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1.
Gene ; 762: 145015, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783994

RESUMO

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a carbon fixation enzyme which probably plays crucial roles in seed development. A greater number of PEPC isoforms are encoded in the soybean genome, while most of the PEPC isoforms are functionally unknown. In this study, we investigated on soybean PEPC expressed in the external layer of seed coat (ELSC) during seed formation. PEPC activity in ELSC ranged from 0.24 to 1.0 U/g F.W., which could be comparable to those in whole seeds at U per dry matter. Public RNA-Seq data in separated soybean seed tissues revealed that six plant-type PEPC isogenes were substantially expressed in ELSC, and Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 were highly expressed in hourglass cells of ELSC. Gene Ontology enrichment of co-expressed genes with Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 implicated a role of these isogenes in assisting energy production and cellulose biosynthesis. Comparison of PEPC sequences from 16 leguminous species hypothesized adaptive evolution of the Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 lineage after divergence from the other plant-type PEPC lineages. Molecular diversification of these plant-type PEPC was possibly accomplished by adaptation to the functions of the soybean seed tissues. This study indicates that energy demand in immature seeds may be a driving force for the molecular evolution of PEPC.


Assuntos
Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 283-296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740897

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Differences in FAE1 enzyme affinity for the acyl-CoA substrates, as well as the balance between the different pathways involved in their incorporation to triacylglycerol might be determinant of the different composition of the seed oil in Brassicaceae. Brassicaceae present a great heterogeneity of seed oil and fatty acid composition, accumulating Very Long Chain Fatty Acids with industrial applications. However, the molecular determinants of these differences remain elusive. We have studied the ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase from the high erucic feedstock Thlaspi arvense (Pennycress). Functional characterization of the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme was performed in two Arabidopsis backgrounds; Col-0, with less than 2.5% of erucic acid in its seed oil and the fae1-1 mutant, deficient in FAE1 activity, that did not accumulate erucic acid. Seed-specific expression of the Pennycress FAE1 gene in Col-0 resulted in a 3 to fourfold increase of erucic acid content in the seed oil. This increase was concomitant with a decrease of eicosenoic acid levels without changes in oleic ones. Interestingly, only small changes in eicosenoic and erucic acid levels occurred when the Pennycress FAE1 gene was expressed in the fae1-1 mutant, with high levels of oleic acid available for elongation, suggesting that the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme showed higher affinity for eicosenoic acid substrates, than for oleic ones in Arabidopsis. Erucic acid was incorporated to triacylglycerol in the transgenic lines without significant changes in their levels in the diacylglycerol fraction, suggesting that erucic acid was preferentially incorporated to triacylglycerol via DGAT1. Expression analysis of FAE1, AtDGAT1, AtLPCAT1 and AtPDAT1 genes in the transgenic lines further supported this conclusion. Differences in FAE1 affinity for the oleic and eicosenoic substrates among Brassicaceae, as well as their incorporation to triacylglycerol might explain the differences in composition of their seed oil.


Assuntos
3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Thlaspi/enzimologia , Thlaspi/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência , Thlaspi/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20325-20333, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747542

RESUMO

Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are the basal components of the spliceosome and play crucial roles in splicing. Their biogenesis is spatiotemporally regulated. However, related mechanisms are still poorly understood. Defective in snRNA processing (DSP1) is an essential component of the DSP1 complex that catalyzes plant snRNA 3'-end maturation by cotranscriptional endonucleolytic cleavage of the primary snRNA transcripts (presnRNAs). Here, we show that DSP1 is subjected to alternative splicing in pollens and embryos, resulting in two splicing variants, DSP1α and DSP1ß. Unlike DSP1α, DSP1ß is not required for presnRNA 3'-end cleavage. Rather, it competes with DSP1α for the interaction with CPSF73-I, the catalytic subunit of the DSP1 complex, which promotes efficient release of CPSF73-I and the DNA-dependent RNA polymerease II (Pol II) from the 3' end of snRNA loci thereby facilitates snRNA transcription termination, resulting in increased snRNA levels in pollens. Taken together, this study uncovers a mechanism that spatially regulates snRNA accumulation.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Pólen , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634144

RESUMO

Accurate identification of crop varieties grown by farmers is crucial, among others, for crop management, food security and varietal development and dissemination purposes. One may expect varietal identification to be more challenging in the context of developing countries where literacy and education are limited and informal seed systems and seed recycling are common. This paper evaluates the extent to which smallholder farmers misidentify their wheat varieties in Ethiopia and explores the associated factors and their implications. The study uses data from a nationally representative wheat growing sample household survey and DNA fingerprinting of seed samples from 3,884 wheat plots in major wheat growing zones of Ethiopia. 28-34% of the farmers correctly identified their wheat varieties. Correct identification was positively associated with farmer education and seed purchases from trusted sources (cooperatives or known farmers) and negatively associated with seed recycling. Farmers' varietal identification thereby is problematic and leads to erroneous results in adoption and impact assessments. DNA fingerprinting can enhance varietal identification but remains mute in the identification of contextual and explanatory factors. Thus, combining household survey and DNA fingerprinting approaches is needed for reliable varietal adoption and impact assessments, and generate useful knowledge to inform policy recommendations related to varietal replacement and seed systems development.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649700

RESUMO

The genetic diversity of North American soybean cultivars has been largely influenced by a small number of ancestors. High yielding breeding lines that possess exotic pedigrees have been developed, but identifying beneficial exotic alleles has been difficult as a result of complex interactions of yield alleles with genetic backgrounds and environments as well as the highly quantitative nature of yield. PI 416937 has been utilized in the development of many high yielding lines that have been entered into the USDA Southern States Uniform Tests over the past ~20 years. The primary goal of this research was to identify genomic regions under breeding selection from PI 416937 and introduce a methodology for identifying and potentially utilizing beneficial diversity from lines prevalent in the ancestry of elite cultivars. Utilizing SoySNP50K Infinium BeadChips, 52 high yielding PI 416937-derived lines as well as their parents were genotyped to identify PI 416937 alleles under breeding selection. Nine genomic regions across three chromosomes and 17 genomic regions across seven chromosomes were identified where PI 416937 alleles were under positive or negative selection. Minimal significant associations between PI 416937 alleles and yield were observed in replicated yield trials of five RIL populations, highlighting the difficulty of consistently detecting yield associations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Variação Genética/genética , Soja/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
6.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510514

RESUMO

The characterization of gene expression is dependent on RNA quality. In germinating, developing and mature cereal seeds, the extraction of high-quality RNA is often hindered by high starch and sugar content. These compounds can reduce both the yield and the quality of the extracted total RNA. The deterioration in quantity and quality of total RNA can subsequently have a significant impact on the downstream transcriptomic analyses, which may not accurately reflect the spatial and/or temporal variation in the gene expression profile of the samples being tested. In this protocol, we describe an optimized method for extraction of total RNA with sufficient quantity and quality to be used for whole transcriptome analysis of cereal grains. The described method is suitable for several downstream applications used for transcriptomic profiling of developing, germinating, and mature cereal seeds. The method of transcriptome profiling using a microarray platform is shown. This method is specifically designed for gene expression profiling of cereals with described genome sequences. The detailed procedure from microarray handling to final quality control is described. This includes cDNA synthesis, cRNA labelling, microarray hybridization, slide scanning, feature extraction, and data quality validation. The data generated by this method can be used to characterize the transcriptome of cereals during germination, in various stages of grain development, or at different biotic or abiotic stress conditions. The results presented here exemplify high-quality transcriptome data amenable for downstream bioinformatics analyses, such as the determination of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), characterisation of gene regulatory networks, and conducting transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS).


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sementes/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Germinação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Controle de Qualidade , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Food Chem ; 330: 127265, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540525

RESUMO

Camelina oil is increasingly popular as consumption as oil. Erucic acid is an unwanted fatty acid in oil. First studies on several genotypes have shown that this oil contains varying amounts of eriuc acid. The aim of the study was to analyses content of eriuc acid in all genotypes camelina. Hypothesis was that the content of erucic acid in winter forms is lower than in spring ones. A field experiment with 65 spring genotypes and 9 winter genotypes of camelina was conducted in Poland from 2016 to 2018. The analyses based on two chromatographic methods, i.e. UPLC-DAD and GC-MS, showed no differences in the results for the camelina samples. The average percentage content of the erucic acid in the spring genotypes was 3.432%, and in the winter genotypes was 0.1%. Our three-year research shows that some winter varieties can be used as low erucic acid forms.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Brassicaceae/genética , Ácidos Erúcicos/química , Genótipo , Polônia , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555619

RESUMO

Seeds stored in controlled conditions in gene banks, faster or slower lose their viability. The effects of seed moisture content levels (ca. 5, 8, 11%) combined with storage temperatures (-3°, -18°, -196°C) were investigated in terms of the description of seeds defined as orthodox under oxidative stress after seed storage, during germination, and initial seedling growth. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ascorbate (Asc) were analyzed in relation to seed germinability and seedlings emergence in three species: Malus sylvestris L., Prunus avium L. and Prunus padus L. The effect of seed storage conditions on H2O2 levels appeared in germinated seeds after the third year of storage in each species. The H2O2 levels were negatively correlated with the germination and seedling emergence of P. avium seeds after three years of storage under all examined combinations. The emergence of P. padus seedlings was not linked to any of the stress markers tested. The P. padus seed biochemical traits were least altered by storage conditions, and the seeds produced tolerant seedlings of relatively high levels of H2O2 and TBARS. To cope with different H2O2 levels, TBARS levels, and Asc levels in seeds of three species varying storage conditions different molecular responses, i.e. repairing mechanisms, were applied during stratification to compensate for the storage conditions and, as a result, seeds remained viable and seedlings were successfully established.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516314

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular processes of seed development is important especially in agronomic crops that produce large amounts of nutrient reserves. Because soybean is a vital source of vegetable protein worldwide, producers are concerned about increasing the total amount of protein in the seed without substantially lowering the amount of oil, another economically important product. Here we describe a transgenic soybean line with increased protein and protein/oil ratio, containing an average of 42.2% protein vs. 38.5% in controls and with a protein/oil ratio of 2.02 vs. 1.76 in controls over several generations of greenhouse growth. Other phenotypic data show that the seeds are heavier, although there are overall lower yields per plant. We postulate these effects result from insertion site mutagenesis by the transgenic construct. As this line never achieves homozygosity and appears to be embryo lethal when homozygous, one functional copy of the gene is most likely essential for normal seed development. Global transcript analyses using RNA-Seq for 88,000 gene models over two stages of cotyledon development revealed that more genes are over-expressed in the transgenic line including ribosomal protein related genes and those in the membrane protein and transporters families. Localization of the insertion site should reveal the genes and developmental program that has been perturbed by the transgenic construct, resulting in this economically interesting increase in protein and the protein/oil ratio.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Heterozigoto , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526769

RESUMO

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, supplying up to 80% of the table sugar and ~60% of bio-ethanol worldwide. Due to population growth and dwindling fossil-fuel reserves, the demand for sugar and bio-ethanol requires significant improvement in sugarcane production. Breeding sugarcane cultivars with high-performance agronomic traits is undoubtedly the most efficient way to achieve this goal. Therefore, evaluating agronomic traits and dissecting underlying loci are critically important for this aim steps in providing genetic resources and molecular markers for selection. In this study, we assembled a diversity panel of 236 elite sugarcane germplasms originally collected from 12 countries. We evaluated 28 agronomic traits in the diversity panel with three replicates. The diversity panel was genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, and a total of 1,359 markers were generated. Through the genome-wide association study, we identified three markers significantly associated with three traits evaluated at a stringent threshold (P < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction). The genotypes of the three associated markers grouped respective trait values into two distinct groups, supporting the reliability of these markers for breeding selection. Our study provides putative molecular markers linked to agronomic traits for breeding robust sugarcane cultivars. Additionally, this study emphasized the importance of sugarcane germplasm introduced from other countries and suggested that the use of these germplasms in breeding programs depends on local industrial needs.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Saccharum/genética , Sementes/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233959, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497146

RESUMO

Development of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) breeding lines producing oil characterized by high oleic and low linolenic acid content is an important goal of rapeseed breeding programs worldwide. Such kind of oil is ideal for deep frying and can also be used as a raw material for biodiesel production. By performing chemical mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate, we obtained mutant winter rapeseed breeding lines that can produce oil with a high content of oleic acid (C18:1, more than 75%) and a low content of linolenic acid (C18:3, less than 3%). However, the mutant lines revealed low agricultural value as they were characterized by low seed yield, low wintering, and high content of glucosinolates in seed meal. The aim of this work was to improve the mutant lines and develop high-oleic and low-linolenic recombinants exhibiting both good oil quality and high agronomic value. The plant materials used in this study included high-oleic and low-linolenic mutant breeding lines and high-yielding domestic canola-type breeding lines of good agricultural value with high oleic acid content and extremely low glucosinolates content. Field trials were conducted in four environments, in a randomized complete block design. Phenotyping was performed for wintering, yield of seed and oil, and seed quality traits. Genotype × environment interaction was investigated with respect to the content of C18:1 and C18:3 acids in seed oil. Genotyping was done for the selection of homozygous high oleic and low linolenic lines using allele-specific CAPS markers and SNaPshot assay, respectively. Finally, new high oleic and low linolenic winter rapeseed recombinant lines were obtained for use as a starting material for the development of new varieties that may be of high value on the oil crop market.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Ácido Oleico/genética , Sementes/genética , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/genética , Brassica napus/química , Mutagênese , Ácido Oleico/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Seleção Genética , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525930

RESUMO

As rice is an important staple food globally, research for development and enhancement of its nutritional value it is an imperative task. Identification of nutrient enriched rice germplasm and exploiting them for breeding programme is the easiest way to develop better quality rice. In this study, we analyzed 113 aromatic rice germplasm in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underpinning nutrition components and determined by measuring the normal frequency distribution for Fe, Zn, amylose, and protein content in those rice germplasm. Comparatively, the germplasm Radhuni pagal, Kalobakri, Thakurbhog (26.6 ppm) and Hatisail exhibited the highest mean values for Fe (16.9 ppm), Zn (34.1 ppm), amylose (26.6 ppm) and protein content (11.0 ppm), respectively. Moreover, a significant linear relationship (R2 = 0.693) was observed between Fe and Zn contents. Cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis D2 distances revealed four major clusters of 113 rice germplasm, with cluster III containing a maximum 37 germplasm and a maximum inter-cluster distance between clusters III and IV. The 45 polymorphic SSRs and four trait associations exhibited eight significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on eight different chromosomes using composite interval mapping (CIM). The highly significant QTL (variance 7.89%, LOD 2.02) for protein content (QTL.pro.1) was observed on chromosome 1 at 94.9cM position. Also, four QTLs for amylose content were observed with the highly significant QTL.amy.8 located on chromosome 8 exhibiting 7.2% variance with LOD 1.83. Only one QTL (QTL.Fe.9) for Fe content was located on chromosome 9 (LOD 1.24), and two (QTL.Zn.4 and QTL.Zn.5) for Zn on chromosome 4 (LOD 1.71) and 5 (LOD 1.18), respectively. Overall, germplasm from clusters III and IV might offer higher heterotic response with the identified QTLs playing a significant role in any rice biofortification breeding program and released with development of new varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Amilose/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Ferro/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/classificação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Análise de Regressão , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Zinco/análise
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15305-15315, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541052

RESUMO

Small RNAs are abundant in plant reproductive tissues, especially 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Most 24-nt siRNAs are dependent on RNA Pol IV and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) and establish DNA methylation at thousands of genomic loci in a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In Brassica rapa, RdDM is required in the maternal sporophyte for successful seed development. Here, we demonstrate that a small number of siRNA loci account for over 90% of siRNA expression during B. rapa seed development. These loci exhibit unique characteristics with regard to their copy number and association with genomic features, but they resemble canonical 24-nt siRNA loci in their dependence on RNA Pol IV/RDR2 and role in RdDM. These loci are expressed in ovules before fertilization and in the seed coat, embryo, and endosperm following fertilization. We observed a similar pattern of 24-nt siRNA expression in diverse angiosperms despite rapid sequence evolution at siren loci. In the endosperm, siren siRNAs show a marked maternal bias, and siren expression in maternal sporophytic tissues is required for siren siRNA accumulation. Together, these results demonstrate that seed development occurs under the influence of abundant maternal siRNAs that might be transported to, and function in, filial tissues.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alelos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584851

RESUMO

Two low-phytate soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) mutant lines- V99-5089 (mips mutation on chromosome 11) and CX-1834 (mrp-l and mrp-n mutations on chromosomes 19 and 3, respectively) have proven to be valuable resources for breeding of low-phytate, high-sucrose, and low-raffinosaccharide soybeans, traits that are highly desirable from a nutritional and environmental standpoint. A recombinant inbred population derived from the cross CX1834 x V99-5089 provides an opportunity to study the effect of different combinations of these three mutations on soybean phytate and oligosaccharides levels. Of the 173 recombinant inbred lines tested, 163 lines were homozygous for various combinations of MIPS and two MRP loci alleles. These individuals were grouped into eight genotypic classes based on the combination of SNP alleles at the three mutant loci. The two genotypic classes that were homozygous mrp-l/mrp-n and either homozygous wild-type or mutant at the mips locus (MIPS/mrp-l/mrp-n or mips/mrp-l/mrp-n) displayed relatively similar ~55% reductions in seed phytate, 6.94 mg g -1 and 6.70 mg g-1 respectively, as compared with 15.2 mg g-1 in the wild-type MIPS/MRP-L/MRP-N seed. Therefore, in the presence of the double mutant mrp-l/mrp-n, the mips mutation did not cause a substantially greater decrease in seed phytate level. However, the nutritionally-desirable high-sucrose/low-stachyose/low-raffinose seed phenotype originally observed in soybeans homozygous for the mips allele was reversed in the presence of mrp-l/mrp-n mutations: homozygous mips/mrp-l/mrp-n seed displayed low-sucrose (7.70%), high-stachyose (4.18%), and the highest observed raffinose (0.94%) contents per gram of dry seed. Perhaps the block in phytic acid transport from its cytoplasmic synthesis site to its storage site, conditioned by mrp-l/mrp-n, alters myo-inositol flux in mips seeds in a way that restores to wild-type levels the mips conditioned reductions in raffinosaccharides. Overall this study determined the combinatorial effects of three low phytic acid causing mutations on regulation of seed phytate and oligosaccharides in soybean.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Mutação , Oligossacarídeos , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes , Soja , Oligossacarídeos/genética , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 329: 127129, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497844

RESUMO

The acknowledged marker of Robusta coffee, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC), can be quantified by NMR as a mixture with 16-O-methylkahweol (16-OMK), which accounts for approximately 10% of the mixture. In the present study, we detected and quantified 16-O-methylated diterpenes (16-OMD) in 248 samples of green Coffea arabica beans by NMR. We did not observe any differences between genotypes introgressed by chromosomal fragments of Robusta and non-introgressed genotypes. Environmental effects suggesting a possible protective role of 16-OMD for adaptation, as well as genotypic effects that support a high heritability of this trait were observed. Altogether, our data confirmed the presence of 16-OMD in green Arabica at a level approximately 1.5% that of a typical Robusta, endorsing the validity of 16-OMD as a marker for the presence of Robusta.


Assuntos
Coffea/genética , Diterpenos/química , Coffea/química , Café/química , Café/genética , Cor , Genótipo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , Estrutura Molecular , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética
16.
Food Chem ; 330: 127198, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535313

RESUMO

The metabolome of three soybean genotypes, Glycine max Hwangkeum (elite or domesticated cultivar), Glycine max Napjakong (landrace or semi-wild cultivar) and Glycine soja Dolkong (wild cultivar), were characterized in seeds and leaves using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. Expression of primary and secondary metabolites were different in seeds and leaves as well as amongst soybean genotypes. Different kaempferol glycosides were observed in the leaves but not in the seeds, and quercetin derivatives were found only in G. max Napjakong and G. soja Dolkong. Moreover, epicatechin was found only in the seeds of G. max Napjakong and G. soja Dolkong. These results demonstrate distinct adaptations of different soybean genotypes to given environmental conditions. The current study, therefore, provides useful information on global metabolic compositions that might be used to develop soybean-based products through better understanding of the metabolic phenotypes of existing soybean genotypes.


Assuntos
Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Genótipo , Metabolômica , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0225564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380515

RESUMO

Senna tora is an annual herb with rich source of anthraquinones that have tremendous pharmacological properties. However, there is little mention of genetic information for this species, especially regarding the biosynthetic pathways of anthraquinones. To understand the key genes and regulatory mechanism of anthraquinone biosynthesis pathways, we performed spatial and temporal transcriptome sequencing of S. tora using short RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) technologies, and generated two unigene sets composed of 118,635 and 39,364, respectively. A comprehensive functional annotation and classification with multiple public databases identified array of genes involved in major secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways and important transcription factor (TF) families (MYB, MYB-related, AP2/ERF, C2C2-YABBY, and bHLH). Differential expression analysis indicated that the expression level of genes involved in anthraquinone biosynthetic pathway regulates differently depending on the degree of tissues and seeds development. Furthermore, we identified that the amount of anthraquinone compounds were greater in late seeds than early ones. In conclusion, these results provide a rich resource for understanding the anthraquinone metabolism in S. tora.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Extrato de Senna/metabolismo , Senna (Planta)/genética , Senna (Planta)/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243451

RESUMO

The Sm proteins are a conserved protein family with Sm motifs. The family includes Sm and Sm-like proteins, which play important roles in pre-mRNA splicing. Most research on the Sm proteins have been conducted in herbaceous plants, and less in woody plants such as Dimocarpus longan (longan). And the embryo development status significantly affects the quality and yield of longan. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of longan Sm genes (DlSm) to clarify their roles during somatic embryogenesis (SE) and identified 29 Sm genes. Phylogenetic analysis deduced longan Sm proteins clustered into 17 phylogenetic groups with the homologous Sm proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also analyzed the gene structures, motif compositions, and conserved domains of the longan Sm proteins. The promoter sequences of the DlSm genes contained many light, endosperm development, hormone, and temperature response elements, which suggested their possible functions. In the non-embryogenic callus(NEC) and during early SE in longan, the alternative splicing(AS) events of DlSm genes indicated that these genes may influence SE development by changing gene structures and sequences. The kinetin(KT) hormone, and blue and white light treatments affected the differentiation and growth of longan embryonic callus(EC) probably by affecting the AS events of DlSm genes. Expression profiles showed the possible functional divergence among Sm genes, and different hormones and light qualities affected their expression levels. The expression trends of the DlSm genes determined by RNA sequencing as fragments per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads (FPKM) and by real-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) during early SE in longan showed that the expression of the DlSm genes was affected by the growth and differentiation of longan SE, and decreased as the somatic embryo differentiation progressed. The results will contributed to understanding the longan Sm gene family and provide a basis for future functional validation studies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sapindaceae/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Filogenia , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sementes/genética
19.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 428-436, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231277

RESUMO

Adaptive changes in plant phenology are often considered to be a feature of the so-called 'domestication syndrome' that distinguishes modern crops from their wild progenitors, but little detailed evidence supports this idea. In soybean, a major legume crop, flowering time variation is well characterized within domesticated germplasm and is critical for modern production, but its importance during domestication is unclear. Here, we identify sequential contributions of two homeologous pseudo-response-regulator genes, Tof12 and Tof11, to ancient flowering time adaptation, and demonstrate that they act via LHY homologs to promote expression of the legume-specific E1 gene and delay flowering under long photoperiods. We show that Tof12-dependent acceleration of maturity accompanied a reduction in dormancy and seed dispersal during soybean domestication, possibly predisposing the incipient crop to latitudinal expansion. Better understanding of this early phase of crop evolution will help to identify functional variation lost during domestication and exploit its potential for future crop improvement.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Domesticação , Fabaceae/genética , Fotoperíodo , Sementes/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240263

RESUMO

Aegilops umbellulata is a wild diploid wheat species with the UU genome that is an important genetic resource for wheat breeding. To exploit new synthetic allohexaploid lines available as bridges for wheat breeding, a total of 26 synthetic hexaploid lines were generated through crossing between the durum wheat cultivar Langdon and 26 accessions of Ae. umbellulata. In nascent synthetic hexaploids with the AABBUU genome, the presence of the set of seven U-genome chromosomes was confirmed with U-genome chromosome-specific markers developed based on RNA-seq-derived data from Ae. umbellulata. The AABBUU synthetic hexaploids showed large variations in flowering- and morphology-related traits, and these large variations transmitted well from the parental Ae. umbellulata accessions. However, the variation ranges in most traits examined were reduced under the AABBUU hexaploid background compared with under the diploid parents. The AABBUU and AABBDD synthetic hexaploids were clearly discriminated by several morphological traits, and an increase of plant height and in the number of spikes and a decrease of spike length were commonly observed in the AABBUU synthetics. Thus, interspecific differences in several morphological traits between Ae. umbellulata and A. tauschii largely affected the basic plant architecture of the synthetic hexaploids. In conclusion, the AABBUU synthetic hexaploid lines produced in the present study are useful resources for the introgression of desirable genes from Ae. umbellulata to common wheat.


Assuntos
Aegilops/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Diploide , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ecótipo , Marcadores Genéticos , Dureza , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
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