyl and suspensor, but not in the leaf, stem, root or flowers of the seedling. Using promoter deletion analysis, we created four incomplete VvßVPE promoters and found each pVvßVPE deletion could drive GUS gene to express in seeds. Interestingly, seed specificity disappeared when the promoter missed the core - 1306~- 1045 bp region. All deletion promoters presenting various quantified GUS activities indicate that the region - 1704~- 1306 bp inhibits, and the region - 705~- 861 bp promotes gene expression of VvßVPE. Our results demonstrate that pVvßVPE is a seed-specific promoter in both seeded and seedless grapes. Moreover, the core region of pVvßVPE (- 1306~- 1045 bp) is the key one responsible for seed-specific expression.


Assuntos
Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sementes/genética , Vitis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Reporter , Especificidade de Órgãos , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Comput Biol Chem ; 80: 498-511, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176140

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) is an important micronutrient for various physiological processes in plants. In this study, putative Magnesium Transporter (MGT) genes have been identified in Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum tuberosum, Brachypodium distachyon, Fagaria vesca, Brassica juncea and were classified into 5 distinct groups based on their sequence homology. MGT genes are very diverse and possess very low sequence identity within its family. However, the Gly-Met-Asn (GMN) signature motif is present in most of the genes which are believed to be essential for Mg2+ recognition. In S. lycopersicum, different physiological root growth pattern was observed in both Mg excess and deficient conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR gene expression study shows that most of the SlMGT genes were upregulated in response to Mg deficient condition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Genoma , Magnoliopsida/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnésio/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/genética , Homologia de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação para Cima
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 279, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seed germination, a complex, physiological-morphogenetic process, is a critical stage in the life cycle of plants. Biological changes in germinating seeds have not been investigated in poplar, a model woody plant. RESULTS: In this study, we exploited next-generation sequencing and metabolomics analysis and uncovered a series of significantly different genes and metabolites at various stages of seed germination and post germination. The K-means method was used to identify multiple transcription factors, including AP2/EREBP, DOF, and YABBY, involved in specific seed germination and post-germination stages. A weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed that cell wall, amino acid metabolism, and transport-related pathways were significantly enriched during stages 3 and 5, with no significant enrichment observed in primary metabolic processes such as glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A metabolomics analysis detected significant changes in intermediate metabolites in these primary metabolic processes, while a targeted correlation network analysis identified the gene family members most relevant to these changing metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results provide important insights into the molecular networks underlying poplar seed germination and post-germination processes. The targeted correlation network analysis approach developed in this study can be applied to search for key candidate genes in specific biochemical reactions and represents a new strategy for joint multiomics analyses.


Assuntos
Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Nat Plants ; 5(6): 595-603, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182840

RESUMO

The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera) has long been important for wine production as well as being a food source. Despite being clonally propagated, modern cultivars exhibit great morphological and genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties described in historic and contemporaneous records. Through historical accounts, some varieties can be traced to the Middle Ages, but the genetic relationships between ancient and modern vines remain unknown. We present target-enriched genome-wide sequencing data from 28 archaeological grape seeds dating to the Iron Age, Roman era and medieval period. When compared with domesticated and wild accessions, we found that the archaeological samples were closely related to western European cultivars used for winemaking today. We identified seeds with identical genetic signatures present at different Roman sites, as well as seeds sharing parent-offspring relationships with varieties grown today. Furthermore, we discovered that one seed dated to ~1100 CE was a genetic match to 'Savagnin Blanc', providing evidence for 900 years of uninterrupted vegetative propagation.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Vitis/genética , Arqueologia , Produtos Agrícolas/história , França , História Antiga , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/genética , Vinho
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 448, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of Indian germplasm as origin and primary center of diversity of cultivated melon is widely accepted. Genetic diversity of several collections from Indian has been studied previously, although an integrated analysis of these collections in a global diversity perspective has not been possible. In this study, a sample of Indian collections together with a selection of world-wide cultivars to analyze the genetic diversity structure based on Genotype by Sequence data. RESULTS: A set of 6158 informative Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in 175 melon accessions was generated. Melon germplasm could be classified into six major groups, in concordance with horticultural groups. Indian group was in the center of the diversity plot, with the highest genetic diversity. No strict genetic differentiation between wild and cultivated accessions was appreciated in this group. Genomic regions likely involved in the process of diversification were also found. Interestingly, some SNPs differentiating inodorus and cantalupensis groups are linked to Quantitiative Trait Loci involved in ripening behavior (a major characteristic that differentiate those groups). Linkage disequilibrium was found to be low (17 kb), with more rapid decay in euchromatic (8 kb) than heterochromatic (30 kb) regions, demonstrating that recombination events do occur within heterochromatn, although at lower frequency than in euchromatin. Concomitantly, haplotype blocks were relatively small (59 kb). Some of those haplotype blocks were found fixed in different melon groups, being therefore candidate regions that are involved in the diversification of melon cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that India is the primary center of diversity of melon, Occidental and Far-East cultivars have been developed by divergent selection. Indian germplasm is genetically distinct from African germplasm, supporting independent domestication events. The current set of traditional Indian accessions may be considered as a population rather than a standard collection of fixed landraces with high intercrossing between cultivated and wild melons.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/classificação , Cucurbitaceae/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Índia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
19.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(9): 1165-1180, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161264

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Arabidopsis photorespiratory gene AtAGT1 is important for the growth and development of root, the non-photosynthetic organ, and it is involved in a complex metabolic network and salt resistance. AtAGT1 in Arabidopsis encodes an aminotransferase that has a wide range of donor:acceptor combinations, including Asn:glyoxylate. Although it is one of the photorespiratory genes, its encoding protein has been suggested to function also in roots to metabolize Asn. However, experimental data are still lacking. In this study, we investigated experimentally the function of AtAGT1 in roots and our results uncovered its importance in root development during seedling establishment after seed germination. Overexpression of AtAGT1 in roots promoted both the growth of primary root and outgrowth of lateral roots. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying, amino acid content and gene expression in roots were analyzed, and results revealed that AtAGT1 is involved in a complex metabolic network and salt resistance of roots.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Expressão Gênica , Germinação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia , Transaminases/genética , Transaminases/metabolismo
20.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 6-14, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078146

RESUMO

In order to estimate the efficiency of SRAP markers for identifying the performance of seed quantity and quality in maize single crosses, 13 inbred lines obtained from CIMMYT germplasm bank were crossed to A679, K166B, K18 and MO17 testers using the line×tester method. The inbred lines and derived hybrids were evaluated in two experiments separately in a randomized complete block design with three replications during two growing seasons in 2014 and 2015. In order to evaluate genetic variation in the inbred lines, 25 SRAP markers were also used. The results of variance analysis between inbred lines were showed a significant variation (P≤0.01) for seed quantity and quality. The analysis of variance among the hybrids derived from inbred lines was showed a significant variation (P≤0.01) for oil percent, starch content, protein content, seed yield and thousand seed weights and a significant variation for the dry matter (P≤0.05). The maximum Euclidian distance between the two lines was 24.5 times greater than the minimum distance between two lines. The PCR amplification for the 17 parentallines with the 25 combinations of SRAP primers generated a total of 205 clear and scorable bands, of which 135 were polymorphic (65.75%). The average distance between the studied lines was 0.324 on the bases of the Jaccard coefficient and maximum distance between two lines was 2.87 times greater than the minimum distance between two lines. The M1E1, M1E5, M5E3, M5E4, and M5E5 were superior to other primer combinations in expressing genetic diversity based on the primer information indices. The banding pattern of the studied primer combinations related to the genetic variation of the inbred lines based on the studied traits revealed that the M5E1 primer pair can predict the distance of inbred lines for dry matter better than other primers. Also, the primers combination of M4E4 for protein percentage, M4E4 for starch percentage, M2E3 for crude fiber, M4E3 for oil percentage, M2E5, M4E1 and M5E1 for thousand seed weight and M3E1 for seed yield, can be introduced as informative primer combination, to estimate genetic distance determination of inbred lines based on these traits. Due to the relationship between inbred lines variation based on primers combinations with the traits in hybrids progenies showed that the M2E1, M2E2, M4E1 and M5E3 for dry matter and M2E4 for starch percentage have the ability to detect hybrid performance for these traits. For traits, protein percentage, crude fiber and oil percent no suitable primers combination were found. Also, for the seed yield, three primer combinations of M1E5, M2E2 and M3E2 had the highest negative correlation. Therefore, the hybrids derived from the inbred lines with high genetic distance based on these primers combinations will have a low seed yield. The M1E2, M2E3 and M5E5 can be introduced to identify the prediction of higher thousand seed weight.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Endogamia , Sementes/genética , Zea mays/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
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