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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10764-10773, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487158

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety of sesquiterpene lactones is a key unit for their bioactivity. As a consequence, modifications of these compounds have been focused on this fragment. In the work reported here, two sesquiterpene lactones, namely, dehydrocostuslactone and ß-cyclocostunolide, a eudesmanolide obtained by controlled cyclization of costunolide, were chosen for modification by Michael addition at C-13. On applying this reaction to both compounds, it was possible to introduce the functional groups alkoxy, amino, carbamoyl, hydroxy, and thiol to give products in good to high yields, depending on the base and solvent employed. In particular, the introduction of a thiol group at C-13 in both compounds was achieved with outstanding yields (>90%) and this is unprecedented for these sesquiterpene lactones. The bioactivities of the products were evaluated on etiolated wheat coleoptile elongation and germination of seeds of parasitic weeds, with significant activity observed on Orobanche cumana and Phelipanche ramosa. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.


Assuntos
Lactonas/química , Orobanchaceae/química , Orobanche/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Daninhas/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Germinação , Estrutura Molecular , Orobanchaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orobanche/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10313-10320, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502448

RESUMO

A peptide fraction with molecular masses below 3 kDa (PSH-3 kDa) from a peach seed hydrolysate demonstrated high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (concentration to inhibit 50% ACE (IC50) = 16.4 µg/mL) in our previous work. This work proposes a further study of this highly active fraction. RP-HPLC enabled two fractions (F3 and F4) with high inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.0 ± 0.5 and 1.2 ± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively) to be isolated. Peptide analysis by LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS using reverse-phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography enabled 33 peptides within both fractions to be identified. Among them, peptide isoleucine-tyrosine-serine-proline-histidine (IYSPH) showed the highest capacity. The lack of cytotoxicity of peptides was demonstrated in three different cell lines (HeLa, HT-29, and HK-2). Oral administration of PSH-3 kDa fraction or peptide IYSPH caused a significant systolic blood pressure reduction (-30 mmHg) on spontaneously hypertensive rats after 3-6 h treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prunus persica/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/enzimologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Sementes/química
4.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2498-2504, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453746

RESUMO

Downy mildew is a yield-limiting disease of sunflower, caused by the pathogen Plasmopara halstedii. Zoospore infection of root tissue shortly after planting results in systemic infection, causing postemergence damping off or severe stunting and head sterility. Although fungicide-applied seed treatments can be an effective management tool, the pathogen is resistant to phenylamide fungicides in many growing regions, and other available fungicides have limited efficacy. Oxathiapiprolin, the first member of the piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline fungicides, was evaluated for efficacy on downy mildew in field trials conducted from 2011 to 2015 in North Dakota. Throughout the course of the study, the rate range was narrowed from active ingredient (a.i.) at 0.45 to 116.0 µg a.i. seed-1 to an optimal effective rate of 9.37 to 18.75 µg a.i. seed-1. Within that optimal range, the downy mildew incidence of sunflower planted with oxathiapiprolin-treated seed was significantly lower than the incidence in the nontreated sunflower in all 11 trials with disease pressure. Additionally, downy mildew incidence of sunflower planted with oxathiapiprolin-treated seed was significantly lower than sunflower planted with competitive commercially available fungicide-treated seed in 10 of those 11 trials. The use of oxathiapiprolin by sunflower growers is likely to reduce disease incidence and subsequent yield loss to downy mildew.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados , Oomicetos , Doenças das Plantas , Pirazóis , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Helianthus/parasitologia , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , North Dakota , Oomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Sementes/química
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10306-10312, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464431

RESUMO

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnAs) are natural phytochemicals with known and potential bioactivities in mammals. Established CLnA sources are limited to a few common fruit seeds, notably pomegranate seeds and cherry pits, and the search for alternatives is impeded in part by cumbersome methods for reliable measurement. We investigated CLnA contents in lower value fruit seeds with a recently available facile mass spectrometry method, solvent-mediated chemical ionization, enabling and quantitative analysis. We report for the first time the detection of CLnAs in cantaloupe and honeydew seeds at levels of 2 mg CLnA/g seed kernel. Based on the combined waste stream for these muskmelons of about 1.4 billion pounds in the USA annually, we estimate that the available CLnAs amount to 37.5 tons, similar to cherry pits. Our results suggest the potentially enhanced economic value of a specific class of bioactives that may be extracted from discarded food processing waste.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Resíduos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10296-10305, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464437

RESUMO

Grass pea is an orphan legume that is grown in many places in the world. It is a high-protein, drought-tolerant legume that is capable of surviving extreme environmental challenges and can be a sole food source during famine. However, grass pea produces the neurotoxin ß-N-oxalyl-L-α,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP), which can cause a neurological disease. This crop is promising as a food source for both animals and humans if ß-ODAP levels and other antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors are lowered or removed. To understand more about these proteins, a proteomic analysis of grass pea was conducted using three different extraction methods to determine which was more efficient at isolating antinutritional factors. Seed proteins extracted with Tris-buffered saline (TBS), 30% ethanol, and 50% isopropanol were identified by mass spectrometry, resulting in the documentation of the most abundant proteins for each extraction method. Mass spectrometry spectral data and BLAST2GO analysis led to the identification of 1376 proteins from all extraction methods. The molecular function of the extracted proteins revealed distinctly different protein functional profiles. The majority of the TBS-extracted proteins were annotated with nutrient reservoir activity, while the isopropanol extraction yielded the highest percentage of endopeptidase proteinase inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that the 50% isopropanol extraction method was the most efficient at isolating antinutritional factors including protease inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Endopeptidases/química , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8938-8949, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361121

RESUMO

Polymeric pigments formed via ethyl linkages between grape tannins and anthocyanins are important to the development of stable red wine color. To determine the effect of tannin structure on the stability and color properties of ethyl-linked polymeric pigments, tannin fractions with average polymerization between 4 and 43 units were prepared from grape skins and seeds and combined with malvidin-3-glucoside (M3G) in model wine containing acetaldehyde. As tannin molecular mass increased, the reaction rate with M3G increased. Compared with skin tannins of comparable molecular mass, seed tannins reacted more rapidly with M3G but were prone to precipitation. This resulted in a loss of polymeric pigments formed from seed tannins, which was greater as tannin molecular mass increased. Aggregation occurred following the reaction of seed tannin with M3G, concomitant with precipitation. The aggregation-precipitation phenomenon was not observed for skin tannin-derived pigments, indicating a greater stability in solution than those formed from seed tannins.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/química , Antocianinas/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Taninos/química , Vitis/química , Precipitação Química , Cor , Frutas/química , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Polimerização , Polímeros/química
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8649-8659, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283213

RESUMO

Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundant coffee byproduct and are generally discarded as waste. The horticultural use of SCG and SCG compost (SCGC) has become popular due to a growing interest in environmentally friendly measures for waste disposal. Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals in the soil can be absorbed by plants and subsequently by humans who consume these plants. The objectives of this study are to determine the phytochemical profiles of extracts of SCG and SCGC and to evaluate the estrogen-like activities of SCG, SCGC, and the major coffee phenolic acids, specifically, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. Their inductive effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene transcription have been examined in cultured cell lines. CQA was the most abundant phenolic acid in SCG and SCGC and was further examined for its ER-mediated estrogen-like activity using various assays. This is the first study to report the estrogen-like signaling activities of coffee byproducts and their major constituents.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Compostagem , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Fitoestrógenos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Sementes/química
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8441-8451, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339045

RESUMO

The increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to influence wheat production and grain quality and nutritional properties. In the present study, durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Sula) was grown under two different CO2 (400 versus 700 µmol mol-1) concentrations to examine effects on the crop yield and grain quality at different phenological stages (from grain filling to maturity). Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground biomass and grain yield components. Growth at elevated CO2 diminished the elemental N content as well as protein and free amino acids, with a typical decrease in glutamine, which is the most represented amino acid in grain proteins. Such a general decrease in nitrogenous compounds was associated with altered kinetics of protein accumulation, N remobilization, and N partitioning. Our results highlight important modifications of grain metabolism that have implications for its nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8339-8347, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291543

RESUMO

The dried seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. have been traditionally used as food and medicine. To explore its chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity, four new compounds (1-4) along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated from the seeds in the present study. The chemical structures of the new compounds were identified as follows: methyl 3-((7H-purin-2-yl) amino)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl) propanoate (1), 8-(amino(4-isopropylphenyl)methyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid (2), (3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-((4-isopropylbenzyl)oxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methyl (E)-3-(4-propoxyphenyl)acrylate (3), and (3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-((5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methyl 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-2-methoxypropanoate (4). Compound 2, an atypical nitrogen-containing flavonoid, exhibited the most active inhibitory effect on nitride oxide, with IC50 of 5.25 µM in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cell assay. Compound 2 was found to suppress the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, it was revealed that both nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase were involved in the anti-inflammatory process of compound 2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cuminum/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8096-8106, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260296

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg-1 to 46.0 mg-1 kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg-1 kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 µg kg-1 to 361 µg kg-1 and 249 µg kg-1, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 µg kg-1 to 338 µg kg-1 in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Iodo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Iodo/análise , Ferro/análise , México , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , África do Sul , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Turquia , Zinco/análise
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8212-8226, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309827

RESUMO

The factors that determine the digestion rate of starches were revealed using different forms of starches and a mixture of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. Gelatinized starch samples with a degree of gelatinization (DG) from 12.2 to 100% for potato starch and from 7.1 to 100% for lotus seed starch were obtained. With an increasing DG, the short- and long-range molecular orders of both starches were disrupted progressively. The first-order digestion rate constant (k) of both starches increased with an increasing DG, although the positive linear relationships between DG and k differed (R2 = 0.87 for potato starch, and R2 = 0.74 for lotus seed starch). The mean fluorescence intensity showed a positive linear correlation with DG, which was strong for potato starch (R2 = 0.99) and relatively weaker for lotus seed starch (R2 = 0.54). These results indicated that DG is a major determinant for the digestion rate of potato starch and lotus seed starch and that the access/binding of enzymes to starch was the main rate-limiting factor for digestion of starches.


Assuntos
Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/química , Lotus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/química , Biocatálise , Digestão , Hidrólise , Cinética , Sementes/química
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7810-7820, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264418

RESUMO

Antihypertensive peptides were screened from thermolysin hydrolysate of Cassia obtusifolia seeds (Jue Ming Zi) using two independent bioassay-guided fractionations, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and strong cation-exchange (SCX) liquid chromatography coupled with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory assay. The identical peptide in the most active RP-HPLC and SCX fractions was simultaneously de novo sequenced as FHAPWK with high-resolution mass spectrometry. FHAPWK (IC50 = 16.83 ± 0.90 µM) was further identified as a competitive inhibitor and a true inhibitor on ACE by a Lineweaver-Burk plot and preincubation experiment, respectively. The molecular docking simulation indicated that FHAPWK could interact with several key residues of the ACE active site, which is consistent with the result of the inhibitory kinetics study. Moreover, its antihypertensive effect was demonstrated using the animal model of spontaneously hypertensive rats. It is concluded that FHAPWK is the first reported antihypertensive peptide derived from thermolysin hydrolysate of C. obtusifolia seeds.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Cassia/química , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Sementes/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7986-7994, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282158

RESUMO

Compositional analyses were performed on samples of rice grain, straw, and derived bran obtained from golden rice event GR2E and near-isogenic control PSBRc82 rice grown at four locations in the Philippines during 2015 and 2016. Grain samples were analyzed for key nutritional components, including proximates, fiber, polysaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients. Samples of straw and bran were analyzed for proximates and minerals. The only biologically meaningful difference between GR2E and control rice was in levels of ß-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids in the grain. Except for ß-carotene and related carotenoids, the compositional parameters of GR2E rice were within the range of natural variability of those components in conventional rice varieties with a history of safe consumption. Mean provitamin A concentrations in milled rice of GR2E can contribute up to 89-113% and 57-99% of the estimated average requirement for vitamin A for preschool children in Bangladesh and the Philippines, respectively.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Engenharia Genética , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Filipinas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina A/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 300: 125192, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362158

RESUMO

Dietary fiber has several benefits for humans, and the development of healthier rice with an improved dietary fiber composition has attracted increasing amounts of attention. Based on the method of AOAC 2002.02, we developed a simplified method to screen polished rice containing high total dietary fiber (TDF). Mutant cw with a high TDF content could be distinguished easily from R7954 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica) by the digestion-resistant phenotype, which is characterized as an almost intact grain after hydrolysis by pepsin, pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The individuals identified from the F2 population showed digestion resistance all had TDF content higher than 5%, while those without a digestion-resistant phenotype had TDF content lower than 5%. The phenotype of digestion resistance could be a valuable index for identifying rice with higher TDF content, and the identification of this phenotype provides a simplified, economical and high throughput method for high TDF rice breeding.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Oryza/química , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Pepsina A/química , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Amido/análise , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 299: 125108, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310914

RESUMO

Macroporous resins have been employed in the effective recovery of flavonoids from plants. In this study, S8 polar resins were used to recover flavonoids and procyanidins from lotus seedpods. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics studies revealed that the adsorption process involved physico-chemical interactions, including flavonoid-resin and flavonoid-flavonoid electrostatic interactions, π-π aromatic stacking, moderate and strong hydrogen bonding, and repulsive forces. These forces worked complementarily in adsorption, except for the repulsive force, which opposed the adsorption. Further, adsorption temperature determined the adsorption behavior, with multilayer adsorption enhancing adsorption capacity. In dynamic desorption tests, an acetone/water/acetic acid mixture (58.77: 39.34: 1.89) designed by the D-optimal design method was able to desorb 95.57% and 89.85% of total flavonoids and procyanidins, respectively, using less than two bed volumes of solvent. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS) analysis showed that 26 flavonoids, including 5 procyanidins, were detected after the recovery.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Nelumbo/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Sementes/química , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Espectrometria de Massas , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Eletricidade Estática
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2009-2014, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355553

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 µg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia , Ziziphus/química , Aspergillus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2102-2109, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355568

RESUMO

The main chemical constituents of naphthopyrone reference extract( NRE) with definite content and relatively fixed chemical composition were analyzed and determined. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography were used to systematically study NRE from the aspects of main chemical components and determination. The results showed that the chemical composition of naphthopyrone reference extract of Cassiae Semen was relatively fixed,and seven naphthalopyranones were identified. Cassiaside B_2,cassiaside C_2,rubrofusarin-6-O-ß-D-gentiobioside and cassiaside C were the main chemical constituents of NRE,of which the determination and uncertainty results were( 11. 40+ 0. 26) %,( 11. 68+0. 24) %,( 16. 60+0. 22) %,( 28. 8+0. 48) %,respectively. This study contributed to the accurate evaluation of NRE and the foundation for the application of NRE in the quality control of Cassiae Semen,and provided a new idea for the replacement of single chemical reference substance by the reference extract of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Cassia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Extratos Vegetais/normas , Sementes/química , Certificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 178-186, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319254

RESUMO

The leaves and seeds of plants frequently function as the source and sink organs for distinct metabolites, which can interactively vary in response to adverse site conditions. Subtropical soils are typically characterized as having deficient phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), with enriched aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe), while Al and manganese (Mn) are toxic at low pH. It remains largely unknown how leaf- and seed-sourced metabolites are synergistically linked to adapt to P-variable soils for trees in subtropical areas. Here we quantified the metabolic and elemental profiling in the mature leaves and immature seeds of Quercus variabilis at contrasting geologically-derived phosphorus sites in subtropical China. The results revealed that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) based metabolites (primarily sugars and organic acids), as well as enzyme- and protein/nucleic acid-related elements (N, P, Mg, and Mn) played important roles toward characterizing the profiling of metabolites and ionomes in leaves and seeds at two site types, respectively. These metabolites (sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids) and elements (N, P, Mg, and Mn) of seeds were closely related to the sugars, organic acids, and elements (N, P, Mg, and Mn) of leaves at the two site types. For the most part, the content of N and P in the soil affected the accumulation of materials (such as, starchs and proteins) in seeds, as well as N and P assimilation in leaves, by influencing C- and N-containing metabolites in leaves. These results suggested that correlated disparities of C- and N-containing metabolites, along with enzyme- and protein/nucleic acid-related elements in both leaves and seeds played important roles in plants to facilitate their adaptation to nutrient-variable sites in subtropical zones.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Quercus/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Alumínio/análise , Cálcio/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Magnésio/análise , Manganês/análise , Minerais/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Potássio/análise , Quercus/química , Sementes/química , Solo/química
20.
Food Chem ; 298: 124982, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261014

RESUMO

This work studies the physicochemical properties of quinoa flour and isolated starch. Starch in the seed forms clusters rich in amylopectin that are immersed in a matrix with spherical and polygonal shapes in the submicron scale. The isolated quinoa starch is rich in Sulphur and Magnesium. The quinoa flour has a higher content of protein, carbohydrates and lipids than isolated starch. Water absorption and water solubilized indexes of starch exhibited high values that could had originated by the extraction method. The broad peaks found for the X-ray patterns of isolated quinoa starch indicate that amylose and amylopectin are composed by nanocrystals, according to the PDF-4+2019 software. The viscosity of isolated starch had a higher value than flour; therefore, the quinoa starch could be used as a thickener in different formulations with the advantage of keeping a significant presence of minerals which are important to the human health.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Farinha/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Minerais/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/análise , Amido/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Ambiente , Viscosidade , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
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