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1.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684123

RESUMO

Recent and growing literature has reported that oleuropein (OLE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and reduces the invasiveness properties of cancer cells; therefore, OLE may play a significant role in the development of new drugs for cancer treatment. These antineoplastic properties have been reported in many experimental cancer models, but the effect of OLE on seminoma cells is yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that OLE reduces cell viability in both intra- and extragonadal TCAM-2 and SEM-1 seminoma cells, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. As shown by Western-blot analysis, OLE exposure reduced cyclin-D1 expression and upregulated p21Cip/WAF1, concomitantly affecting the upstream pathway of NF-κB, leading to the reduction of its nuclear content, thereby suggesting that OLE could modulate cell-cycle regulators by inhibiting NF-κB. Moreover, Annexin V staining revealed that OLE induced apoptosis in cancer cells and upregulated the pro-apoptotic factor BAX. Through wound-healing scratch and transmigration assays, we also demonstrated that OLE significantly reduced the migration and motility of TCAM-2 and SEM-1 cells, and downregulated the expression of TGFß-1, which is known to be the main pro-fibrotic factor involved in the acquisition of the migratory and invasive properties of cancer cells. Collectively, our results indicate that OLE reduces seminoma cell proliferation, promotes apoptosis, and counteracts cell migration and motility. Further studies are needed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying these observed effects.


Assuntos
Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Iridoides/farmacologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B , Olea , Extratos Vegetais , Seminoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(17): e29117, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512069

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a sex differentiation syndrome that occurs in men and is characterized by the 47XXY genotype. An association between KS and cancer has also been reported. The occurrence of seminoma of the prostate in KS has not been reported in the literature to date. Primary seminoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of prostate neoplasms in patients with KS. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old man presenting with urinary retention was admitted to our hospital. Physical examination revealed sparse pubic hairs, atrophic testes, and an underdeveloped penis. Hormonal examination revealed significantly lowered serum testosterone levels and markedly higher follicle-stimulating hormone levels. A chromosomal examination was performed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging imaging showed a neoplasm in the left lobe of the prostate, and immunohistochemical examination of a transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed. DIAGNOSES: Chromosomal examination was exhibited a 47 XXY genotype. Histopathology and of Immunohistochemistry of the transrectal needle biopsy specimen confirmed a seminoma. No other neoplasm was found on systemic examination; therefore, the patient was diagnosed with primary prostate seminoma and Klinefelter syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: The patient refused any treatment except catheterization because of religious reason. OUTCOMES: The patient died 2 years later. LESSONS: Primary seminoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of neoplasms of the prostate in patients with KS. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy is essential for the diagnosis of prostate neoplasms, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy remains the primary treatment for seminoma.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Klinefelter , Neoplasias da Próstata , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Klinefelter/complicações , Síndrome de Klinefelter/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Klinefelter/genética , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Seminoma/complicações , Seminoma/diagnóstico , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/complicações , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico
3.
Pathologica ; 114(2): 121-127, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481562

RESUMO

The concept of "tigroid" background is used in cytology to describe a peculiar smear background characterized by the presence of a relatively granular, reticulated material that was described as "foamy, lazy, tiger-striped or astrakhan". It was used to describe the background seen in smears obtained from seminoma. In addition to seminoma, we now know that it can be present in different tumours, mostly carcinomas and round cell sarcomas. These share with seminoma a cytoplasm with high glycogen content and many times clear cell morphology. The "tigroid" background is seen when smears are air-dried and Romanowsky-based stains are used (May-Grunwald-Giemsa and Diff-Quik stains). It is only seen in fine needle aspiration or intraoperative squashing or scrapping samples, but not in specimens obtained from effusions or liquid-based cytology. Wet-fixed cytologic samples with alcohol or with formaldehyde tend to dissolve the background so it is not usually present in Papanicolaou stained smears. In this review, we discuss tumours in which the "tigroid" background is observed and its potential diagnostic utility and aetiology. It is interesting to remark that except for parathyroid adenoma and adenomatoid tumour all the neoplasms in which this background has been observed are malignant.


Assuntos
Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Citodiagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 25(1): 19-25, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography using fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/CT) is not routinely used for diagnosis of testicular carcinoma. Unlike CT which cannot confirm with certainty the nature of the lesions, especially in post-therapy setting, 18F-FDG PET/CT detects active disease by showing increased glucose metabolism within the lesions. AIM: Determination of 18F-FDG PET/CT usefulness in detection of seminoma, therapy response evaluation and comparison to CT findings and tumor marker levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-two men (age 39.8±10.1) after orchiectomy and histopathological confirmation of seminoma were included in this study. Indications for 18F-FDG PET/CT were initial staging, restaging after chemo/radiotherapy with positive/uncertain CT, suspected recurrence on CT, elevated tumor markers. All patients had clinical follow-up of up to 8 years (median 33.5) after the first 18F-FDG PET/CT examination. Degree of metabolic activity was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively using maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmax). RESULTS: Fluorine-18-FDG PET/CT was true positive in 36 patients (43.9%) with average SUVmax of 7.9±4.8.Recurrence was mostly found in retroperitoneal lymph nodes and distant metastases in lungs, bones, liver. Six findings were false positive and 3 false negative. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 92.3%, 86.0%, 89.0% and of CT 60.8%, 66.6%, 63.4%. Pearson Chi-square test showed statistically significant difference between the results of 18F-FDG PET/CT and CT (P=0.016). Significant correlation was found between positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings and levels of LDH (P=0.043), while non-significant between AFP, ß-hCG (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Fluorine-18-FDG PET/CT was superior to CT in evaluation of therapy response, active disease in residual tissue and normal size lymph nodes, as well as when CT was negative and tumor markers were elevated. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) contributes to positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Seminoma , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Seminoma/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Hum Pathol ; 124: 85-95, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378115

RESUMO

Most spermatocytic tumors (STs) have an excellent prognosis. In rare instances, metastatic disease has been documented. However, it is unclear if aggressive tumors have specific molecular alterations. Herein, we have studied primary STs with (n = 4) and without (n = 3) anaplastic features, including single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays for 5 ST (nonanaplastic: 3; anaplastic: 2). The mean age at orchiectomy and tumor size was 49 years and 6.5 cm, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion and necrosis were identified in 3 (of 4, 75%) anaplastic STs, including one with clinically metastatic disease and one with locally aggressive disease. None of the cases in this study exhibited sarcomatoid change. The mean mitotic count was higher in anaplastic tumors (59/10 versus 10/10 high-power fields). All STs in this study were positive for SALL4 and CD117 and negative for OCT3/4 and CD30 (7/7, 100%). SSX-C positivity was identified in all but the locally aggressive anaplastic ST (5 of 6, 83%). All STs showed a consistent gain of chromosome 9 including the locus for the DMRT1 gene (5 of 5 cases, 100%), while gains of chromosome 12p were only seen in 2 (of 2) anaplastic variants. Gains of 12p in anaplastic STs may represent a biomarker of transformation into more aggressive tumors. Alternatively, STs with gain of 12p may represent an intermediate state between type II and type III germ cell tumors. Future studies are needed to validate whether gain of 12p is a consistent feature of STs with anaplastic morphology and its association with aggressive clinical behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12 , Análise Citogenética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
6.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 126: 104761, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390309

RESUMO

The accurate identification of different components in testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) is essential for tailoring treatment and informing the clinical prognosis. PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma), a member in the family of cancer testis antigens, plays critical roles in regulating pluripotency and suppressing somatic/germ cell differentiation in seminomas (SEM). To investigate the potential diagnostic value of PRAME in testicular GCT, here we comparatively examined the expression patterns of PRAME and SOX17 by immunohistochemistry in both pure and mixed GCT. Tissue microarrays constructed from 66 pure or mixed GCT were examined, including 25 seminomas (13 pure and 12 mixed), 35 embryonal carcinomas (EC; 7 pure and 28 mixed), 23 teratomas (TER; 10 pure and 13 mixed), 15 yolk sac tumors (YST; 1 pure and 14 mixed), and 5 choriocarcinomas (CC; 1 pure and 4 mixed), with 11 germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and 6 normal testicular tissue as controls. The expression levels of PRAME or SOX17 were evaluated by a scoring system counting for intensity and extent of staining. PRAME nuclear expression was present in 92% (23/25) of SEM, including all 13 pure SEM, and 10 out of 12 seminomatous component of mixed GCT. In contrast, all EC and TER were completely negative for PRAME, and focal expression was demonstrated in 33.3% of YST and 20% of CC. As for SOX17, 96% of SEM and 73% of YST stained positively, whereas EC and CC were negative. Focal nuclear positivity was identified in the epithelial cell component of 17.4% (4/23) of TER. We found the sensitivity of PRAME to detect SEM to be comparable to SOX17, although SOX17 staining is more diffuse and stronger in the majority of cases. The specificity of PRAME for SEM appeared to be superior to that of SOX17 (92% versus 81%). In conclusion, PRAME is preferentially expressed in SEM or within the seminomatous component of mixed GCT with only focal variable expression in YST and CC, but shows no expression in EC and TER. These findings suggest that PRAME can be explored as a diagnostic marker for SEM.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Antígenos de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética , Seminoma/diagnóstico , Seminoma/genética , Seminoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo
7.
Urologe A ; 61(5): 484-494, 2022 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384479

RESUMO

Systematic follow-up examinations of patients cured of testicular cancer first gained attention by caregivers in the 1980s only after the management of the disease had significantly been improved by the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and almost synchronously, by the implementation of computerized tomography (CT) and serum tumor markers. Follow-up involves three aims: early diagnosis of recurrence, detection of treatment-related toxicity, and detection of secondary diseases. As the clinical presentation of testicular cancer is very heterogeneous, there is no uniform follow-up for the disease. Instead, risk-adapted follow-up schedules are required. Since the release of the German AWMF S3 guideline for the management of testicular cancer in 2019, high level evidence has accumulated for the noninferiority of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to CT with regard to abdominal imaging. Therefore, it is appropriate to modify the recommendations for follow-up given in the 2019 issue of the S3 guidelines. The modifications recommended herein relate to three issues: (1) Only three risk groups (instead of formerly four) are identified, i.e., seminoma (all stages); nonseminoma clinical stage 1b (i.e., pT2, with lymphovascular invasion) on surveillance; nonseminoma all other stages. All patients cured from poor risk disease or from relapses require individual follow-up schedules not included in the recommendations tabulated herein. (2) CT and abdominal sonography are replaced by MRI. (3) Chest X­ray imaging during follow-up of seminoma patients is no longer recommended.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Orquiectomia , Seminoma/tratamento farmacológico , Seminoma/terapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269507

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most common type of cancer in young men. Seminomas account for around half of them and are characterized by a pronounced infiltration of immune cells. So far, the impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME) on disease progression, especially the interaction of individual immune cell subtypes with the tumor cells, remains unclear. To address this question, we used an in vitro TME model involving the seminoma-derived cell line Tcam-2 and immune cell subsets purified from human peripheral blood. T cells and monocytes were strongly activated when individually cocultured with Tcam-2 cells as revealed by increased expression of activation markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines both on the mRNA and protein level. Importantly, the interaction between tumor and immune cells was mutual. Gene expression of pluripotency markers as well as markers of proliferation and cell cycle activity were upregulated in Tcam-2 cells in cocultures with T cells, whereas gene expression of SOX17, a marker for seminomas, was unaltered. Interestingly, the impact of monocytes on gene expression of Tcam-2 cells was less pronounced, indicating that the effects of individual immune cell subsets on tumor cells in the TME are highly specific. Collectively, our data indicate that seminoma cells induce immune cell activation and thereby generate a strong pro-inflammatory milieu, whereas T cells conversely increase the proliferation, metastatic potential, and stemness of tumor cells. Although the employed model does not fully mimic the physiological situation found in TGCC in vivo, it provides new insights potentially explaining the connection between inflammatory infiltrates in seminomas and their tendency to burn out and metastasize.


Assuntos
Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(1): 173-176, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300781

RESUMO

Androgen insensitivity syndrome(AIS)with bilateral testicular malignant transformation is very rare,and its diagnosis should be based on clinical manifestations,physical examination,serological findings,karyotype analysis,and pathological findings.This study reported a case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome among Tibetan in Tibet.It took 17 years from the discovery of congenital absence of uterus to bilateral pelvic mass resection.Pathological examination confirmed that bilateral pelvic space occupying lesions were dysplastic testicular tissue with seminoma and sertoli cell adenoma-like nodules.This study summarized the clinicopathological features to deepen the understanding of the disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos , Criptorquidismo , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/patologia , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Tibet
10.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 58, 2022 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low incidence of primary mediastinal seminomas has precluded the development of clinical trials on mediastinal seminomas. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics, prognosis of patients with primary mediastinal seminomas as well as the efficiency of nonsurgical treatments compared with treatments containing surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments, toxicities, and survival of 27 patients from a single center between 2000 and 2018. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they received operation. Survivals were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analysis was performed using the log-rank test. RESULTS: The median age was 28 (13-63) years. The most common symptoms were chest pain (29.6%), cough (25.9%), and dyspnea (22.2%). There were 13 and 14 patients in surgery and non-surgery group. Patients in the non-surgical group were more likely to be with poor performance scores (100% vs. 76.9%) and disease invaded to adjacent structures (100% vs. 76.9%) especially great vessels (100% vs. 46.2%).The median follow-up period was 32.23 (2.7-198.2) months. There was no significant difference of overall survival (5-year 100% vs. 100%), cancer-specific survival (5-year 100% vs. 100%), local regional survival (5-year 91.7% vs. 90.0%, p = 0.948), distant metastasis survival (5-year 90.9% vs. 100.0%, p = 0.340) and progression-free survival (82.5% vs. 90.0%, p = 0.245) between patients with and without surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Primary mediastinal seminoma was with favorable prognosis, even though frequently invasion into adjacent structures brings difficulties to surgery administration. Chemoradiotherapy is an alternative treatment with both efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Mediastino , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimiorradioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/patologia , Seminoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurology ; 98(13): 543-549, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121670

RESUMO

There is an increasing body of evidence describing an association between anti-Kelch-like protein 11 (KLHL11) encephalitis and various tumors such as seminoma. However, when the diagnosis of neoplasia is uncertain and the clinical syndrome resembles those caused by other etiologies, the possibility of anti-KLHL11 encephalitis may not be obvious during early clinical evaluations. We present the case of a 68-year-old man with clinical features of anti-KLHL11 encephalitis, in whom no clear signs of an active neoplasia could be found. However, a burnt-out germ cell tumor was suspected. This case highlights the importance of having a high clinical suspicion for anti-KLHL11 encephalitis in patients who exhibit symptoms and signs, even in the absence of an active tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Idoso , Autoanticorpos , Raciocínio Clínico , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Clin Lab ; 68(2)2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2017 WHO classification, therapy related myeloid neoplasms refer to therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia, therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes, and therapy-related myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative neoplasms, which happen as a belated occurring complication of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy due to prior iatrogenic exposure of mutagenic agents. RESULTS: Herein, we present a very rare case of bone marrow metastasis from testicular seminoma coexisting with treatment-associated acute myeloid leukemia. CONCLUSIONS: This paper highlights the rare and easily misdiagnosed morphological feature of bone marrow. In these situations, clinical history, scrupulous examination of blood and bone marrow smears, immunophenotyping, and bone marrow biopsy are necessary to establish a correct diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Medula Óssea , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Seminoma/complicações , Seminoma/terapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/complicações , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia
13.
Br J Cancer ; 126(6): 937-947, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) have a high metastasis rate. However, the mechanisms related to their invasion, progression and metastasis are unclear. Therefore, we investigated gene expression changes that might be linked to metastasis in seminomatous testicular germ cell tumour (STGCT) patients. METHODS: Defined areas [invasive tumour front (TF) and tumour centre (TC)] of non-metastatic (with surveillance and recurrence-free follow-up >2 years) and metastatic STGCTs were collected separately using laser capture microdissection. The expression of 760 genes related to tumour progression and metastasis was analysed using nCounter technology and validated with quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Distinct gene expression patterns were observed in metastatic and non-metastatic seminomas with respect to both the TF and TC. Comprehensive pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes related to tumour functions such as inflammation, angiogenesis and metabolism at the TF compared to the TC. Remarkably, prominent inflammatory and cancer-related pathways, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling, integrin signalling and nuclear factor-κB signalling, were significantly upregulated in the TF of metastatic vs non-metastatic tumours. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 signalling was the most significantly upregulated pathway in metastatic vs non-metastatic tumours and therefore could constitute a therapeutic target for future personalised therapy. In addition, this is the first study showing intra- and inter-tumour heterogeneity in STGCT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Seminoma/genética , Seminoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Regulação para Cima
15.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(3): e249-e251, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020653

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: An 80-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer, treated with radical prostatectomy and bilateral obturator nodal dissection, underwent an 18F-choline PET/CT because of biochemical recurrence. The scan revealed an intense focal uptake in the right testicle. A subsequent orchifunicumlectomy demonstrated the presence of a classic seminoma. At present, 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful for initial staging of testicular cancer and determining the viability of residual masses >3 cm after completion of treatment, especially in patients with seminoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Seminoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 148(3): 609-631, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Melanoma-associated antigen A2 (MAGE-A2) is a member of the cancer-testis antigen family differentially overexpressed in a variety of malignancies and is associated with tumor development. However, clinical significance and prognostic value of MAGE-A2 in different histological subtypes of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have not been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance and prognostic impact of MAGE-A2 expression in TGCTs compared to benign tumors as well as adjacent normal tissues and then between seminomas and non-seminomas groups using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. RESULTS: The results indicated a statistically significant difference between overexpression of MAGE-A2 and histological subtypes of TGCTs. A statistically significant association was found between a high level of nuclear expression of MAGE-A2 protein and advanced pT stage (P = 0.022), vascular invasion (P = 0.037), as well as involvement of rete testis (P = 0.022) in embryonal carcinomas. Increased nuclear expression of MAGE-A2 was observed to be associated with more aggressive behaviors and tumor progression rather than cytoplasmic expression in these cases. Further, high level nuclear expression of MAGE-A2 had shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) or progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with moderate and low expression of MAGE-A2, however, without a statistically significant association. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that increased nuclear expression of MAGE-A2 has a clinical significance in embryonal carcinomas and is associated with progression of disease. Moreover, MAGE-A2 may act as a potential predictive biomarker for the prognosis in embryonal carcinomas if follow-up period becomes longer. Further investigations for the biological function of MAGE-A2 are required in future studies.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Embrionário/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Embrionário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Embrionário/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/metabolismo , Seminoma/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
17.
World J Urol ; 40(2): 327-334, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical stage I (CSI) testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represents disease confined to the testis without metastasis and CSIS is defined as persistently elevated tumor markers (TM) after orchiectomy, indicating subclinical metastatic disease. This study aims at assessing clinical characteristics and oncological outcome in CSIS. METHODS: Data from five tertiary referring centers in Germany were screened. We defined correct classification of CSIS according to EAU guidelines. TM levels, treatment and relapse-free survival were assessed and differences between predefined groups (chemotherapy, correct/incorrect CSIS) were analyzed with Fisher's exact and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Out of 2616 TGCT patients, 43 (1.6%) were CSIS. Thereof, 27 were correctly classified (cCSIS, 1.03%) and 16 incorrectly classified (iCSIS). TMs that defined cCSIS were in 12 (44.4%), 10 (37%), 3 (11.1%) and 2 (7.4%) patients AFP, ß-HCG, AFP plus ß-HCG and LDH, respectively. In the cCSIS group, six patients were seminoma and 21 non-seminoma. Treatment consisted of active surveillance, carboplatin-mono AUC7 and BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin). No difference between cCSIS and iCSIS with respect to applied chemotherapy was found (p = 0.830). 5-year relapse-free survival was 88.9% and three patients (11%) in the cCSIS group relapsed. All underwent salvage treatment (3xBEP) with no documented death. CONCLUSION: Around 1% of all TGCT were classified as cCSIS patients. Identification of cCSIS is of critical importance to avoid disease progression and relapses by adequate treatment. We report a high heterogeneity of treatment patterns, associated with excellent long-term survival irrespective of the initial treatment approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Orquiectomia , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(1): 121-124, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889525

RESUMO

Seminoma is reported as a rare disease associated with specific micro-morphologic findings. In the present report, we describe the case of a testicular seminoma in a 7-year-old Holland Lop rabbit, in which the cytology presented an atypical pattern. Upon presentation, the left testicle was severely enlarged, and the patient also had a history of radiation therapy for a previously diagnosed thymoma. Following excision and histopathology of the abnormal organ, results showed a mixed intratubular-diffuse pattern with evidence of torsion. Moreover, cytology revealed a cohesive pattern with multiple malignancy criteria. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of a seminoma with these cytologic features.


Assuntos
Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Seminoma/diagnóstico , Seminoma/patologia , Seminoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/veterinária
19.
J Pathol ; 256(1): 38-49, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561860

RESUMO

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) originate during the histogenesis of primordial germ cells to mature gametes. Previous studies identified five histogenic mechanisms in ovarian mature teratomas (type I: failure of meiosis I; type II: failure of meiosis II; type III: duplication of the genome of a mature gamete; type IV: no meiosis; and type V: fusion of two different ova), but those of other GCTs remain elusive. In this study, we analyzed 84 GCTs of various pathologic types to identify the histogenesis using single-nucleotide polymorphism array by analyzing copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) and copy number alterations (CNAs). We detected types I and II in ovarian teratomas, type III in ovarian teratomas and yolk sac tumors (YSTs), and type IV in all GCT types. The GCTs with multiple-type histogenesis (I-IV) (ovarian mature/immature teratomas and YST) show meiotic CN-LOH with scant CNAs. Type IV-only GCTs are either with mitotic CN-LOH and abundant CNAs (seminoma, dysgerminoma, testicular mixed GCTs) or with scant CNAs and no CN-LOH (pediatric testicular and mediastinal teratomas). The development sequences of CN-LOH and CNA are different between the multiple type (I-IV) GCTs and type IV-only GCTs. We analyzed two different histologic areas in eight GCTs (one mature teratoma with a mucin-secreting adenoma, two immature teratomas, and five mixed GCTs). We found that GCTs (mature teratoma, immature teratoma, and mixed GCT) showed different genomic alterations between histologic areas, suggesting that genomic differences within a GCT could accompany histologic differentiation. Of note, we found evidence for collision tumors in a mixed GCT. Our data indicate that GCTs may have various histogenesis and intratumoral genomic differences, which might provide important information for the identification of GCTs, especially for those with different histologic areas. © 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Seminoma/genética , Teratoma/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Seminoma/patologia , Teratoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética
20.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 18(2): e23-e31, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152083

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate disease presentation, treatment practices, and outcomes of patients with germ cell tumor (GCT) treated in a high-volume cancer center in Australia. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 609 patients diagnosed with GCT in the Sydney West Cancer Network between 1990 and 2013. Cause and date of death, and second malignancy information was sourced from The Centre for Health Record Linkage. RESULTS: The median age was 33 years (range, 14-85). Primary site was testis in 590 (96.9%), mediastinum in nine (1.5%), and retroperitoneum in nine (1.5%). History of undescended testis was present in 48 (7.9%). Pure seminoma was seen in 334 (54.8%), with 274 (82.0%) being stage I. There was a decline in use of adjuvant radiotherapy from 83% in 1990-1997 to 29% in 2006-2013. Nonseminoma GCT (NSGCT) was diagnosed in 275 (45.2%), with 162 (58.9%) being stage 1. Active surveillance has increased as the initial treatment, from 58% between 1990 and 1997 to 89% between 2006 and 2013. Metastatic disease at presentation was seen in 162 (26.6%): 55 (34.0%) seminoma and 107 (66.0%) NSGCT. With median of 15-year follow-up, 18 (3.0%) have died from GCT and 70 (11.5%) from all causes. Ten-year overall survival was 93% and GCT-specific survival was 97%. Forty patients developed a secondary malignancy, with 38 receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. CONCLUSIONS: This large Australian series illustrates a changing pattern of care and outcomes and compares them favorably with other series. This serves as a basis for future comparison of outcomes for this malignancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/diagnóstico , Seminoma/epidemiologia , Seminoma/terapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia
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