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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 840-872, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the zearalenone(ZEN) level in coix seed, and assess the risk of dietary exposure of ZEN in coix seed in Shanghai. METHODS: The ZEN contents of 147 coix seed samples collected in Shanghai were determined. The consumption data of 730 adults in Shanghai was collected by questionnaire survey with random sampling method. Dietary intake of ZEN from coix seed in Shanghai was simulated by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: The total detection rate of ZEN in coix seed was 69. 39 %(102/147), with the content range of <1. 0-9361 µg/kg and the average value of 327. 7 µg/kg. The average exposure level of populations to ZEN in coix seed was 0. 0216 µg/(kg·d), which was much lower than the tolerable daily intake(TDI). The high exposure level(P95) of populations to ZEN in coix seed was 0. 0609 µg/(kg·d), which accounted for about 24% of TDI. There were about 1. 1% people with the dietary exposure to ZEN exceeding TDI on the basis of the ZEN contents in coix seed and consumption data of coix seed in Shanghai. CONCLUSION: The health risk of ZEN exposure of coix seed in Shanghai population is lower when taking coix seed regularly, and there are potential health risks when taking coix seed highly contaminated with ZEN at a higher dose for a long time.


Assuntos
Coix , Zearalenona , China , Exposição Dietética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sementes/química , Zearalenona/análise , Zearalenona/toxicidade
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760118

RESUMO

Boron (B) is required during all growth stages of cotton crop, especially during boll formation. However, Typic Haplocambid soils of cotton growing belt in Pakistan are B-deficient, which results in low yield and economic returns. Foliar application of B improves cotton productivity; however, information is limited on the role of soil applied B in improving cotton growth and yield. The current study investigated the role of soil applied B in improving growth, yield and fiber quality of cotton crop. Five different B doses (i.e., 0.00, 2.60, 5.52, 7.78 and 10.04 mg kg-1 of soil) and two cotton cultivars (i.e., CIM-600 and CIM-616) were included in the study. Soil applied B (2.60 mg kg-1) significantly improved growth, yield, physiological parameters and fiber quality, while 10.04 mg kg-1 application improved B distribution in roots, seeds, leaves and stalks. Significant improvement was noted in plant height (12%), leaf area (3%), number of bolls (48%), boll size (59%), boll weight (52%), seed cotton yield (52%), photosynthesis (50%), transpiration rate (10%), stomatal conductance (37%) and water use efficiency (44%) of CIM-600 with 2.60 mg kg-1 compared to control treatment of CIM-616. Similarly, B accumulation in roots, seeds, leaves and stalk of CIM-600 was improved by 76, 41, 86 and 70%, respectively compared to control treatment. The application of 2.60 mg kg-1 significantly improved ginning out turn (6%), staple length (3.5%), fiber fineness (17%) and fiber strength (5%) than no B application. The results indicated that cultivar CIM-600 had higher ginning out turn (1.5%), staple length (5.4%), fiber fineness (15.5%) and fiber strength (1.8%) than CIM-616. In crux, 2.60 mg kg-1 soil B application improved growth, yield, physiological and fiber quality traits of cotton cultivar CIM-600. Therefore, cultivar CIM-600 and 2.60 mg kg-1 soil B application is recommended for higher yield and productivity.


Assuntos
Boro/metabolismo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Biomassa , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Fertilizantes , Paquistão , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Solo/química , Água
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841240

RESUMO

Roasting is the most common method of processing coffee. During roasting, aromatic compounds are generated due to various reactions, which are important for developing color, flavor and aroma. Acrylamide is an undesirable carcinogenic substance that is metabolically activated and formed during the coffee roasting process. Coffea arabica was first found in Ethiopia, and Ethiopia can produce a large volume of coffee. The major coffee-producing areas in Ethiopia are Hararghe, Sidama, Gimbi/Nekemte, Yergachefe and Limu. The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the acrylamide contents of brewed and roasted coffee collected from street coffee sellers and industrial processors found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and optimize the roasting conditions for Sidama coffee. The acrylamide contents were determined by HPLC using a DAD at 210 nm, the antioxidant property were examined using a UV-spectrophotometer, and moisture and nutrient composition of coffee was determined using the method described by the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). The roasting temperature and time were optimized based on the acrylamide content, nutritional composition and antioxidant property of the coffee using central composite design. The roasting temperature and time significantly affected (p<0.05) the acrylamide level, nutritional composition and antioxidant property of the coffee. The acrylamide contents of street and industrial processed powdered coffee were 346 ±19 to 701±38µg/kg and 442±14 to 906±7µg/kg, respectively. Brewed coffee from street vendors and industrial processing had acrylamide contents of 25±2 to 49±1µg/L and 63±2 to 89±4µg/L, respectively. The EC50 values for scavenging radicals for the optimized coffee ranged from 171±0 to 111±4 µg/L. The optimal roasting temperature and time were 190°C and 6 minutes, at this temperature and time the acrylamide content decreased, and the antioxidant and nutritional compositions of the coffee improved.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Coffea/química , Café/química , Nutrientes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Sementes/química
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123929, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763805

RESUMO

This research presents the tangerine seed activated carbon (TSAC), obtained from food waste (tangerine seed) by one-step pyrolysis method and applied to remove carbamate pesticides (CMs) from complex solutions. The effects of carbonization temperature and time on adsorption performance were studied. Structural properties of TSAC were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption/desorption methods and compared with that of tangerine seed. The TSAC exhibited a specific surface area of 659.62 m2/g, a total pore volume of 0.6203 cc/g and a pore diameter of 1.410 nm. The influences of initial pesticide concentration, adsorption temperature and contact time were investigated through batch experiments. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model were more suitable for CMs adsorption process onto TSAC. Furthermore, the thermodynamic research indicated that this adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Carbamatos , Carvão Vegetal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica , Água
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 993-1000, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788518

RESUMO

In this study, seed oils of Thladiantha nudiflora and Thladiantha dubia were found to contain 55.5 and 44.4% mole of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acids, respectively. The presence of moieties of conjugated fatty acids was confirmed by a series from physical methods: UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated of the seed oils were studied by RP-HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detections. It was shown that all 15 TAGs of Thladiantha dubia contain moieties of conjugated fatty acids - punicic, (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid (35.6% mole) and 8.9% mole α-eleostearic, (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid. Meanwhile, 24 TAGs of Thladiantha nudiflora seed oil contain both acids in approximately equal proportions (27.4:28.2 % mole). The enrichment for polyunsaturated fatty acids of the hydrolysis product of the seed oils due to urea inclusion complex formation was discussed.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110899, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678747

RESUMO

Liver is the earliest target for AFB1 toxicity in both human and animals. In the last decade, plant derived by-products have been used in animal feed to reduce AFB1 induced toxicity. In the present study we investigated whether the presence of 8% grape seed meal by-product is able to counteract the hepatotoxic effects produced by AFB1 in liver of pig after weaning exposed to the toxin through the contaminated feed for 28 days. Twenty four weaned cross-bred TOPIGS-40 piglets with an average body weight of 9.13±0.03 were allocated to the following experimentally treatments: control diet without AFB1 (normal compound feed for weaned pigs); contaminated diet with 320 mg kg-1 AFB1; GSM diet (compound feed plus 8% grape seed meal) and AFB1+GSM diet (320 mg kg-1 AFB1 contaminated feed plus 8% grape seed meal). Pigs fed AFB1 diet had altered performance, body weight decreasing with 25.1% (b.w.: 17.17 kg for AFB1 vs 22.92 kg for control). Exposure of piglets to AFB1 contaminated diet caused liver oxidative stress as well as liver histological damage, manly characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and parenchyma cells vacuolation when compared to control and GSM meal group. 94.12% of the total analysed genes (34) related to inflammation and immune response was up-regulated. The addition of GSM into the AFB1 diet diminished the gene overexpression and ameliorate histological liver injuries and oxidative stress. The protective effect of GSM diet in diminishing the AFB1 harmful effect was mediated through the decreasing of gene and protein expression of MAPKs and NF-κB signalling overexpressed by AFB1 diet. The inclusion of grape seed by-products in the diet of pigs after weaning might be used as a novel nutritional intervention to reduce aflatoxin toxicity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dieta , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Desmame
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4529-4535, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although ginseng seed oil (GSO) appears to have various roles in the body, its anti-cancer effect has not been investigated. Tamoxifen is widely used to treat estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer but shows adverse effects with drug resistance. This study investigated the effect of GSO in ER+ breast cancer cell growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability assays, western blots and Annexin V staining were conducted to examine cell viability and apoptosis. The synergistic effect of tamoxifen in combination with GSO or oleic acid (OA) was determined. RESULTS: GSO and OA caused apoptosis of MCF-7 ER+ breast cancer cells and had synergistic effects with tamoxifen in inhibiting tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7TAMR) ER+ breast cancer cell growth. CONCLUSION: GSO may block ER+ breast cancer recurrence in combination with tamoxifen.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Panax/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127408, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619944

RESUMO

A research was performed to determine and compare the physicochemical properties, chemical compositions and in vitro antioxidant activities of Paeonia lactiflora Pall seed oils with ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction, pressing and supercritical fluid extraction. Paeonia lactiflora Pall seed oil contained a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (31.62-32.88%) and α-linolenic acids (37.55-39.95%). The beneficial multiple dietary phytochemicals (tocopherol, phytosterols and squalene) and in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly influenced by the hull and processing method (P<0.05). However, higher tocopherol (596.67-738.76 mg/kg) and phytosterols (5775.01-6055.62 mg/kg) contents were found in supercritical fluid extraction oils. Additionally, ten individual polyphenols were quantified, and significantly influenced by the hull and processing method (P<0.05), with the content of benzoic acid and several individual flavonoids being the higher. According to the results, pressing might be the best process for extracting oil with a high number of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Paeonia/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sonicação , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
9.
Food Chem ; 333: 127495, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663747

RESUMO

Various pesticides employed in modern agriculture result in large amounts of pesticide residues in agricultural production, greatly threatening human health. Herein, we report a facile approach to fabricate a reduced graphene oxide/cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode (rGO/CD/GCE) for the sensitive electrochemical sensing of imidacloprid (IDP). Three different modified electrodes using CDs (α-, ß-, γ-CD) were fabricated, and their electrochemical performance was further studied. The results demonstrate that α-CD possesses the best signal amplification for IDP. Compared with wet-chemical synthesis of rGO/CDs (W-rGO/CDs), the electrochemical synthesis of rGO/CDs (E-rGO/CDs) produced sensors that showed better performance for IDP sensing. Taking advantage of prepared E-rGO/α-CD nanocomposite, the fabricated sensor offered a low detection limit (0.02 µM) with a wider linear range (0.5-40 µM) and long-term stability. The new sensor was successfully applied for the detection of IDP in brown rice, providing a new technique for efficient and convenient monitoring of pesticide residues in food.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Grafite/química , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Oryza/química , Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nanocompostos/química , Oxirredução , Sementes/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Food Chem ; 333: 127494, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663754

RESUMO

Sorghum derived 3-deoxyanthocyanin (DXA) pigments are stable relative to their anthocyanin analogs, and are of growing interest in food applications. However, the 3DXA are poorly extractable from grain tissue. This work aimed to determine the relative stability and extractability of sorghum 3-DXA vs anthocyanins from maize and cowpea under microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). UV-Vis and UPLC-MS/MS spectrometry were used to characterize the properties. The 3-DXA remained structurally stable to MAE conditions up to 1200 W/100 °C/30 min. MAE increased sorghum 3-DXA yield 100% versus control (3100 vs 1520 mg/g). On the other hand, both maize and cowpea anthocyanins were unstable and rapidly degraded under MAE. Cell wall-derived ferulate esters were detected in sorghum and maize MAE extracts, indicating cell wall degradation occurred during MAE. Thus the enhanced extraction of 3-DXA under MAE was due to their structural stability, along with improved diffusion from cell matrix due to microwave-induced sorghum cell wall disruption.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sorghum/química , Vigna/química , Zea mays/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Grão Comestível/química , Micro-Ondas , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127652, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688325

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil negatively impacts crop productivity, grain quality, and human health. Wheat seeds, with different concentrations of intrinsic zinc (Zn): low Zn (35 mg kg-1), medium (42 mg kg-1), and high Zn (49 mg kg-1), were planted in artificially contaminated soil (10 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Zinc (5 g kg-1) and biochar (20 g kg-1 soil) were applied alone or in combination at sowing. Cadmium contamination reduced wheat growth, productivity, and grain Zn concentration, relative to the respective no-Cd treatments, with greater reductions in plants with low intrinsic Zn. Among the soil amendments, Zn and/or biochar improved wheat productivity and grain Zn and reduced grain Cd concentration in plants grown from seed with varying intrinsic Zn levels. Plants from high intrinsic Zn seeds performed better under Cd stress with the application of soil amendments than seeds with low or medium intrinsic Zn levels. The combined application of Zn and biochar had the highest increases in grain yield (9.51%) and grain Zn concentration (12.2%), relative to the control (no Cd, no Zn, and no biochar). This treatment also decreased the Cd concentrations in straw (7.1%) and grain (95.6%). The sole application of Zn or biochar improved wheat productivity and grain Zn concentration and deceased grain Cd concentration under Cd stress, but more improvements resulted from the combined application of Zn and biochar. Plants grown from seed with high Zn were better able to tolerate Cd stress than the plants raised from seeds with medium and low Zn levels.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/fisiologia , Zinco/análise , Pão , Cádmio/química , Carvão Vegetal , Grão Comestível/química , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Sementes/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127467, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663755

RESUMO

The mood pyramid of cocoa, which was previously proposed as a new concept, consists of four levels (flavan-3-ols, methylxanthines, minor compounds and orosensory properties). Roasting is a crucial process for flavor development in cocoa but is likely to have a negative impact on the phytochemicals. We investigated the effect of roasting time (10-50 min) and temperature (110-160 °C) on the potential mood-enhancing compounds corresponding to the distinct mood pyramid levels. Phytochemicals were analyzed using UPLC-HRMS, while the flavor was mapped via aroma (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and generic descriptive analysis (trained panel). Results revealed that roasting at 130 °C for 30 min did not significantly affect the levels of epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and theobromine, while salsolinol significantly increased. Moreover, bitterness and astringency were reduced and the desired cocoa flavor was developed. Thus, through selection of appropriate roasting time and temperature conditions phytochemicals of interest could be retained without comprising the flavor.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Culinária/métodos , Sementes/química , Biflavonoides/química , Catequina/química , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Polifenóis/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Paladar
13.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 813-819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602767

RESUMO

The use of vegetable waste and its screening for potential cytotoxicity is of utmost importance to ensure its safe use in the feed industry for fish and other animals. We evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cooked Araucaria angustifolia seed coats. The Stiasny index for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2.87% ± 0.03% and 60.53% ± 4.79%, respectively. Condensed tannins were 11-fold higher in the ethanolic extract than the aqueous extract. The flavonoid and polyphenol contents were 1.7- and 1.8-fold higher in the ethanolic extract than in the aqueous extract, respectively. The 36 h EC50 for brine shrimp hatchability was 300.32 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and 76.60 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract. The 24 h LC50 was 1405.96 µg/mL for the aqueous extract, and it was 356.32 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract. The aqueous extract was nontoxic to A. salina nauplii, and therefore, it can be used as a possible food additive in fish feed. The results also demonstrated that the different solvents used in the extraction affected the yield and the total phenolic, total flavonoid, and condensed tannin content. Further in vivo and cell line cytotoxicity testing is recommended to substantiate these findings.


Assuntos
Araucaria/química , Artemia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/fisiologia , Culinária , Flavonoides/análise , Dose Letal Mediana , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Solventes/química , Taninos/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39402-39412, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642904

RESUMO

The present study focused on the full valorization of the tomato by-product, also known as tomato pomace consisting mainly of tomato peels and tomato seeds, by recovering natural antioxidants and edible oil, and subsequently reutilizing the leftover solid residues for the production of low-cost biosorbent. The tomato peel extract recovered using ethanol as food-grade solvent contained high phenol and flavonoid contents (199.35 ± 0.35-mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and 102.10 ± 0.03-mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g, respectively). Even its lower content of lycopene (3.67 ± 0.04 mg/100 g), tomato peel extract showed potent antioxidant activity and can be therefore used as natural antioxidants either for food or cosmetic applications. High nutritional quality edible oil (17.15%) was extracted from tomato seeds and showed richness in unsaturated fatty acids (74.62%), with linoleic acid being the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (49.70%). After recovery of these valuable compounds, the extraction solid leftovers were used to produce low-cost biosorbent tested for dye removal. Results showed that the highest biosorption yields were increasingly attributed to the acidic, direct, anthraquinone, then reactive dyes. Overall, the obtained results strongly support the complete utilization of tomato pomace for the recovery of valuable compounds and the sequential production of low-cost biosorbent.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Antioxidantes , Licopeno , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes/química
15.
Food Chem ; 333: 127531, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679420

RESUMO

The effect of roasting of chia seed at different temperatures (90, 120, 150 and 180 °C) on bioactive constituents in extracts and on the quality of oil was evaluated. At higher temperatures, crude protein and ash contents increased, whereas total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, and antioxidant activities decreased. The predominant phenolic constituents were myrcetin, and rosmarinic, 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and gallic acids, which all decreased with increasing temperatures. Notably, myrcetin content ranged from 75.59 mg/100 g (at 100 °C) to 85.49 mg/100 g (for control). Tocopherols (É£ and α type) were predominant nutrients and their levels ranged from 654.86 mg/100 g (at 180 °C) to 698.32 mg/100 g (for control). Concentrations of linolenic (59.84%), linoleic (20.57%), and oleic (10.09%) acids from unroasted chia seeds were higher than those from roasted ones. This study revealed that chia seeds should be heated at temperatures below or equal to 90 °C in order to preserve their nutrient profile.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais/química , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos
16.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2461-2470, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607724

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to study the effect of bacteria inhabiting in buffalo dung on nutritional properties of soil and plant. Three beneficial bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter xiangfangensis were isolated from buffalo dung to evaluate for their effects individually as well as in consortium. The combined effect of P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa showed a significant enhancement in different biological parameters of Foeniculum vulgare such as primary branch (99.32%), secondary branch (98.32%), number of umbels (87.62%), number of umbellets (99.85%), number of seeds (104.94%), grain yield (62.38%), biological yield (35.99%), and harvest index (19.48%). Consortium of these potent bacteria also enhanced proximate constituents such as total ash (49.79%), ether extract (63.06%), crude fibre (48.91%), moisture content (33.40%), dry matter (31.45%), acid insoluble ash (33.20%), and crude protein (40.73%). A highly significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) was found between nitrogen (r = 0.97), phosphorous (r = 0.95), and potassium (r = 0.97) contents of soil. This research enhances the knowledge of the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on nutrient properties of soil and fennel which deliver a new index for healthier use in organic agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fezes/microbiologia , Foeniculum/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Búfalos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Solo/química
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2569-2578, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671418

RESUMO

This study screened mastic gum (Pistacia lentiscus L.) for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), coxsackievirus type B3, and adenovirus type 5. The organs of this plant (leaves, stem, and seed) were macerated sequentially using solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol). Only the methanol extract of stem exhibited significant activity against HSV-2. This extract showed anti-HSV-2 activity with a selectivity index of 51 (50% cytotoxic concentration = 186 µg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration = 3.63 µg/mL), and demonstrated direct inhibition against this virus with a virucidal selectivity index of 620 (50% virucidal concentration = 0.30 µg/mL). A bio-guided assay involving thin-layer chromatography led to the isolation of two active compounds, which have been identified as dammaradienone and dammaradienol using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. P. lentiscus has been widely studied for other biological activities. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of P. lentiscus L. exhibiting antiviral activity.


Assuntos
Pistacia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Enterovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Sementes/química , Solventes/química
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555603

RESUMO

Plants respond to changes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation both morphologically and physiologically. Among the variety of plant UV-responses, the synthesis of UV-absorbing flavonoids constitutes an effective non-enzymatic mechanism to mitigate photoinhibitory and photooxidative damage caused by UV stress, either reducing the penetration of incident UV radiation or acting as quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we designed a UV-exclusion experiment to investigate the effects of UV radiation in Silene littorea. We spectrophotometrically quantified concentrations of both anthocyanins and UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in petals, calyces, leaves and stems. Furthermore, we analyzed the UV effect on the photosynthetic activity in hours of maximum solar radiation and we tested the impact of UV radiation on male and female reproductive performance. We found that anthocyanin concentrations showed a significant decrease of about 20% with UV-exclusion in petals and stems, and a 30% decrease in calyces. The concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds under UV-exclusion decreased by approximately 25% in calyces and stems, and 12% in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of plants grown under UV decreased at maximum light stress, reaching an inhibition of 58% of photosynthetic activity, but their ability to recover after light-stress was not affected. In addition, exposure to UV radiation did not affect ovule production or seed set per flower, but decreased pollen production and total seed production per plant by 31% and 69%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that UV exposure produced opposing effects on the accumulation of plant phenolic compounds and reproduction. UV radiation increased the concentration of phenolic compounds, suggesting a photoprotective role of plant phenolics against UV light, yet overall reproduction was compromised.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Silene/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/efeitos da radiação
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 33307-33320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529627

RESUMO

Wastes from the Pacara Earpod tree (Enterolobium contortisilquum) and Ironwood (Caesalpinia leiostachya) seeds were studied as biosorbents for the removal of basic fuchsin from waters. Both biosorbents were prepared and characterized by different analytical methods. The characterization data showed that both materials were mainly composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. Both biosorbents exhibited roughened surfaces and surface functional groups such as C-H, C=O, C=C, C-O, C-N, and OH bonds. Furthermore, the XRD pattern shows an amorphous phase with a wide peak from 10 to 30° due to the lignin. In terms of dosage and pH, the use of 1 g L-1 and 9.0, respectively, is recommended. The initial concentrations for the biosorption kinetics ranged from 50 to 500 mg L-1, where the Pacara ear and the Ironwood reached an adsorption capacity of 145.62 and 100.743 mg g-1 for the 500 mg L-1. The pseudo-second-order was found to be the proper model for describing biosorption of basic fuchsin onto Pacara Earpod tree and Ironwood, respectively. For the isotherm experiments, the maximum experimental biosorption capacity was found to be 166.858 and 110.317 mg g-1 for the Pacara Earpod and Ironwood for the initial concentration of 500 mg L-1 at 328 K. The Langmuir and the Tóth models were the best for representing the equilibrium curves for the basic fuchsin on the Pacara Earpod and the Ironwood, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities of 177.084 mg g-1 and 136.526 mg g-1 were achieved for the Pacara Earpod tree and Ironwood, respectively. The biosorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and favorable for both biosorbents. The biosorbents were also applied for coloration removal of simulated textile effluents, reaching 66% and 54% for the Pacara Earpod and Ironwood, respectively. For the final application, the materials were used in fixed-bed biosorption, with an initial concentration of 200 mg L-1, reaching breakthrough times of 710 and 415 min, leading to biosorption capacities of the column of 124.5 and 76.5 mg g-1, for the Pacara Earpod and Ironwood, respectively.


Assuntos
Caesalpinia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Corantes de Rosanilina , Sementes/química , Termodinâmica , Árvores
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525930

RESUMO

As rice is an important staple food globally, research for development and enhancement of its nutritional value it is an imperative task. Identification of nutrient enriched rice germplasm and exploiting them for breeding programme is the easiest way to develop better quality rice. In this study, we analyzed 113 aromatic rice germplasm in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underpinning nutrition components and determined by measuring the normal frequency distribution for Fe, Zn, amylose, and protein content in those rice germplasm. Comparatively, the germplasm Radhuni pagal, Kalobakri, Thakurbhog (26.6 ppm) and Hatisail exhibited the highest mean values for Fe (16.9 ppm), Zn (34.1 ppm), amylose (26.6 ppm) and protein content (11.0 ppm), respectively. Moreover, a significant linear relationship (R2 = 0.693) was observed between Fe and Zn contents. Cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis D2 distances revealed four major clusters of 113 rice germplasm, with cluster III containing a maximum 37 germplasm and a maximum inter-cluster distance between clusters III and IV. The 45 polymorphic SSRs and four trait associations exhibited eight significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on eight different chromosomes using composite interval mapping (CIM). The highly significant QTL (variance 7.89%, LOD 2.02) for protein content (QTL.pro.1) was observed on chromosome 1 at 94.9cM position. Also, four QTLs for amylose content were observed with the highly significant QTL.amy.8 located on chromosome 8 exhibiting 7.2% variance with LOD 1.83. Only one QTL (QTL.Fe.9) for Fe content was located on chromosome 9 (LOD 1.24), and two (QTL.Zn.4 and QTL.Zn.5) for Zn on chromosome 4 (LOD 1.71) and 5 (LOD 1.18), respectively. Overall, germplasm from clusters III and IV might offer higher heterotic response with the identified QTLs playing a significant role in any rice biofortification breeding program and released with development of new varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Amilose/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Ferro/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/classificação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Análise de Regressão , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Zinco/análise
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