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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(3): 47, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144505

RESUMO

Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin (B. bassiana) is an entomopathogenic fungus that establishes endophytic symbiosis with plants. In the present study, the effects of B. bassiana strains colonization in growing Zea mays L. (Z. mays), crop production, and drought tolerance were evaluated. Z. mays seeds were inoculated with B. bassiana strains (GHA, PTG4, and PTG6), using 1 × 106 blastospores/mL and methyl cellulose (MC) or cornstarch (CS) as adherents. Colonization was determined by B. bassiana recovery from plant tissues plated on PDA medium. Plant height, fresh and dry weight, and flowering time were analyzed to assess plant performance. Drought tolerance was evaluated by stopping watering for 10 days, watering again, and determining vigor recovery after 24 h. Results showed 100% endophytic roots colonization, regardless of adherent type or strain tested. Colonization was variable in shoots and leaves, but GHA strain achieved the highest inoculation rates, including 88% in stems and 50% in leaves, which did not depend on adherent type used; for PTG4 strain, adherent type had an important effect (MC = 100% stems and leaves; CS = 63% stems and 25% leaves). For PTG6 strain, the best adherent type was CS (71% stems and 75% leaves), whereas MC showed variable inoculation percentage (25% stems and 75% leaves). Interestingly, only MCPTG4 treatment showed consistent positive effects on germination percentage (day 5 = 46 ± 2%; day 14 = 87 ± 7%) compared with controls (CC = 63 ± 4%, CMC = 50 ± 3%, CCS = 47 ± 0%). In addition, the other treatments showed low germination percentages at day 5 (7 ± 7% to 46 ± 2%), which recovered at day 14 (53 ± 0% to 73 ± 8%), except for MCPTG6 treatment with 23 ± 10% germination. About plant performance, not significant effects on plant height and fresh/dry weight in all the treatments were observed. However, B. bassiana-treated plants, using either GHA, PTG4 or PTG6 strains, and MC as adherent, showed tolerance to drought and flowered one to two weeks earlier, providing evidence supporting further applications of these seed treatments in agricultural systems, for abiotic stress sustainable management practices.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Secas , Endófitos/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Simbiose , Zea mays/microbiologia
2.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103378, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948619

RESUMO

Rice is one of the most consumed cereals in Brazil and around the world. Due to the major health impact of rice consumption on populations, studies about its quality have great importance. The present study determined the mycobiota of soil, field, processing and market rice samples from two production systems in Brazil, dryland in the state of Maranhão and wetland in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. These areas are distinct agroclimatic zones. A total of 171 rice and 23 soil samples were analyzed. A high differentiation was observed in the composition of the fungal communities found in the two production systems, as the wetland presented greater fungal incidence and biodiversity. It was observed that toxigenic species from Aspergillus section Flavi and Fusarium, present in the field, may infect rice grains pre or postharvest and may persist into the final product.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micobioma , Oryza/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1092-1098, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the ability to enhance the growth, fitness, and quality of various agricultural crops, including cowpea. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce. Microbial seed coating has a great potential for large-scale agriculture through the application of reduced amounts of PGPR and AM fungi inocula. Thus, in this study, the impact of seed coating with PGPR, Pseudomonas libanensis TR1 and AM fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis (single or multiple isolates) on grain yield and nutrient content of cowpea under low-input field conditions was evaluated. RESULTS: Seed coating with P. libanensis + multiple isolates of R. irregularis (coatPMR) resulted in significant increases in shoot dry weight (76%), and in the number of pods and seeds per plant (52% and 56%, respectively) and grain yield (56%), when compared with non-inoculated control plants. However, seed coating with P. libanensis + R. irregularis single-isolate (coatPR) did not influence cowpea grain yield. Grain lipid content was significantly higher (25%) in coatPMR plants in comparison with control. Higher soil organic matter and lower pH were observed in the coatPMR treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cowpea field productivity can be improved by seed coating with PGPR and multiple AM fungal isolates under low-input agricultural systems. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Vigna/microbiologia
4.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 198-203, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738688

RESUMO

A single loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for specific detection of both pathogens that cause bacterial blight in common bean, Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. phaseoli (Xpp) and Xanthomonas citri pv. fuscans (Xcf). The objective was to provide a simple, easy-to-use, specific, and sensitive method to investigate the presence of one or both pathogens in plant material and seeds for routine diagnosis. The detection limits for both pathogens were 10 CFU/ml for cell suspensions and 1 fg of DNA, whereas in conventional PCR, the primers detected up to 105 CFU/ml and 1 ng of DNA. Specificity was confirmed by testing DNA from bean leaves, other Xanthomonas species, common fungal and bacterial bean pathogens, and bacteria from the leaf microbiota. The method was tested with bean leaves inoculated with Xpp, and the pathogen could be detected from 4 h up to 15 days postinoculation, even before disease symptoms were visible. When the method was applied to bacterium detection (Xpp or Xcf) in seed lots from infected plants, the bacterium detection rate was 100% (24 of 24). The pathogens were detected in seeds incubated for just 1 h in saline solution (0.85%), reducing the time needed for bacterium detection. The LAMP assay could be useful as a tool in bean bacterial blight management. Rapid and sensitive detection of bacteria in bean seed lots would reduce the risks of planting highly contaminated seeds in environments favorable to blight multiplication.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Phaseolus , Xanthomonas , Agricultura/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Xanthomonas/fisiologia
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111721, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790881

RESUMO

The present study clearly demonstrated the significant antifungal activity of chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (Chl-CHS) after activation with visible light. This phenomenon afterwards was successfully applied for better microbial control of highly popular food- germinated wheat sprouts. Obtained results indicated that photoactivated Chl-CHS complex (0.001% Chl-0.1% CHS and 0.005% Chl-0.5% CHS, 405 nm, 76 J/cm2) considerably inhibited (83%) the growth of dominating sprout pathogenic microfungus Fusarium graminearum in vitro. Moreover, obvious delay of fungus growth by 4 days after treatment was observed. The efficiency of antifungal treatment strongly depended on used Chl-CHS complex concentration. The coating of wheat grains with Chl-CHS (0.005% Chl-0.5% CHS) and illumination with visible light (405 nm; 76 J/cm2) inactivated the molds on the surface of grains by 79%. It is important to note, that no grain surface microstructure damage observed by SEM imaging have been found. No inhibiting effects on seed germination process, viability, average weight of grains, length of seedlings and content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in the seedlings or eventually visual quality after Chl-CHS coating of grains and illumination with visible light have been observed. In conclusion, chlorophyllin-chitosan coating in the concert with visible light has great potential as cost-effective, environmentally friendly and sustainable strategy for better microbial control of highly contaminated sprouts.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Quitosana/química , Clorofilídios/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Triticum/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos da radiação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 171-179, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549205

RESUMO

Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) caused by Alternaria carthami Chowdhary is one of the major threats to the cultivation of safflower in the world. The pathogen is seed borne and requires early detection for restricting its transmission and proliferation. A PCR-based diagnostic assay was developed for easy, quick and reliable detection of A. carthami in infected seeds and leaf samples of safflower. A primer set, AcSPF and AcSPR was designed using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions of A. carthami that consistently produced a distinct amplicon of 340 bp with DNA extracted from thirty A. carthami isolates. The specificity of the primer was confirmed using strains of 26 other strains of Alternaria and four other fungal pathogens of safflower. The sensitivity of detection was further enhanced from concentration of 100 pg by simple PCR to as low as 10 pg fungal DNA by a nested PCR assay using ITS and AcSPF and AcSPR primers. The primer pair also facilitated detection of A. carthami in infected seeds and leaf samples. The study provides an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of A. carthami.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Alternaria/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Carthamus tinctorius/microbiologia , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Sementes/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(2): 283-291, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650197

RESUMO

Metabolic changes occurring in white lupine grain were investigated in response to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) root inoculation under field condition. We precisely targeted lipids and phenolics changes occurring in white lupine grain in response to Pseudomonas brenneri LJ215 and/or Paenibacillus glycanilyticus LJ121 inoculation. Lipids and phenolic composition were analyzed using an Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Methods. As compared to grain of un-inoculated control plant, Paenibacillus glycaniliticus inoculation highly increased the total lipids content (from 232.55 in seeds of un-inoculated control plant to 944.95 mg/kg) and the relative percentage of several fatty acid such as oleic acid (+20.95%) and linoleic acid (+14.28%) and decreased the relative percentage of glycerophospholipids (- 13.11%), sterol (- 0.2% and - 0.34% for stigmasterol and campesterol, respectively) and prenol (- 17.45%) class. Paenibacillus glycaniliticus inoculation did not affect total phenolic content, while it modulated content of individual phenolic compounds and induced the accumulation of "new" phenolics compounds such as kaempferol. Paenibacillus glycanilyticus LJ121 can be a useful bio-fertilizer to enhance nutritional quality of white lupine grain.


Assuntos
Lupinus/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Paenibacillus/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Endófitos/fisiologia , Lupinus/química , Fenóis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia
8.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 255-259, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613189

RESUMO

Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a serious threat to cucurbit fruit and seed production worldwide. In recent years, the BFB has spread to many areas of China, mainly via the inadvertent distribution of contaminated commercial seeds. To assess the prevalence of seedborne A. citrulli in commercial watermelon and other cucurbitaceous seedlots in China, a 9-year survey was conducted between 2010 and 2018. A total of 4,839 seedlots of watermelon and other cucurbitaceous species were collected from 13 major seed production areas of China and tested by a semiselective media-based colony PCR technique for A. citrulli. Overall, A. citrulli was detected in 18.00% (871/4,839) of all cucurbitaceous seedlots. The bacterium was detected in 21.59% (38/176), 19.19% (33/172), 23.44% (214/913), 40.76% (247/606), 13.28% (85/640), 15.40% (95/617), 13.25% (73/551), 8.03% (48/598), and 6.71% (38/566) of all commercial seedlots tested from the 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 growing seasons, respectively. Additionally, the prevalence of A. citrulli in cucurbit seedlots was determined for different seed production areas. The prevalence of A. citrulli in cucurbitaceous seedlots produced in Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, and 9 other provinces was 18.76% (582/3103), 26.34% (103/391), 21.47% (82/382), 11.11% (14/126), and 10.75% (90/837), respectively. This is the first survey for A. citrulli in commercial cucurbit seeds in China, and the relatively high prevalence suggests that commercial seeds represent a substantial source of primary inoculum that can threaten cucurbit seed and fruit production in China.


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae , Cucurbitaceae , Sementes , China , Comamonadaceae/fisiologia , Cucurbitaceae/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1004-1011, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important cereals worldwide, and its quality is affected by fungal contamination such as species of the genus Alternaria. No information is available about the occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean barley grains, which is of concern, because they can be transferred into malt and beer. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) in malting barley grains from the main producing region of Argentina during the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. RESULTS: The most frequent mycotoxin was AOH (64%), which was detected at higher levels (712 µg kg-1 ) compared with other studies, followed by TeA (37%, 1522 µg kg-1 ), while AME was present in five samples in the 2015 growing season only, with a mean of 4876 µg kg-1 . A similar frequency of mycotoxin occurrence was observed in both years (80.8 vs 85.3%), but more diverse contamination was found in 2015, which was characterized by lower accumulated precipitation. Nevertheless, AOH was more frequently found in 2014 than in 2015 (80.8 and 47.1% respectively). A negative correlation between AOH concentration and temperature was observed. The susceptibility of different barley varieties to mycotoxin accumulation varied with the mycotoxin, geographical location and meteorological conditions. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the present work represent a tool for risk assessment of exposition to these mycotoxins and could be used by food safety authorities to determine the need for their regulation. Furthermore, the establishment of a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system to minimize fungal and mycotoxin contamination in barley from farm to processing could be apply to ensure food safety. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alternaria/metabolismo , Hordeum/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/análise , Argentina , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Lactonas/análise , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 863-873, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat is the most important winter crop in the world, being affected by the presence of fungal, mainly those belonging to the Fusarium genus. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease that causes important economic damage and quantitative/qualitative losses, with Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae being two of the most isolated species worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the interaction between F. graminearum and F. poae and the effects on disease parameters, grain quality and mycotoxin contamination on five wheat genotypes under field conditions during three growing seasons. RESULTS: Statistical differences between Fusarium treatments were found for disease parameters, grain quality and mycotoxin contamination during the 2014/2015 growing season. High values of incidence (58.00 ± 8.00%), severity (6.28 ± 1.51%) and FHB index (4.72 ± 1.35) were observed for F. graminearum + F. poae treatment. Regarding grain quality, the results showed that the degradation of different protein fractions depends on each Fusarium species: glutenins were degraded preferably by F. graminearum (-70.82%), gliadins were degraded preferably by F. poae (-29.42%), whereas both protein fractions were degraded when both Fusarium species were present (-60.91% and -16.51%, respectively). Significant differences were observed for mycotoxin contamination between genotypes, with Proteo being the most affected (DON = 12.01 ± 3.67 µg g-1 ). In addition, we report that 3-ADON predominated over 15-ADON in the three seasons evaluated. CONCLUSION: Variations in plant-pathogen interaction (Fusarium-wheat pathosystem) should be considered at least in years with favorable climatic conditions for FHB development, as a result of the potential impact of this disease on grain quality and mycotoxin contamination. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fusarium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/análise , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Fusarium/classificação , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108374, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669765

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica outbreaks in sprouts originate from contaminated seeds; conventional prevention technologies have been reported from many research institutes. In this study, we applied a biological control approach to inhibit S. enterica growth using the seed-dwelling non-antagonistic bacteria. We isolated non-antibacterial seed-dwelling bacteria from vegetable sprouts. A total of 206 bacteria exhibiting non-antibacterial activity against S. enterica were subjected to alfalfa sprout development tests. Eight isolates exhibiting no deleterious effect on the growth of alfalfa sprouts were tested for S. enterica growth inhibition on alfalfa seeds and sprouts, and an isolate EUS78 was finally selected for further investigation. Based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoB gene sequence analyses, strain EUS78 was identified as Erwinia persicina. In population competition, the S. enterica population increased by >3 log CFU/g after 6 days of alfalfa sprout growth, whereas S. enterica growth was significantly inhibited by treatment with EUS78 (P < .05). This effect of S. enterica growth inhibition by EUS78 was sustained until the end of the alfalfa sprout harvest. Overall, bacterial strain EUS78 significantly reduced S. enterica growth on alfalfa sprouts in a manner consistent with competitive exclusion. These findings led us to monitor EUS78 behavior on seeds during early sprout development using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Strain EUS78 initially colonized alfalfa sprout seed coat edges, cotyledons, and finally root surfaces during early sprout germination. As alfalfa sprouts grew, EUS78 bacterial cells established colonies on newly emerged plant tissues such as root tips. The results of this study suggest that strain EUS78 has potential as a biological control agent to inhibit S. enterica contamination in the sprout food industry.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Erwinia/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , DNA Girase/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Erwinia/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Germinação/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Verduras/microbiologia
12.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103308, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703866

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to use chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas to inactivate Aspergillus flavus on green coffee beans. Green coffee beans inoculated with A. flavus were exposed to ClO2 gas generated from 0.75, 1, 1.25, or 1.5 mL of ClO2 solution in a sealed container at 25 or 50 °C (100% relative humidity [RH]) for up to 10 h. Numbers of A. flavus on beans treated at 25 °C decreased by 1.1-2.2 log cfu/bean within 1 h of exposure to ClO2 and decreased to below the detection limit (≤1.0 log cfu/bean) at all ClO2 concentrations after 10 h. At 50 °C, the microbial population reached the detection limit within 0.5 h regardless of the ClO2 solution concentration. Beans exposed to gas for 10 h at 25 °C were stored for 14 days under conditions of 43, 75, or 100% RH and 4, 12, or 25 °C. At 4 °C, visible mold growth was not established regardless of RH. After 12 days, mold was observed only at 25 °C. At 100% RH, beans stored under the same conditions without ClO2 gas treatment showed mold formation at 13 and 4 days at 12 and 25 °C, respectively.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Cloro/farmacologia , Coffea/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Óxidos/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Clorados/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Óxidos/química , Sementes/microbiologia
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 182, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728757

RESUMO

Endophytes improve the host performance in areas of high plant endemicity. Paullinia cupana is an Amazonia plant species of economic and social importance due to the high caffeine concentration in its seeds. An interesting strategy to identify endophytic microorganisms with potential biotechnological application is to understand the factors that influence the endophytic community to rationalize the host management programs. We used the next-generation sequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA gene to examine how the P. cupana organ, genotype, and geographic location influenced its endophytic bacterial community. We obtained 1520 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) distributed in 19 phyla, 32 classes, 79 orders, 114 families and 174 genera. The P. cupana roots and leaves were specifically colonized by the bacterial genera Acidothermus and Porphyromonas, respectively, with high relative frequency. The plant organ type influenced the endophytic community's richness, diversity, OTUs composition, relative abundance of phyla and genera, and genera interaction network. However, the host plant genotype and geographic location influenced the composition and interaction among genera in the network analysis. Prevotella is a super-generalist genus in the interaction network of endophytic bacteria of P. cupana. This study revealed endophytic bacterial groups of importance to P. cupana and stressed that the host plant organ modulates the structure and interactions within this community. Our results indicated that the microbial community adapted to colonize P. cupana by adjusting to its composition and interaction network. The isolation of abundant and super-generalist bacterial genera shall help to examine their functionality to the composition and fitness of the endophytic community of P. cupana.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ecologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Paullinia/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sementes/microbiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610770

RESUMO

An epidemiological investigation and a retrospective case-control study were conducted into an outbreak of Salmonella Havana in alfalfa sprouts, in Adelaide, Australia. In total, 31 cases of S. Havana were notified during June and July 2018 and linked to the outbreak. Eighteen cases and 54 unmatched controls were included in a case-control study. Results from the case-control study indicated an increased risk of illness linked to the consumption of alfalfa sprouts; this was supported by trace-back, sampling and environmental investigations. This outbreak of S. Havana was caused by consumption of alfalfa sprouts from one local sprouts producer. It is unclear as to when in the production of alfalfa sprouts the contamination occurred. However, contaminated seeds and poor pest control are the most likely causes. This investigation highlights the importance of ensuring that producers take appropriate action to minimise the likelihood of contamination and to comply with legislation and standards for primary production and food safety.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sementes/microbiologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12770-12779, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652052

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are of interest for potential antimicrobial activity of their degradation products and exclusive presence in Brassicaceae. Compositional changes of aliphatic, benzenic, and indolic GSLs of Sinapis alba, Brassica napus, and B. juncea seeds by germination and fungal elicitation were studied. Rhizopus oryzae (nonpathogenic), Fusarium graminearum (nonpathogenic), and F. oxysporum (pathogenic) were employed. Thirty-one GSLs were detected by reversed-phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array with in-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn). Aromatic-acylated derivatives of 3-butenyl GSL, p-hydroxybenzyl GSL, and indol-3-ylmethyl GSL were for the first time tentatively annotated and confirmed to be not artifacts. For S. alba, germination, Rhizopus elicitation, and F. graminearum elicitation increased total GSL content, mainly consisting of p-hydroxybenzyl GSL, by 2-3 fold. For B. napus and B. juncea, total GSL content was unaffected by germination or elicitation. In all treatments, aliphatic GSL content was decreased (≥50%) in B. napus and remained unchanged in B. juncea. Indolic GSLs were induced in all species by germination and nonpathogenic elicitation.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/microbiologia , Glucosinolatos/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassicaceae/química , Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/fisiologia , Germinação , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Rhizopus/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia
16.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4): 1679-1686, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608890

RESUMO

Four fungal isolates were identified in this study of which three were Aspergillus species with Aspergillus flavus having the highest frequency followed by A. parasiticus. The result of high frequency of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in the Zea mays sample revealed production of aflatoxins. Maize sample in Awka was found to contain aflatoxin B1 (9.60ppb) and B2 (13.3ppb). Inhibition of A. flavus and A. parasiticus with Azadirachta indica and Garcinia kola seed extracts showed that the test plant extracts were effective for reducing mycelial growth on the test organism. Methanolic extract of G. kola showed antifungal inhibitory activity on the test organisms and the highest at 10% concentration. With ethanol extracts of G. kola, the antifungal activity was effective i.e. for inhibition of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, with A. parasiticus having the higher percentage inhibition at 10%. Inhibiting growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using methanolic and ethanolic extracts of neem seeds was effective in the inhibition of the test organism at 10%. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of combined Garcinia kola and neem seeds revealed effective inhibition of A. flavus and A. parasiticus with ethanolic extracts of the combined test plants exerting the highest inhibition against A. flavus (80.43±3.62). The extracts from this plant show the ability to suppress growth of toxigenic A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Phytochemical analysis showed that the methanolic and ethanolic extracts of G. kola and neem seeds showed the presence of secondary metabolites and this may be a reason for the inhibitory activity on A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Results from this study will be important in planning a management strategy against aflatoxin-producing fungi and other fungi associated with spoilage of stored food products.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Azadirachta/química , Garcinia kola/química , Zea mays/microbiologia , Aflatoxinas/análise , Antifúngicos/química , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Etanol/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Metanol/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nigéria , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/microbiologia
17.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(4): 1091-1098, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515726

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in several agricultural commodities. Produced by Aspergillus spp., it is nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic and can be carcinogenic. Preventive measures are preventing fungal growth and OTA production. In this study, fungal strains (Rhizopus oryzae, Lichtheimia ramosa, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus sp., and Aspergillus fumigatus) isolated from coffee beans were identified for their abilities to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Aspergillus niger, and OTA production. All fungi strains tested were able to inhibit growth of the four Aspergillus species and OTA production, where A. niger showed the best results in both tests. L. ramosa showed the lowest growth-reducing potential, while the other fungal strains had a growth-reducing potential higher than 70% against all Aspergillus species tested. Regarding OTA production, L. ramosa and Aspergillus sp. completely inhibited the mycotoxin production by A. ochraceus and non-toxigenic strain A. niger completely inhibited OTA production by A. niger. Our findings indicate that the strains tested can be used as an alternative means to control growth of OTA-producing fungi and production of the mycotoxin in coffee beans.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Aspergillus niger/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Coffea/microbiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Ocratoxinas/biossíntese , Sementes/microbiologia , Aspergillus niger/fisiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
18.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(5): 358-365, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508838

RESUMO

Leaf blight and fruit rot disease caused by Phomopsis vexans is a devastating disease of brinjal. The detection of P. vexans in plant parts and seeds of brinjal can be complicated, mainly when the inoculum is present at low levels and/or overgrown by fast-growing saprophytic fungi or other seed-borne fungi. A PCR-based diagnostic method was developed with specific primers designed based on sequence data of a region consisting of the 5·8S RNA gene and internal transcribed spacers, ITS 1 and ITS 2 of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) repeats of P. vexans. The efficiency and specificity of primer pairs PvexF/PvexR designed were established by PCR analysis of DNA from P. vexans strains isolated from India and fungal isolates of other genera. A single amplification product of 323-bp was detected from DNA of P. vexans isolates. No cross-reaction was observed with any of the other isolates tested. The specific primers designed and employed in PCR detected P. vexans up to 10 pg from DNA isolated from pure culture. This is the first report on the development of species-specific PCR assay for identification and detection of P. vexans. Thus, PCR-based assay developed is very specific, rapid, confirmatory and sensitive tool for the detection of pathogen P. vexans at early stages. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Phomopsis vexans is an important seed-borne pathogenic fungus responsible for leaf blight and fruit rot in brinjal. Current detection methods, based on culture and morphological identification is time consuming, laborious and are not always reliable. A PCR-based diagnostic method was developed with species-specific primers designed based on sequence data of a region consisting of the 5·8S RNA gene and internal transcribed spacers, ITS 1 and ITS 2 of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) repeats of P. vexans.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Solanum melongena/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Índia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia
19.
Biocontrol Sci ; 24(3): 161-166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527347

RESUMO

Contamination of agricultural crops by mycotoxins has increased because of the expansion of mycotoxin-producing fungi along with global warming. In this study, the fungal microflora of brown rice grains cultivated in Kyushu region in the southern part of Japan was investigated. A total of 75% of rice samples examined in this study showed less than 30% of fungal contamination rates with a median rate of 12.5%. Some isolates of Aspergillus flavus showed the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) (AFB1 production was 62.5-70.4 ng/mL) . Furthermore, AF-producing Aspergillus flavus survived during storage and Aspergillus creber, which produced sterigmatocystin, was detected in a stored rice sample. Although AFs or sterigmatocystin-contamination was not detected in any rice samples, these mycotoxin-producing fungi are distributed and can survive during storage under the natural conditions in Japan. Employing suitable storage conditions is important for preventing mycotoxin contamination of brown rice grains.


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Microbiota , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Japão
20.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(10): 2521-2530, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482167

RESUMO

Sprouted seeds are gaining popularity worldwide due to their high nutritional value. At the same time, they are among the most highly contaminated fresh produce and have been recognized as the primary source of food-borne pathogens, such as E. coli O157 and harmful microfungi. The antifungal and antibacterial properties of chlorophyllin-based photosensitization in vitro together with successful application of this treatment for microbial control in wheat sprouts have been investigated. First, we examined the antimicrobial efficiency of chlorophyllin (Chl, 1.5 × 10-5-5 × 10-3 M) activated in vitro by visible light (405 nm, radiant exposure: 18 J cm-2) against the food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli and plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Results revealed that this treatment (1.5 × 10-5 M Chl, incubation time 1 h, 405 nm, radiant exposure: 18 J cm-2) can reduce the E. coli population by 95%. Moreover, at higher chlorophyllin concentrations (5 × 10-4-5 × 10-3 M Chl), it is possible to delay the growth of F. oxysporum by 51-74%. The decontamination of wheat seeds by chlorophyllin-based photosensitization (5 × 10-4 M Chl, 405 nm, radiant exposure: 18 J cm-2) remarkably reduced the viability of surface-attached mesophilic bacteria (∼2.5log CFU g-1), E. coli (∼1.5log CFU g-1) and yeasts/fungi (∼1.5log CFU g-1). Moreover, SEM images confirmed that this treatment did not damage the grain surface microstructure. Most importantly, Chl-based photosensitization did not reduce the seed germination rate or seedling growth and had no impact on the visual qualities of sprouts. In conclusion, the chlorophyllin-based photosensitization treatment, being nonthermal, environmentally friendly and cost-effective, has huge potential for microbial control of highly contaminated germinated wheat sprouts and seeds used to produce sprouts, especially in organic farming.


Assuntos
Clorofilídios/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorofilídios/química , Germinação , Luz , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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