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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110321, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061978

RESUMO

Day to day consumption of black pepper raise concern about the detailed information about their medicinal, pharmaceutical values and knowledge about the biocompatibility with respect to ecosystem. This study investigates the in vivo selective molecular biocompatibility of its seed cover (SC) and seed core (SP) powder extract using embryonic zebrafish model. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of the extract prepared by grinding showed presence of different components with "piperine" as principle component. Biocompatibility analysis showed dose and time dependent selective effect of SC and SP with LC50 of 30.4 µg/ml and 35.6 µg/ml, respectively on survivability, hatching and heartbeat rate in embryonic zebrafish. Mechanistic investigation elucidated it as effect of accumulation and internalization of black pepper leading to their influence on structure and function of cellular proteins hatching enzyme (he1a), superoxide dismutase (sod1) and tumor protein (tp53) responsible for delayed hatching, oxidative stress induction and apoptosis. The study provided insight to selective biocompatibility of black pepper expedient to produce higher quality spices with respect to pharmaceutical, clinical and environmental aspects.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzodioxóis/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper nigrum/toxicidade , Piperidinas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Alcaloides/análise , Animais , Benzodioxóis/análise , Piper nigrum/química , Piper nigrum/embriologia , Piperidinas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/química , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
2.
J Complement Integr Med ; 16(4)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348760

RESUMO

Background and objective The plethora of anti-diabetic agents available today has many side effects, especially on chronic usage. Hence, alternative approaches utilizing natural and synthetic agents are sought after. Cumin has been shown to be beneficial in treating diabetes. This study evaluates the anti-diabetic effect of cumin and glyburide in the streptozotocin induced diabetes model in rats, and investigates their pharmacodynamic interactions and its implication in diabetes. Methodology The phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic cumin seed extract were determined using appropriate analytical methods. After acute toxicity studies (OECD 2001), the anti-diabetic effect of the extract was evaluated in wistar rats. The rats were divided into five groups - Groups I and II served as the normal and diabetic control. Group III was the standard control (glyburide 5 mg/kg), while groups IV and V received the extract (600 mg/kg) and a combination of the extract (600 mg/kg) and glyburide (2.5 mg/kg; half dose). Biochemical parameters viz. plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin, were measured periodically during the 28 day treatment. On the 28th day, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, renal profile and histopathological evaluation were performed after completion of the study. To investigate the nature of herb-drug interaction, HPLC analysis for estimation of glyburide concentration in the blood was conducted. Results Acute toxicity studies showed the extract to be safe till a dose of 2 g/kg. The extract alone, and in combination with glyburide (half-dose), significantly lowered elevated glucose (by more than 45% from baseline; without producing hypoglycemia), and other lipid and renal parameters. The effects produced by 2.5 mg/kg glyburide, and 5 mg/kg glyburide (without extract) were similar. Histopathological analysis also showed that the extract was able to reverse the degeneration brought about by streptozotocin which was especially notable on the pancreatic and renal tissue. HPLC analysis revealed differing pharmacokinetics of glyburide in the groups treated with 5 mg/kg dose, and 2.5 mg/kg + 600 mg/kg extract. Conclusion The results obtained in this study suggest that Cuminum cyminum L. is a promising anti-diabetic agent, and exhibits pharmacodynamic interaction with glyburide to mitigate symptoms of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Cuminum/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Glibureto/farmacocinética , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Sementes/química , Animais , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Cuminum/toxicidade , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10220, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308439

RESUMO

Edible/non-toxic varieties of Jatropha curcas L. are gaining increasing attention, providing both oil as biofuel feedstock or even as edible oil and the seed kernel meal as animal feed ingredient. They are a viable alternative to the limitation posed by the presence of phorbol esters in toxic varieties. Accurate genotyping of toxic/non-toxic accessions is critical to breeding management. The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers linked to seed toxicity in J. curcas. For SNP discovery, NGS technology was used to sequence the whole genomes of a toxic and non-toxic parent along with a bulk of 51 toxic and 30 non-toxic F2 plants. To ascertain the association between SNP markers and seed toxicity trait, candidate SNPs were genotyped on 672 individuals segregating for seed toxicity and two collections of J. curcas composed of 96 individuals each. In silico SNP discovery approaches led to the identification of 64 candidate SNPs discriminating non-toxic and toxic samples. These SNPs were mapped on Chromosome 8 within the Linkage Group 8 previously identified as a genomic region important for phorbol ester biosynthesis. The association study identified two new SNPs, SNP_J22 and SNP_J24 significantly linked to low toxicity with R2 values of 0.75 and 0.54, respectively. Our study released two valuable SNP markers for high-throughput, marker-assisted breeding of seed toxicity in J. curcas.


Assuntos
Jatropha/genética , Jatropha/toxicidade , Sementes/toxicidade , Biocombustíveis/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Ligação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sementes/genética
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 184, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) has attracted the focus of researchers owing to its excellent anti-diabetic action. The beneficial effect of Momordica charantia on heart has been reported by in vitro and in vivo studies. However the developmental toxicity or potential risk of M. charantia on fetus heart development is largely unknown. Hence this study was designed to find out the developmental toxicity of M. charantia using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. METHODS: The crude extracts were prepared from fruit and seeds of M. charantia. The Zebrafish embryos were exposed to serial dilution of each of the crude extract. The biologically active fractions were fractionated by C18 column using high pressure liquid chromatography. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry was done to identify chemical constituents in fruit and seed extract of M. charantia. RESULTS: The seed extract of M. charantia was lethal with LD50 values of 50 µg/ml to zebrafish embryos and multiple anomalies were observed in zebrafish embryos at sub-lethal concentration. However, the fruit extract was much safe and exposing the zebrafish embryos even to 200 µg/ml did not result any lethality. The fruit extract induced severe cardiac hypertrophy in treated embryos. The time window treatment showed that M. charantia perturbed the cardiac myoblast specification process in treated zebrafish embryos. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses revealed diverse chemical group in the active fruit fraction and five new type of compounds were identified in the crude seeds extract of M. charantia by gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry. CONCLUSION: The teratogenicity of seeds extract and cardiac toxicity by the fruit extract of M. charantia warned that the supplementation made from the fruit and seeds of M. charantia should be used with much care in pregnant diabetic patients to avoid possible damage to developing fetus.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/toxicidade , Humanos , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Momordica charantia/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/toxicidade
5.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Toxicon ; 158: 47-50, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471379

RESUMO

Toxic plants containing monofluoroacetate (MFA) cause sudden death in livestock in Australia, South Africa and Brazil, causing economic losses to producers. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of MFA present in young leaves, mature leaves, senescent leaves, and seeds of Amorimia pubiflora harvested at different times of the year and to determine their toxic effect on sheep. Samples of Amorimia pubiflora were collected during April, August and December of 2015 and March of 2016, separated according to the vegetative stage (young leaves, seeds, mature leaves, and senescent leaves), dried in an oven, and administered in daily doses of 5 g/kg/body weight (bw) of fresh leaves to sheep through ruminal cannulae. The experiment was divided into four stages according to the time of collection of the plant so that each sheep received a different vegetative stage of the plant (young leaves, mature leaves, and senescent leaves). Only in the second stage of the experiment was it possible to collect A. pubiflora seeds, which were administered using the same method used for the administration of the leaves. The sheep were dosed with the plant until they showed clinical signs of toxicosis or until the plant was no longer available. Aliquots of leaves and seeds of A. pubiflora were analyzed for MFA concentration. The seeds and young leaves had higher concentrations of MFA than did the mature (harvested in August and December) and senescent (harvested in December) leaves. However, all vegetative stages of the plant were toxic and caused fatal poisoning. The results of our study showed that A. pubiflora is toxic to sheep even when MFA concentrations are low, demonstrating that the presence of this substance is a risk factor for the occurrence of poisoning. Knowing the toxic principle and its variations allow us to determine the conditions for the occurrence of plant toxicosis as well as possible treatment, control, and prophylaxis methods, contributing significantly to the reduction of economic losses on farms due to plant poisoning.


Assuntos
Fluoracetatos/análise , Malpighiaceae/toxicidade , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Animais , Brasil , Malpighiaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Sementes/toxicidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/induzido quimicamente , Carneiro Doméstico
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(11): 2510-2522, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498277

RESUMO

Jatropha curcas is an important oilseed plant, with considerable potential in the development of biodiesel. Although Jatropha seed cake, the byproduct of oil extraction, is a residue rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon, with high protein content suitable for application in animal feed, the presence of toxic phorbol esters limits its application in feed supplements and fertilizers. This review summarizes the current methods available for detoxification of this residue, based upon chemical, physical, biological, or combined processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed, and future directions involving genomic and proteomic approaches for advancing our understanding of biodegradation processes involving microorganisms are highlighted.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Jatropha/química , Ésteres de Forbol/isolamento & purificação , Ração Animal/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Jatropha/toxicidade , Ésteres de Forbol/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Sementes/toxicidade , Resíduos/análise
8.
Nutrients ; 10(3)2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547558

RESUMO

Coffee roasting affects the taste, color, and aroma of coffee. The Maillard reaction, a major reaction during the roasting process, produces melanoidin, which affects the overall antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee. In this experiment, coffee roasting was divided into four degrees: Light, Medium, City, and French. To examine the in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts with different roasting degrees, we used 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were pre-treated with coffee extracts for 10 days by oral gavage (300 mg/Kg.B.W). After the last pre-treatment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/Kg.B.W) was injected intraperitoneally for immune stimulation. Histopathological analysis showed that hepatic portal vein invasion and liver necrosis were severe in the LPS-treated group. However, these phenomena were greatly ameliorated when mice were pre-treated with Light- or Medium-roasted coffee extracts. Hepatic glutathione level was increased in the French group but decreased in the LPS-stimulated group. When mice were treated with LPS, mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was increased, whereas TNF-α expression was significantly reduced in the Light and Medium groups. Treatment with coffee extracts decreased the mRNA expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mice stimulated by LPS, regardless of coffee roasting degrees. These effects decreased with the increasing coffee roasting degree. Results of luciferase reporter assay revealed that these effects of coffee extracts were transcriptionally regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the roasting degree affects the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Coffea , Café , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Coffea/toxicidade , Café/química , Café/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/toxicidade , Choque Séptico/imunologia , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Choque Séptico/patologia
9.
Food Res Int ; 105: 982-988, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433297

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of green tea seed (GTS) extract as a natural preservative in food. Food preservative ability and mutagenicity studies of GTS extract and identification of antimicrobial compounds from GTS extract were carried out. The GTS extract showed only anti-yeast activity against Candida albicans with MIC value of 938µg/mL and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with a MIC of 469µg/mL. The active compounds were identified as theasaponin E1 (1), assamsaponin A (2), and assamsaponin B (3). And GTS extracts didn't show mutagenicity because there were no dose-dependent changes in colonies of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA regardless of the metabolic activation system. And GTS extract also showed a potent food preservation affect which eliminated all yeast below the MIC value in application test at soy sauce. Overall, these results indicate that GTS extract could be a safe and effective food preservative with anti-yeast activity.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Camellia sinensis/toxicidade , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservantes de Alimentos/isolamento & purificação , Conservantes de Alimentos/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/farmacologia , Sementes/toxicidade , Zygosaccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Zygosaccharomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Diet Suppl ; 15(3): 352-364, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956681

RESUMO

The Dietary Supplements and Health Education Act (DSHEA), passed by the United States Congress in October of 1994, defines herbal products as nutritional supplements, not medications. This opened the market for diverse products made from plants, including teas, extracts, essential oils, and syrups. Mexico and the United States share an extensive border, where diverse herbal products are available to the public without a medical prescription. Research undertaken in the neighboring cities of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, shows the use of herbs is higher in this border area compared to the rest of the United States. A portion of the population is still under the erroneous impression that "natural" products are completely safe to use and therefore lack side effects. We review the dangers of ingesting the toxic seed of Thevetia spp. (family Apocynaceae), commonly known as "yellow oleander" or "codo de fraile," misleadingly advertised on the Internet as an effective and safe dietary supplement for weight loss. Lack of proper quality control regarding herbs generates a great variability in the quantity and quality of the products' content. Herb-drug interactions occur between some herbal products and certain prescription pharmaceuticals. Certain herbs recently introduced into the U.S. market may not have been previously tested adequately for purity, safety, and efficacy. Due to the lack of reliable clinical data regarding the safe use of various herbal products currently available, the public should be made aware regarding the possible health hazards of using certain herbs for therapeutic purposes. The potentially fatal toxicity of yellow oleander seed is confirmed by cases reported from various countries, while the purported benefits of using it for weight loss have not been evaluated by any known clinical trials. For this reason, the use of yellow oleander seed as a dietary supplement should be avoided.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Sementes/toxicidade , Thevetia/toxicidade , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/economia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Fraude , Humanos , Internet , Legislação sobre Alimentos , México , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Plantas Tóxicas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Texas , Thevetia/química , Thevetia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 216: 251-258, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247697

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Seed kernel of the plant Ceasalpinia bonducella Linn (Caesalpiniacaeae) are used for the treatment of asthma in folk medicine and ancient books. AIM OF STUDY: To assess the pharmacological efficacy of the plant in asthma and to confine and describe the synthetic constituents from the seeds that are in charge of the action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The viability of petroleum ether, ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of C. bonducella seeds were screened for the treatment of asthma by various methods viz. effect of test drug on clonidine and haloperidol induced catalepsy, milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, mast cell stabilizing activity in mice and studies on smooth muscle preparation of guinea pig ileum (in-vitro). Column chromatography of active extract was done to pinpoint the active compound followed by structure elucidation by FTIR, GCMS and NMR spectroscopic methods. RESULTS: Ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of C. bonducella seeds exhibited antihistaminic activity at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg, inhibited clonidine-induced catalepsy but not haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract significantly inhibited increased leukocyte and eosinophil count due to milk allergen and showed maximum protection against mast cell degranulation by clonidine. The results of guinea pig ileum indicated that the compound 2 methyl, 1 hexadecanol isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract relaxed significantly the ileum muscle strips pre-contracted by which suggests the involvement of ß2-agonists on the relaxation of the tissue. All the results are dose dependent. Active ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract showed presence of anti-asthmatic compound, 2-methyl, 1-hexadecanol. CONCLUSION: The ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of seeds of the plant C. bonducella can inhibit parameters linked to asthma disease.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Caesalpinia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Acetatos/química , Animais , Antialérgicos/isolamento & purificação , Antialérgicos/toxicidade , Antiasmáticos/isolamento & purificação , Antiasmáticos/toxicidade , Caesalpinia/química , Caesalpinia/toxicidade , Catalepsia/induzido quimicamente , Catalepsia/prevenção & controle , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonidina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eosinofilia/induzido quimicamente , Eosinofilia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Cobaias , Haloperidol , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/isolamento & purificação , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/toxicidade , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Leucocitose/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Leite , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/toxicidade , Solventes/química , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(21): 4074-4078, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271142

RESUMO

In this study, the authors reviewed domestic and foreign literatures, conducted the textual research on origin and development of Cassia Semen, studied records in ancient books and ancient and modern literatures, clinical adverse reactions and relevant experimental studies in recent years, and summarized the clinical features and influencing factors related to the safety of Cassiae Semen. According to the findings,Cassia Semen's safety risks are mainly liver and kidney system damages, with the main clinical features of fatigue, anorexia, disgusting of oil, yellow urine and gray stool; digestive system injury, with the main clinical features of diarrhea, abdominal distension, nausea and loose stool; reproductive system damage, with the main clinical features of vaginal bleeding. Allergic reactions and clinical adverse events, with the main clinical features for numb mouth, itching skin, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing and lip cyanosis were also reported. The toxicological studies on toxic components of Cassiae Semen obtusifolia were carried out through acute toxicity test, subacute toxicity test, subchronic toxicity test and chronic toxicity test. Risk factors might include patients, compatibility and physicians. Physicians should strictly abide by the medication requirements in the Pharmacopoeia, pay attention to rational compatibility, appropriate dosage,correct usage and appropriate processing, control the dosage below 15 g to avoid excessive intake, strictly control the course of treatment to avoid accumulated poisoning caused by long-term administration. At the same time, clinicians should pay attention to the latest research progress, update the knowledge structure, quickly find the latest and useful materials from clinical practice, scientific research and drug information and other literatures, make evaluation and judgment for the materials, establish a traditional Chinese medicine intelligence information library, and strengthen the control over adverse effects with a pre-warning consciousness. The authors suggested standardizing clinical medication of Cassiae Semen, and avoiding misuse or excessive use; clinicians should prescribe it in strict accordance with there commended usage and dosage in the Pharmacopoeia, and focus on the safety signal accumulation in clinic, while strengthening studies for toxic substance basis and toxicity mechanism, in order to give full play to Cassiae Semen's clinical efficacy and reduce its adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Cassia/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
13.
Med Lav ; 108(5): 349-57, 2017 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green coffee workers can develop allergic symptoms due to green coffee beans (GCB) or to castor bean (CB) that can contaminate sacks used for the transportation. Data are limited in literature and a previous study performed in Trieste demonstrated allergic symptoms in 14.3% of dockworkers handling GCB. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate symptoms and exposure to GCB ultrafine particles in Trieste dockworkers. METHODS: Workers involved in GCB sacks transportation, storage and opening were asked to fill out a questionnaire on allergic respiratory symptoms. They performed a spirometry test and an evaluation of NO exhaled breath condensate. Inhalable and respirable dust exposures were evaluated by means of personal and environmental pumps. Ultrafine particles exposure was evaluated by means of portable particles counter DISCMini. RESULTS: Between the 40 dockworkers exposed to GCB, 28 participated in the study (70%). Five (17.9%) reported personal allergy symptoms and two workers (7.1%) reported allergic oculorhinitis during work. One subject had symptoms only with Tanzania sacks and he resulted sensitized to CB. Workplace dust evaluation demonstrated values below Threshold Limit Values, but some work tasks were associated with exposure to more than 40,000 ultrafine particles with a geometric mean size of 37.2±1.35 nm. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of allergic symptoms in GCB workers was low but the presence of peaks of ultrafine particles exposure suggests the need to protect workers from exposure, limiting powder dispersion, avoiding the unloading of sacks inside the container and suggesting personal protective equipment regular use (FFP3).


Assuntos
Coffea/toxicidade , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sementes/toxicidade , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Avaliação de Sintomas
14.
J Anim Sci ; 95(4): 1537-1544, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464107

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rumen-protected arginine on median caudal artery blood flow and LH dynamics in cows fed toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue seed. Four ruminally cannulated nonlactating beef cows (539 ± 30 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments utilizing a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 31 d each. Each cow was assigned to individual pens and fed orchardgrass hay (10.3% CP and 85% NDF; OM basis) during a 10-d adaptation period, followed by a 21-d collection period in which each cow was assigned 1 of 4 treatments: 1) rumen-protected Arg (180 mg/kg of BW) and 1.0 kg/d of toxic endophyte-infected fescue seed (AE+), 2) rumen-protected Arg (180 mg/kg of BW) and 1.0 kg/d of endophyte-free fescue seed (AE-), 3) 1.0 kg/d of toxic endophyte-infected fescue seed (E+) alone, or 4) 1.0 kg/d of endophyte-free fescue seed (E-) alone. In each period, Doppler ultrasound measurements for blood flow parameters were quantified on d 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20. On d 20 of each period, blood samples were collected every 10 min for 6 h and then once every hour for 12 h for LH response following exogenous GnRH. There was an Arg × fescue seed type interaction ( = 0.05) for median caudal artery blood flow due to an increase in blood flow in cows fed rumen-protected Arg with endophyte-free fescue seed. In addition, mean blood flow velocity in the artery was greater ( = 0.01) with the inclusion of rumen-protected Arg in the diet. Median caudal artery area ( = 0.03) and diameter ( = 0.01) were decreased in cows consuming E+ compared to those consuming E- with no effect ( ≥ 0.38) by Arg inclusion. Circulating nitric oxide (NO) concentrations tended to be influenced ( = 0.09) by the interaction of Arg × fescue seed type with E+ alone decreasing NO concentrations. Circulating NO concentrations were unaffected by rumen-protected Arg ( = 0.48). Mean serum LH concentration exhibited ( = 0.02) an Arg × fescue seed type interaction. Cows consuming E+ had decreased ( < 0.05) LH concentrations compared to all other treatments. However, cows consuming AE+ had ( ≥ 0.67) LH concentrations similar to those of cows consuming AE- and E-. Thus, supplementing rumen-protected Arg to cows consuming toxic endophyte-infected fescue seed has the potential to increase reproductive performance and peripheral blood flow.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Festuca/toxicidade , Hormônio Luteinizante/análise , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Endófitos , Feminino , Festuca/microbiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/toxicidade
15.
Avian Pathol ; 46(3): 332-337, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161970

RESUMO

Senna occidentalis is a toxic leguminous plant found in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes poisoning mainly in confined animals. The seeds are the most toxic part of the plant and may be present in animal rations. The main toxic component of the S. occidentalis seed is a dianthrone, an anthraquinone-derived compound that affects mitochondrial function. This study evaluated the effects on egg production of low-level contamination of the S. occidentalis in the laying hens' diet. Forty-eight one-day-old pullets were randomly allocated into two treatment groups: control, birds that received no experimental treatment; and external and internal tegument (ET/IT), birds that received a diet containing 0.2% of ET/IT of S. occidentalis seeds throughout their life cycle (42 weeks). The birds were monitored for clinical signs of poisoning, and the production and quality of eggs were recorded. Necropsies were conducted at the end of the experimental period. None of the layers showed any clinical signs of poisoning, decreases in feed intake or alterations of the body weight gain. A marked reduction in egg production and, consequently, a lower feed efficiency in ET/IT group were measured. Ovaries were the most affected organ in birds from the ET/IT group, and yolk leaking and dysplasia of the inner layer of the vitelline membrane were observed. S. occidentalis was shown to be toxic for laying hens. Considering these results, it is feasible to assume that the constant presence of low concentrations of S. occidentalis seeds in rations represents a threat to the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Sementes/toxicidade , Senna (Planta)/toxicidade , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ovos , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 57(1): 18-34, 2017 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26528824

RESUMO

Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Saúde Global , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Especiarias/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Micotoxinas/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/microbiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/toxicidade , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Comestíveis/microbiologia , Plantas Comestíveis/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/microbiologia , Rizoma/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/toxicidade , Especiarias/efeitos adversos , Especiarias/normas
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 64(8): 611-3, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27688289

RESUMO

Custard apple seeds have been used in native medicine from time immemorial for the management of head lice and skin exfoliation. We report six consecutive patients who developed toxic keratoconjunctivitis within 6-12 h of ocular exposure to custard apple seeds. The use of topical steroid worsens the toxicity and predisposes to the development of microbial keratitis in such cases. Patients showed a good response to primary treatment with topical fortified antibiotics and lubricants. This case series highlights the need to educate the patients regarding the potential toxic effects of the custard seeds and the treating physicians about possible deleterious effects on using topical steroid.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Ceratoconjuntivite/induzido quimicamente , Sementes/toxicidade , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratoconjuntivite/diagnóstico , Ceratoconjuntivite/tratamento farmacológico , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos , Pomadas
18.
Ecotoxicology ; 25(9): 1679-1690, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709397

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km2 in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location. Of these locations, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields, while the other three locations were situated 100 m distant from the nearest oilseed rape field. At each location, 1500 cocoons of O. bicornis were placed into the central nesting shelter. During the exposure phase, nest building activities and foraging behaviour were assessed repeatedly. Cocoons were harvested in autumn to assess parasitization and reproduction including larval development. The following spring, the emergence of the next generation of adults from cocoons was monitored. High reproductive output and low parasitization rates indicated that Elado®-dressed oilseed rape did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of mason bees.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Brassica napus/química , Produtos Agrícolas , Alemanha , Neonicotinoides , Sementes/toxicidade
19.
Ecotoxicology ; 25(9): 1666-1678, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27678526

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado®-dressed winter oilseed rape (OSR, 10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed) on the development, reproduction and behaviour of large earth bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where OSR is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km2 in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and 10 bumble bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to OSR fields and three locations were situated 400 m distant from the nearest OSR field. The development of colonies was monitored from the beginning of OSR flowering in April until June 2014. Pollen from returning foragers was analysed for its composition. An average of 44 % of OSR pollen was found in pollen loads of bumble bees indicating that OSR was a major resource for the colonies. At the end of OSR flowering, hives were transferred to a nature reserve until the end of the study. Colony development in terms of hive weight and the number of workers showed a typical course with no statistically significant differences between the sites. Reproductive output was comparatively high and not negatively affected by the exposure to treated OSR. In summary, Elado®-dressed OSR did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of bumble bee colonies.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Brassica napus/química , Produtos Agrícolas , Alemanha , Neonicotinoides , Sementes/toxicidade
20.
Ecotoxicology ; 25(9): 1648-1665, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644949

RESUMO

Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Brassica napus/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Alemanha , Insetos/fisiologia , Neonicotinoides , Sementes/toxicidade
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