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1.
J Endod ; 46(1): 29-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Altered sensation is a rare but disturbing adverse event after mandibular premolar and molar periapical surgery procedures, and its incidence is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of altered sensation after periapical surgery procedures in mandibular premolars and molars. METHODS: This retrospective study includes patients who received periapical surgery in endodontic clinics of a university hospital in the United States. Data were obtained by review of the records for patients who met the inclusion criteria, and statistical analysis of possible predictive factors was performed using the 2-tailed Fisher exact test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (63 teeth, 13 premolars and 50 molars) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analyzed in the study. The first follow-up visit occurred 3 to 37 days after surgery. Altered sensation was observed in 9 patients. Observation of altered sensation was significantly higher (odds ratio = 7.19) after premolar surgeries (5/13) compared with molar surgeries (4/50). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited size and retrospective nature of this study, it was concluded that the incidence of altered sensation after periapical surgery appears to be relatively high (14%), with a higher incidence found in premolars compared with molars.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar , Mandíbula , Dente Molar , Transtornos das Sensações , Dente Pré-Molar/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensação , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia
2.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 92-100, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous dexamethasone is thought to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve block, but the dose-response relationship remains unclear. The aim of this volunteer study was to evaluate the dose-response effect of i.v. dexamethasone on the prolongation of median nerve block. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised controlled study, 18 volunteer subjects received two median nerve blocks separated by a washout period. One block was conducted alongside an infusion of saline and the other alongside i.v. dexamethasone 2, 4, or 8 mg. The primary outcome was time to return of normal pinprick sensation. Secondary outcomes included thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) for the time to return of cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), area under QST curves, grip strength, and the incidence of adverse effects. RESULTS: The primary outcome, time to recovery of pinprick sensation, was similar between volunteers receiving saline or i.v. dexamethasone, regardless of dose (P=0.99). The time to recovery of QST milestones was similar between groups, although area under QST curves indicated prolongation of CDT (0 vs 8 mg, P=0.002) and WDT (0 vs 2 mg, P=0.008; 0 vs 4 mg, P=0.001; 0 vs 8 mg, P<0.001). There was no difference in motor recovery or adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous dexamethasone failed to significantly prolong the duration of pinprick anaesthesia regardless of dose. However, area under QST curve analysis indicated a dose-independent prolongation of CDT and WDT, the clinical significance of which is unclear. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02864602 (clinicaltrials.gov).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Anestésicos , Dexametasona , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Nervos Periféricos , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Força da Mão , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mediano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensação Térmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(12): 1327-31, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820609

RESUMO

The clinical experience of ZHANG Ren's penetrating needling method for refractory diseases is summarized. In clinical practice, the penetrating needling method is usually divided into shallow penetrating needling method and deep penetrating needling method. The shallow penetrating method includes parallel penetrating method, cross penetrating method, relay penetrating method and multi-directional penetrating method. Deep penetrating needling method includes deep penetration at auricular area, deep penetration at back-shu points, deep penetration at buttocks and deep penetration at knees. The clinical application of penetrating needling method should be based on the symptoms and the operation essentials should be grasped, in which, the needling sensation could go to the affected area, one acupoint could be stimulated by different techniques to ensure the suppelementory effect.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sensação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
4.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 386-389, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perception of bolus transit through the thoracic esophagus may be caused by altered esophageal anatomy and function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that, in healthy volunteers, swallows followed by perception of esophageal bolus transit are associated with changes in esophageal motility. METHODS: Simultaneous evaluation of motility and perception of esophageal bolus transit was performed in 22 healthy volunteers. Esophageal motility was evaluated by high-resolution manometry with a 32-channel solid state catheter. Each volunteer performed, in the sitting position, 10 swallows of a 5 mL bolus of saline and 10 swallows of pieces of 1 cm3 of bread, with an interval of at least 30 seconds between swallows. After each swallow the volunteers were asked about the perception of bolus transit through the esophagus. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred in 11.7% of liquid swallows and in 48.1% of solid swallows. In liquid swallows the perception was associated with higher distal contractile integral and shorter proximal contraction length. Perception of solid bolus transit was associated with a longer distal latency, longer proximal contraction length, lower proximal contractile integral and shorter proximal contraction duration. CONCLUSION: The perception of swallowed bolus transit through the esophagus in healthy individuals is more frequent with solid than liquid swallows and is associated with changes in proximal esophageal contractions.


Assuntos
Deglutição/fisiologia , Esôfago/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(5): 255-258, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735754

RESUMO

Bladder afferent nerves are composed by myelinated Aδ- and unmyelinated C-fibers. During the storage phase of urine, distention of the bladder has long been considered to evoke afferent activity via Aδ-fibers connected in series with the smooth muscle fibers. In contrast, a previous study in cats revealed that more than 90% of C-fibers do not respond to normal bladder distension, being so called 〝silent〟 fibers. However, at least in rats, C-fibers can respond to normal bladder distension like Aδ-fibers, although they may also fulfill a potentially different role in the bladder sensory function in response to abnormal stimuli. The symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) or interstitial cystitis (IC) are believed to be commonly related to the sensory (afferent) function. In addition, it has been suggested that bladder myogenic microcontractions or micromotions may partly contribute to the development of urgency in OAB related to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), which is one of cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We have investigated the direct effects of drugs (anticholinergics, ß3-adrenoceptor agonists, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, PDE type5 inhibitors, etc.) on the bladder afferent function in rodents. In our results, almost all drugs may act on the bladder afferent function, and some of drug (e.g. mirabegron) inhibits the afferent activities through the suppression of the bladder myogenic microcontractions in normal or pathophysiological conditions.


Assuntos
Vias Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Aferentes/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Animais , Gatos , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas , Ratos , Sensação
6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(11): 1193-8, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the correlation between referred pain distribution and acupoint sensitization in patients with intestinal diseases. METHODS: In clinical research, 443 patients from 8 hospitals were recruited, including the outpatients and inpatients of Crohn's disease (n=143), ulcerative colitis (n=108), chronic appendicitis (n=87) and other intestinal diseases (n=105). The site with tenderness on the body surface and the morphological changes of local skin were observed and recorded in the patients. Using a sensory tenderness instrument, the pain threshold at the sensitization point was measured in 60 patients with ulcerative colitis. In animal experiment, SD rats were used and divided into a enteritis group (n=8), in which the enteritis model were established, and a control group (n=3), in which no any intervention was given. After the injection of Evans blue (EB) at caudal vein, the blue exudation points on the body surface were observed and the distribution rule was analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The referred pain on the body surface in the patients with intestinal diseases was mainly located in the lower abdomen (93.9%, 416/443), the lumbar region (70.9%, 314/443) and the lower legs (33.0%, 146/443). The diameter of tenderness region was 1.5 to 2.5 cm. Compared with the region without sensitization, the pain threshold of the sensitization point in the patients with ulcerative colitis was reduced significantly (P<0.001). The referred pain on the body surface in the patients with appendicitis was located in the right lower abdomen (97.7%, 85/87), the waist and back (54.0%, 47/87) and the right lower limbs on the medial side (71.3%, 62/87). The tenderness region was 1 to 2 cm in diameter and was irregular in form. After modeling of enteritis in the rats, the EB exudation points were visible from T12 to L2. CONCLUSION: Intestinal diseases induce referred pain on the body surface where is the same as or adjacent to the location of the spinal segment corresponding to the affected intestinal section. These sensitization regions are related to the locations of acupoints.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Enteropatias , Dor Referida , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa , Humanos , Limiar da Dor , Dor Referida/diagnóstico , Dor Referida/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sensação
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3035-3041, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602850

RESUMO

The taste is the key to the research and design for formulation prescription of traditional Chinese medicine buccal tablets( TCMBTs). TCMBTs are dissolved in the oral cavity in parallel with the release of the drug,providing a sufficient " time window" for the perception of various basic taste,tactile and retention. The overall taste is the result of competitive inhibition,comprehensive superposition and dynamic change of multiple tastes. Traditional evaluation methods rely mostly on recalled experience score,difficult to reflect the dynamic changes of taste for buccal tablets. Therefore,it is urgent to establish a new optimized model for taste evaluation and formulation prescription according to the formulation characteristics of TCMBTs. To this end,this paper proposed for the first time to construct a research method for the optimal formulation of TCMBTs based on temporal dominant description of sensations combined with multivariate statistical analysis: the sensory test of volunteers was carried out by temporal dominant description analysis method,and elements separation was conducted for the time and taste in the process of inclusion to form a temporal dominant descriptive score of multi-time points and multi-sensory attributes. Finally,the optimal formulation was obtained by multivariate statistical analysis. Taking the formulation prescription of Compound Caoshanhu Buccal Tablets as an example,the research ideas of this method were explained,and the optimal formulation prescription was obtained as follows,Glabrous Sarcandra Extract of 20. 0 g,mannitol of 24. 0 g,microcrystalline cellulose of 12. 0 g,aspartame of 1. 0%,menthol of 0. 7%,and menthol oil of 0. 7%. This study provides a new method for the taste evaluation and formulation research of TCMBTs,providing a new idea for the fine manufacturing and innovative development of TCM buccal tablets in the new era.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Comprimidos , Paladar , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Sensação , Solubilidade
8.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 29(11): 1497-1500, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589547

RESUMO

Background: Laparoscopic-assisted endorectal pull-through (LAEPT) procedure in the management of high-type anorectal malformations (ARMs) was first introduced in 1998 and is quickly accepted worldwide. However, evidence on long-term outcomes of this technique is constrained. This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcomes of LAEPT for high-type ARMs in Vietnamese pediatrics. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out from January 2009 to July 2014 in 56 patients <3 years old. Variables included age of operation, associated anomalies, type of fistula, the duration of hospital stay, complications, and long-term functional outcomes (Krickenbeck modified standards were used for children ≥3 years). Results: There were 56 patients including 48 males and 8 females. The mean age at operation was 3.7 months, the mean hospital stay was 4.6 days. The mean operative time was 76.7 minutes. The mean follow-up time was from 38 to 104 months (mean follow-up: 71.5 months). There were 46 (82.1%) patients having feeling of urge, 42 (75.0%) patients having capacity to verbalize, and 40 (71.4%) patients having hold the bowel movement. Conclusion: LAEPT is feasible, safe, and effective in the management of high-type ARMs.


Assuntos
Malformações Anorretais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defecação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Sensação
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550769

RESUMO

Acid-sensing ion channels are a class of extracellular H(+) activated cation channels, belonging to the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) superfamily. During extracellular acidification, the channels are activated and produce corresponding action potential. Acid-sensing ion channels are extensively expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. It plays an important in synaptic plasticity, mechanical sensation, injury sensation related to acidosis of local tissues, acid reception and retinal regulation. This article reviews the expression, biological characteristics and functions of acid-sensing ion channels in cochlea, vestibular tissue and auditory center, so as to improve the understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of auditory system.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido , Córtex Auditivo , Cóclea , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/genética , Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/metabolismo , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Cóclea/fisiologia , Humanos , Sensação , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia
10.
Cornea ; 38 Suppl 1: S11-S24, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490785

RESUMO

Patients with corneal and conjunctival disorders report an array of ocular surface symptoms including stinging, foreign body sensation, and itching. The intensity and perceptual quality of these sensations and their duration, from brief intervals to long-term symptoms, also vary. We hypothesize that symptomatic differences across disorders reflect differences in the balance between ocular inflammation and nerve injury, with different conditions resulting from predominant effects of one of these, or a combined effect. This article provides an overview of corneal and conjunctival nerve cells, such as nociceptors and thermoreceptors, with descriptions of their morphological and molecular characteristics and their nerve-firing patterns and evoked sensations, as determined by earlier studies in animals and humans. Detailed descriptions of the changes in neuronal responses (such as abnormal responsiveness and spontaneous firing) due to local inflammation and nerve injury are provided, and assorted ocular surface disorders are discussed. Eye conditions in which inflammation is predominant include allergic conjunctivitis and photokeratitis, whereas nerve injury is the primary factor underlying complaints of dry eye after photorefractive keratectomy and in elderly patients. Both factors contribute substantially to dry eye disease and varicella-zoster infections. This model of the combined effects of inflammation and nerve injury serves to explain the different sensations reported in various eye surface disorders, including short-term versus chronic pain and dysesthesias, and may help to improve diagnoses and treatment methods.


Assuntos
Córnea/inervação , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Dor Ocular/diagnóstico , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Termorreceptores/fisiopatologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/fisiopatologia , Dor Ocular/etiologia , Humanos , Ceratite/fisiopatologia , Lágrimas/metabolismo
11.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102514, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Foam Rolling (FR), aims to mimic the effects of manual therapy and tackle dysfunctions of the skeletal muscle and connective tissue. It has been shown to induce improvements in flexibility, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the acute, systemic and tissue-specific responses evoked by FR. METHODS: In a crossover study, 16 (34 ±â€¯6y, 6f) participants received all of the following interventions in a random order: a) 2 × 60 seconds of FR at the anterior thigh, b) 2 × 60 seconds of passive static stretching of the anterior thigh (SS), and c) no intervention (CON). Maximal active and passive knee flexion range of motion (ROM), passive stiffness, sliding of fascial layers, as well as knee flexion angle of first subjectively perceived stretch sensation (FSS) were evaluated before and directly after each intervention. RESULTS: Flexibility increased only after, FR (active (+1.8 ±â€¯1.9%) and passive ROM (+3.4 ±â€¯2.7%), p = .006, respectively) and SS (passive ROM (+3.2 ±â€¯3.5%), p = .002). Angle of FSS was altered following FR (+4.3° (95% CI: 1.4°-7.2°)) and SS (+6.7° (3.7°-9.6°)), while tissue stiffness remained unchanged after any intervention compared to baseline. Movement of the deepest layer (-5.7 mm (-11.3 mm to -0.1 mm)) as well as intrafascial sliding between deep and superficial layer (-4.9 mm (-9.mm to -0.7 mm)) decreased only after FR. CONCLUSION: FR improved knee flexion ROM without altering passive stiffness, but modified the perception of stretch as well as the mobility of the deep layer of the fascia lata. The mechanisms leading to altered fascial sliding merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4957-4973, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486997

RESUMO

This study examined the performance of the First Year Inventory (FYI; version 2.0), a community-normed parent-reported screening instrument, in a high-risk (HR) sample of 12-month-olds with older siblings diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI 2.0 was completed by parents of 86 HR infants and 35 low-risk control infants at age 12 months, followed by clinical diagnosis at 36 months. HR infants later diagnosed with ASD had significantly higher FYI 2.0 risk scores in both the social-communication and sensory-regulatory domains than typically developing infants. New FYI 2.0 cutoff scores for HR sample were explored by evaluating various cutoff options after considering tradeoffs between sensitivity and specificity and sample characteristics.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sensação , Comportamento Social
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4074, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501436

RESUMO

Previous studies indicate that the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) integrates sensorimotor information from cortical and thalamic regions to learn and execute motor habits. However, the exact contribution of sensory representations to this process is still unknown. Here we explore the role of the forelimb somatosensory flow in the DLS during the learning and execution of motor habits. First, we compare rhythmic somesthetic representations in the DLS and primary somatosensory cortex in anesthetized rats, and find that sequential and temporal stimuli contents are more strongly represented in the DLS. Then, using a behavioral protocol in which rats developed a stereotyped motor sequence, functional disconnection experiments, and pharmacologic and optogenetic manipulations in apprentice and expert animals, we reveal that somatosensory thalamic- and cortical-striatal pathways are indispensable for the temporal component of execution. Our results indicate that the somatosensory flow in the DLS provides the temporal reference for the development and execution of motor habits.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neostriado/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Animais , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Optogenética , Ratos Long-Evans , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4974-4996, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501953

RESUMO

This meta-analysis updated evidence regarding sensory over-responsivity (SOR), under-responsivity (SUR) and seeking symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) relative to typical controls and those with other conditions. Fifty-five questionnaire studies included 4606 individuals with ASD. Moderators tested were age, IQ, male ratio, matching group, and self-report. Compared to typical controls, effect size was large and significant for SOR, SUR, and Seeking but heterogeneous. For Seeking, age, IQ and self-report were significant moderators. Compared with developmental disorders (DDs) groups, effect size was significantly positive for SOR and Seeking; whereas compared with other clinical groups, only SOR was significant. These findings highlight the core nature of sensory symptoms in ASD and particularly SOR. Explanatory factors are yet to be revealed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Sensação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
15.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305205040p1-7305205040p8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484028

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: In Spain, only one culturally adapted assessment tool is available for children between ages 3 and 11 yr. There are no assessments of adolescent and adult sensory processing, and no normative data. OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values for the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) in Spain for adolescents (aged 11-17) and adults (aged 18-64 and ≥65). DESIGN: A multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare specific mean values (-2, -1, +1, and +2 standard deviation [SD]) by age group, gender, geographic area, education level, and employment status. PARTICIPANTS: We randomly recruited 787 participants (55.8% female) aged 11 yr or older (mean age = 32.1, SD = 21.1) in Spain. We excluded those with a diagnosis of depression, chronic disease (e.g., diabetes, cancer, neurological disease), or cognitive disability and those who used medication that could affect the central nervous system. RESULTS: Quadrant mean (SD) scores ranged from 29.3 (6.6) for low registration to 49.1 (8.3) for sensory seeking, with significant differences by age group (p < .001) in all quadrants. Significant differences were also found for scores in different quadrants by gender, geographic area, education level, and employment status. Although statistically significant, the differences between scores were not clinically relevant; the mean scores fell within the typical range for sensory processing. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We offer reference values for the cultural adaptation to Spain of the AASP and recommend its use for the typically developing Spanish population ages 11 and older. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: We provide normative data for the AASP for three age groups of the Spanish population: adolescents, adults, and older adults.


Assuntos
Cognição , Sensação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Espanha
16.
Science ; 365(6454): 641-642, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416950
17.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 239-245, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185349

RESUMO

Background: Experimental substance use among young people is related to individual factors including personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between these three sets of variables. Methods: Volunteer undergraduate students (N = 861, 76% female, M = 20.7 years) completed an ad hoc questionnaire on variables related to their consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, synthetic drugs and cocaine. In addition, 591 of them completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). All participants were genotyped in FAAH C385A SNP and its proxy variant rs12075550. Results: Consistent with previous data, both impulsivity and sensation seeking were associated with most of the variables related to experimental substance use. In addition, we found the first evidence of an association between the rs12075550 SNP and some of these consumption phenotypes. However, no significant association was found between either of the two SNPs and impulsivity or sensation seeking. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of considering both personality and genetic differences, together with contextual factors, in the analysis of substance use


Antecedentes: el uso experimental de sustancias en los jóvenes está relacionada con factores individuales que incluyen rasgos de personalidad, como impulsividad o búsqueda de sensaciones, y variaciones genéticas, como polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido (SNPs) del gen amida hidrolasa de ácidos grasos (FAAH). El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la relación entre estos tres conjuntos de variables. Método: estudiantes universitarios voluntarios (N = 861, 76% mujeres, M = 20,7 años) rellenaron un cuestionario ad hoc de variables relacionadas con el consumo de alcohol, tabaco, cannabis, drogas sintéticas y cocaína. Además, 591 de ellos rellenaron las escalas BIS-11 y SSS-V. Se genotipó a todos ellos en SNP FAAH C385A y su variante proxy rs12075550. Resultados: como se esperaba, la impulsividad y la búsqueda de sensaciones estuvieron asociadas con la mayor parte de las variables relativas al uso experimental de sustancias. Además, encontramos por primera vez evidencia de una asociación entre rs12075550 y algunos de estos fenotipos de consumo. Sin embargo, no encontramos asociaciones significativas entre SNPs e impulsividad o búsqueda de sensaciones. Conclusiones: los resultados resaltan la importancia de tener en cuenta las diferencias genéticas y las de personalidad, junto con los factores contextuales, al analizar el uso de sustancias


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Amidoidrolases/genética , Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sensação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Alelos , Variação Genética , Testes de Personalidade , Fenótipo , Assunção de Riscos , Saliva , Sensação/genética , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/enzimologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Dairy Res ; 86(3): 368-373, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328701

RESUMO

This research paper aimed to evaluate the role of inulin as a fat replacer on the quality of Frescal sheep milk cheese. Sheep milk and its derivatives are a promising niche in the dairy industry, mainly due to increasing interest of consumers in diversified products. Three Frescal sheep milk cheese formulations, namely whole milk cheese (WMC), semi-skimmed cheese (SSC) and semi-skimmed cheese with 5 g/100 g inulin (SSCI) were prepared. Their composition was evaluated and the feasibility of using inulin as a fat substitute was investigated. SSC and SSCI were considered 'reduced fat' or 'reduced calorie' products. The addition of inulin to SSCI cheeses yielded textural parameters (firmness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and gumminess) with intermediate characteristics between SSC and WMC. All the formulations presented scores higher than 7.6 in sensory analysis. In conclusion, the use of inulin in semi-skimmed sheep cheese allowed the production of cheese with texturizing properties similar to whole milk sheep cheese, enabling the development of a foodstuff with lower caloric content and beneficial characteristics valued by consumers.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Inulina/análise , Leite/química , Ovinos , Animais , Brasil , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Ingestão de Energia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Sensação
19.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(7): 907-911, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298012

RESUMO

Objective: To review the research on distribution of the nerve and blood supply of breast, and the development of breast reduction in recent years. Methods: The related literatures about the distribution of the nerve and blood supply of breast, the development of breast reduction, and postoperative lactation function in recent years were reviewed extensively. The above aspects were analyzed and summarized in combination with the author's experiences. Results: With the anatomical study of mammary gland, nipple areola complex nerve distribution and blood supply, breast reduction has been developed rapidly, and a variety of surgical methods have been formed. But each has its own advantages and disadvantages, and its indications are different. Through the application and improvement of the auxiliary examination technique, severe complications such as nipple areola complex necrosis reduce obviously after operation. Through the selection of position of the incision and pedicle, the degree of retaining the pedicle glands, the application of auxiliary liposuction technique, and the improvement of suture technique, the scar of incision reduces, the sensation of nipple areola is preserved more, and a more satisfactory breast shape is obtained. Some of the patients who gave birth after breast reduction have lactation function. Conclusion: There are some shortcomings in various surgical methods at present, individualized surgical methods should be adopted according to the characteristics of the patients. Further research is needed on how to preserve more sensation of nipple areola, obtain a good and lasting breast shape, and preserve lactation function of women after operation.


Assuntos
Mama , Mamoplastia , Sensação , Técnicas de Sutura , Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Mamilos/irrigação sanguínea , Período Pós-Operatório
20.
Gait Posture ; 73: 120-125, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a neurophysiological phenomenon whereby a weak stimulus modulates the reflex response to a subsequent strong stimulus. Its physiological purpose is to avoid interruption of sensory processing by subsequent disturbing stimuli at the subcortical level, thereby preventing undesired motor reactions. An important hub in the PPI circuit is the pedunculopontine nucleus, which is also involved in the control of posture and sleep/wakefulness. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of posture (supine versus standing) on PPI, induced by somatosensory prepulses to either upper or lower limb. PPI was measured as the percentage inhibition of the blink reflex response to electrical supraorbital nerve (SON) stimulation. METHODS: Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent bilateral blink reflex recordings following SON stimulation either alone (baseline) or preceded by an electrical prepulse to the median nerve (MN) or sural nerve (SN), both in supine and standing. Stimulus intensity was 8 times sensory threshold for SON, and 2 times sensory threshold for MN and SN, respectively. Eight stimuli were applied in each condition. RESULTS: Baseline blink reflex parameters did not differ significantly between the two postures. Prepulse stimulation to MN and SN caused significant inhibition of R2. In supine but not in standing, R2 was significantly more inhibited by MN than by SN prepulses. In standing, SN stimulation caused significantly more inhibition of R2 than in supine, while the inhibition caused by MN prepulses did not differ significantly between postures. SIGNIFICANCE: PPI induced by lower limb afferent input may contribute to postural control while standing.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Inibição Pré-Pulso/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Núcleo Tegmental Pedunculopontino , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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