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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3751-3754, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018817

RESUMO

The aging process, as well as neurological disorders, causes a decline in sensorimotor functions, which can often bring degraded motor output. As a means of compensation for such sensorimotor deficiencies, sensorimotor augmentation has been actively investigated. Consequently, exoskeleton devices or functional electrical stimulation could augment the muscle activity, while textured surfaces or electrical nerve stimulations could augment the sensory feedback. However, it is not easy to precisely anticipate the effects of specific augmentation because sensory feedback and motor output interact with each other as a closed-loop operation via the central and peripheral nervous systems. A computational internal model can play a crucial role in anticipating such an effect of augmentation therapy on the motor outcome. Still, no existing internal sensorimotor loop model has been represented in a complete computational form facilitating the anticipation. This paper presents such a computational internal model, including numerical values representing the effect of sensorimotor augmentation. With the existing experimental results, the model performance was evaluated indirectly. The change of sensory gain affects motor output inversely, while the change of motor gain did not change or minimally affects the motor output.Clinical Relevance- The presented computational internal model will provide a simple and easy tool for clinicians to design therapeutic intervention using sensorimotor augmentation.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial , Sensação , Estimulação Elétrica
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3885-3888, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018849

RESUMO

The incorporation of sensory feedback in prosthetics can lead to a range of benefits, such as improved hand control, increased prosthesis embodiment, and the reduction of phantom limb pain. However, the creation of reliable sensory feedback is complicated by the temporal modulation of the nervous system. Sensory fibres in the hand are primed to react to changing conditions, firing when discrete mechanical events occur. In this study, we investigate the minimal possible stimulation needed to distinguish different sensory patterns that can be used to indicate events. We presented a two-alternative forced-choice task of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimuli to 10 participants. The results showed that different stimuli can be distinguished when double pulses have an inter-stimulus-interval of 10 ms. Additionally, providing a pause of at least 350 ms between stimuli increases the discrimination of the perception. These results suggest that humans can distinguish different patterns of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with as little as two stimuli, illustrating the possibility of providing event-related stimulation.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Membro Fantasma , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Mãos , Humanos , Sensação
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1722-1725, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018329

RESUMO

Afferent nerves that carry interoceptive signals from the viscera to the brain include Aδ and C-fibers. Previously, we examined the effects of detrusor distention (conveyed mainly by Aδ fibers) on the static functional network connectivity (FNC) of the brain using independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI time series. In the present study, we investigate the impact of intravesical cold sensation (thought to be conveyed by C-fibers) on brain FNC using similar ICA approach. Thirteen healthy women were scanned on a 3.0T MRI scanner during a resting state scan and an intravesical cold sensation task fMRI. High dimensional ICA (n = 75) were used to decompose the fMRI data into several intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) including the default-mode (DMN), subcortical (SCN; amygdala, thalamus), salience (SN), central executive (CEN), sensorimotor (SMN), and cerebellar/brainstem (CBN) networks. Results demonstrate significant FNC differences in several ICN pairs primarily between the SCN and cognitive networks such as CEN, as well as between SN and CBN and DMN when intravesical cold water condition was compared to rest (FDR-corrected p-value of 0.05). Significant increases in FNC between CBN and between SMN were also observed during interoceptive condition. The results indicate significant impact of Aδ and C-fiber-originated interoceptive signals on the brain connectivity when compared to the baseline rest.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede Nervosa , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sensação
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2442-2446, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018500

RESUMO

Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) involves the application of electrical current through electrodes placed exclusively at the mastoids or in combination with electrodes placed on other regions. It is a simple, safe modality to modulate and probe vestibular function. Despite a long history of use, it continues to be primarily used as a research tool with no fully developed therapeutic use. This is partly due to the fact that to further advance this technique, a better understanding of what structures are stimulated and by how much is needed. While models have been proposed to explain response, cellular and structural substrates confirmed empirically, the exact current flow pattern has not been investigated.The goal of this study is to therefore determine current flow patterns in GVS. In order to do so, we developed the first ultrahigh-resolution finite element model of GVS incorporating the tiny structures of interest in the inner ear. We simulated the Bilateral-Bipolar, Bilateral-Monopolar, and the Unilateral-Monopolar configurations. Specifically, we generated surface electric field magnitude plots for the brain and for structures considered most relevant to GVS mechanism of action- the semi-circular canals (SCC) and the otolith.Findings show that the Bilateral-Bipolar configuration results in the most spatially restricted flow while the Unilateral-Monopolar configuration results in the most diffuse. With respect to SCC and the otolith, both Bilateral-Bipolar and Bilateral-Monopolar configurations led to similar flow in both the left and right pairs. For the Unilateral-Monopolar configuration, we observed increased flow in the left pair.We expect via this first model developed for GVS, researchers investigating this technique to have a better understanding of the effects of different configurations. Anatomically detailed models like these may also help understand the mechanism of action and may guide the rational design of future GVS administration.


Assuntos
Sensação , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Encéfalo , Estimulação Elétrica , Membrana dos Otólitos
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3083-3085, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018656

RESUMO

Bi-directional brain-computer interfaces (BD-BCI) to restore movement and sensation must achieve concurrent operation of recording and decoding of motor commands from the brain and stimulating the brain with somatosensory feedback. Previously we developed and validated a benchtop prototype of a fully implantable BCI system for motor decoding. Here, a prototype artificial sensory stimulator was integrated into the benchtop system to develop a prototype of a fully-implantable BD-BCI. The artificial sensory stimulator incorporates an active charge balancing mechanism based on pulse-width modulation to ensure safe stimulation for chronically interfaced electrodes to prevent damage to brain tissue and electrodes. The feasibility of the BD-BCI system's active charge balancing was tested in phantom brain tissue. With the charge-balancing, the removal of the residual charges on an electrode was evident. This is a critical milestone toward fully-implantable BD-BCI systems.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo , Eletrodos Implantados , Movimento , Sensação
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3569-3572, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018774

RESUMO

Various mechanisms in generating phantom limb pain (PLP) have been hypothesized in the literature. However, there still is no clear understanding of how PLP develops and why it presents. Amputation leads to permanent anatomical and physiological changes of the neural path previously supplying the brain with sensory input, as well as to formation of referred sensation areas (RSAs) on the stump or its vicinity. Sensations may be evoked in the lost body part upon stimulation of RSAs that may be exploited as artificial sensory input. In this work, we present the analysis of RSA maps from a 45-year-old female with bilateral toes amputation. Maps of the RSAs were identified in eight sessions over 107 days, characterized by dynamics in both location and type of associated evoked sensation. The evoked sensations were reported to be felt like current through and brushing of the phantom toes at low intensities close to the sensation threshold. Sensations evoked by electrical stimuli delivered through electrodes covering one or more RSAs approximated the sensation of summation of sensations evoked by mechanical stimuli (light brushing). No painful evoked sensations were observed.Clinical Relevance- The technique presented may be further improved by using various profiles for stimulation over a longer period of time for possible efficient PLP treatment with artificially generated sensory input.


Assuntos
Amputados , Membro Fantasma , Amputação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensação , Dedos do Pé
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095537

RESUMO

Awake craniotomy (AC) has gained fantastic popularity over the past years. This approach is no longer the destiny of only highly specialized neurosurgical centers. Technical features of AC are completely developed. However, certain aspects of patients' sensations and their satisfaction are still unclear. The review is devoted to these issues. It was shown that AC is positively evaluated by the vast majority of patients. Many patients would choose this technique for redo surgery. However, there are certain important details that can adversely affect satisfaction of patients. Thus, these features should be considered in AC.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Vigília , Craniotomia , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Sensação
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5350, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093442

RESUMO

Sociality is among the most important motivators of human behaviour. However, the neural mechanisms determining levels of sociality are largely unknown, primarily due to a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the presence of a surprising degree of general sociality in Drosophila. A newly-developed paradigm to study social approach behaviour in flies reveal that social cues perceive through both vision and olfaction converged in a central brain region, the γ lobe of the mushroom body, which exhibite activation in response to social experience. The activity of these γ neurons control the motivational drive for social interaction. At the molecular level, the serotonergic system is critical for social affinity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila are highly sociable, providing a suitable model system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the motivation for sociality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia
11.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(145): 12-13, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988480

RESUMO

Normal aging can be defined as the result of the effects of genetic and environmental factors to which subjects are exposed throughout their lives. This process is slow and progressive and must be distinguished from disease. All organs are subject to aging in a physiological way.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898184

RESUMO

Current research examined the differential effects of pills' shape (angular vs. curvy) on the perceived efficacy of the medicine, evoked bodily sensations and emotions. We investigated these effects by using different types of angular vs. curved stimuli: abstract drawn shapes (Study 1), 3D-printed mockup pills (Study 2) and photographs of the existing pills (Study 3). Participants were asked to imagine 'taking' angular and curved pills. They had to focus on the bodily sensations and report the evoked activations/deactivations in different body parts. Across three studies, we found that the angular pills evoke overall more activations in the body compared to curvy pills. We further reported differences in the topography of angular vs. curved pills'-triggered sensations in different body parts. Our results also revealed that angularity is linked with an energizing effect while roundness is associated with a calming effect. The shape effects were demonstrated not only in self-reported energized vs. calm subjective feelings but also in performance on a timed cognitive test. Compared to incongruent designs, pill designs (angular vs. curved) congruent with proposed drug benefits (energizing vs. calming) were perceived as more effective. Moreover, we found differences in emotions triggered by pills of different shapes. The present research provided new findings on angularity vs. curvature perception that may be valuable for cognitive psychology, marketing, pharmaceutical and supplements industry, and other applied fields.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Comprimidos/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(33): 2586-2590, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892603

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the clinical effects of CT-guided chemical destructive block of lumbar sympathetic nerve in the treatment of cold sensation of limbs. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, clinical data of 43 patients with cold sensation of limbs treated by lumbar sympathetic chemical destructive block in the Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University from January 2015 to January 2018 were collected. The changes of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), plantar temperature and peripheral perfusion index (PI) of patients were recorded and analyzed before treatment and 5 min after injection of anhydrous ethanol. The patients were followed up at postoperative 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Results: Fourty-three patients underwent bilateral lumbar sympathetic nerve chemical destructive block under the CT-guided, and all patients were punctured to the target successfully. The PI of patients before and after treatment were 1.2±0.6, 7.2±3.0 respectively, which was significantly increased after treatment compared with before treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (t=12.386, P<0.05). The plantar temperature of patients before and after treatment respectively were (29.6±1.7)℃, (34.6±1.1)℃, which was significantly increased after treatment compared with before treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (t=15.057, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, NIBP and SpO(2) between before and after treatment (all P>0.05). Lumbar sympathetic chemical destructive block was clinically effective in 39 patients (90.7%) and ineffective in 4 patients (9.3%). Among the 39 clinically effective patients, the curative effects were excellent in 29 cases and improved in 10 cases. Postoperative recurrence occurred in 10 cases (25.6%). The satisfaction rates of patients at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after operation were 93.0%, 90.7%, 86.0%, 76.7%, 69.7%, 65.1% and 53.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Lumbar sympathetic chemical destructive block is a safe and effective way for the treatment of cold sensation of limbs, which can improve the symptoms of cold sensation of limbs to some extent.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Humanos , Região Lombossacral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1146-1155, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925335

RESUMO

Persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP) is a common complication of surgery that significantly affects quality of life. A better understanding of which patients are likely to develop PPSP would help to identify when perioperative and postoperative pain management may require specific attention. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) of a patient's preoperative pain perception is associated with acute postoperative pain, and acute postoperative pain is a risk factor for PPSP. The direct association between preoperative QST and PPSP has not been reviewed to date. In this systematic review, we assessed the relationship of preoperative QST to PPSP. We searched databases with components related to (1) preoperative QST; (2) association testing; and (3) PPSP. Two authors reviewed all titles and abstracts for inclusion. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) QST performed before surgery; (2) PPSP assessed ≥3 months postoperatively; and (3) the association between QST measures and PPSP is investigated. The search retrieved 905 articles; 24 studies with 2732 subjects met inclusion criteria. Most studies (22/24) had moderate to high risk of bias in multiple quality domains. Fourteen (58%) studies reported a significant association between preoperative QST and PPSP. Preoperative temporal summation of pain (4 studies), conditioned pain modulation (3 studies), and pressure pain threshold (3 studies) showed the most frequent association with PPSP. The strength of the association between preoperative QST and PPSP varied from weak to strong. Preoperative QST is variably associated with PPSP. Measurements related to central processing of pain may be most consistently associated with PPSP.


Assuntos
Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Período Pré-Operatório , Sensação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Medição da Dor
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20191085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the acute effect of different high-fat meals accompanied by water or orange juice on subjective appetite sensations. METHODS: This acute, postprandial study included 39 healthy women (aged 20 to 40 years): 22 participants received a high-monounsaturated fat meal (MUFA) (≈1000 kcal, 56.3% Energy from MUFA) and 17 participants received a high-saturated fat meal (SFA) (≈1000 kcal, 37.6% Energy from SFA). Both interventions were accompanied by 500 ml of water or orange juice. The subjective appetite sensations were evaluated before (fasting) and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the meal intake using the visual analog scale. RESULTS: The subjective area under curve (AUC) appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores were equal after the consumption of high-fat meals from SFA and MUFA. Moreover, the consumption of a high-SFA meal raises the prospective desire to eat something fatty. In addition, the high-SFA meal consumption reduces subjective AUC appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores along the time, compared to a high-MUFA meal, when orange juice consumption followed those meals. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that high-MUFA meal consumption decreased the desire to intake something fatty, and the high-SFA meal, when followed by orange juice intake, has postprandial appetite sensations suppressed.


Assuntos
Apetite , Citrus sinensis , Adulto , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 250-254, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740571

RESUMO

The concept of sensate autologous breast reconstruction is not novel, and prior literature has focused mainly on sensate abdominally based breast reconstruction. The goal of this article is to present the authors' results with a novel technique performing sensate implant-based reconstruction. A database was prospectively maintained for patients who underwent implant-based sensate breast reconstruction. The anterior branch of the lateral fourth intercostal is identified and preserved during the mastectomy by the breast surgeon. A processed nerve allograft is used as an interpositional graft connecting the donor nerve to the targeted nipple-areola complex. The sensory recovery process was objectively monitored using a pressure-specified sensory device. Thirteen patients underwent the proposed technique. Eight patients with 15 breasts were monitored for sensory recovery. For sensory measurement, the nipple had a mean threshold of 67.33 ± 34.48 g/nm. The upper inner (29 ± 26.75 g/nm) and upper outer (46.82 ± 32.72 g/nm) nipple-areola complex quadrants demonstrated better scores during the moving test compared with the static test. Mean time between the test and surgery was 4.18 ± 2.3 months, and mean time between the second test and surgery was 10.59 ± 3.57 months. Threshold improvements were documented after the second test for all nipple-areola complex areas evaluated. This is the first study to report on early results obtained after performing sensate implant-based breast reconstruction. More studies are required to determine the long-term outcomes and impact on quality of life and to assess whether patient or breast characteristics impact the success of this procedure.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama , Mamoplastia/métodos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Mamilos/cirurgia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mastectomia Subcutânea/métodos , Mamilos/inervação , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Life Sci ; 259: 118144, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755624

RESUMO

AIMS: Although the vestibular system has been widely investigated over the past 50 years, there is still an unsolved mystery. Some special vestibular afferent (SVA) neurons responding to both rotation and linear force were found through neurophysiological techniques, however, the sensory overlap mechanism of SVA neurons is still unclear, which may be closely related to vestibular-related diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address the above-mentioned problem, a cupula buoyancy theory was established in the present study, where SVA neurons were considered semicircular canal afferent (SCCA) neurons. Then labyrinth anatomy and neural response dynamics of vestibular afferent neurons in chinchilla were investigated through vestibular labyrinth reconstruction and single unit recording technique, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: We analyzed the deflections of cupulae under multiple conditions with the help of Amira Software and predicted the neural response law of SCCA neurons to linear force based on the cupula buoyancy theory. Data analysis confirmed that the basic response characteristic of SVA neurons had no significant difference to those of SCCA neurons, but were significantly different from those of otolith afferent neurons. Further, the actual responses of SVA neurons to linear force are completely consistent with our predictions. These results strongly suggest that SVA neurons actually are SCCA neurons, and the cupula buoyancy theory is the key to the sensory overlap mechanism of SCCA neurons. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed the real identity of SVA neurons and provided a reasonable mechanism for sensory overlap of rotation and linear force, which improved our understanding about the vestibular system.


Assuntos
Neurônios Aferentes/fisiologia , Rotação , Sensação/fisiologia , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/lesões , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Animais , Chinchila , Feminino , Movimentos da Cabeça , Modelos Anatômicos , Membrana dos Otólitos/fisiologia , Canais Semicirculares/fisiologia , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/anatomia & histologia
18.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000712, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663220

RESUMO

Tools enabling closed-loop experiments are crucial to delineate causal relationships between the activity of genetically labeled neurons and specific behaviors. We developed the Raspberry Pi Virtual Reality (PiVR) system to conduct closed-loop optogenetic stimulation of neural functions in unrestrained animals. PiVR is an experimental platform that operates at high temporal resolution (70 Hz) with low latencies (<30 milliseconds), while being affordable (

Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Optogenética , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Larva/fisiologia , Luz , Locomoção , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Odorantes , Sensação/fisiologia , Software , Paladar/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(3): 400-409, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this research was to assess and compare esthetic perceptions of clear aligner therapy with attachments and esthetic brackets by measuring differences in eye fixations using eye-tracking technology. METHODS: The sample involved 250 adult subjects. The subjects gave verbal consent, then viewed photographs showing 4 variations of orthodontic appliances: clear aligner control with minimal attachments, clear aligner with anterior and posterior attachments, esthetic brackets, and clear aligner with posterior attachments. Images were displayed for 6 seconds each on a computer monitor. Location and time to first fixation, total fixation duration, and total visit count and duration for each type of appliance were measured. Subjects were then asked to complete an online survey. RESULTS: Participants spent the least amount of time looking at the photograph of the control, followed by those of the ceramic brackets, posterior attachments, and anterior and/or posterior attachments. The anterior and/or posterior image had the least number of visits but garnered the longest visit duration (1.32 visits averaging 0.74 seconds per visit). This was followed by the images of the posterior attachments (1.40 visits, 0.70 seconds per visit), ceramic brackets (1.43 visits, 0.65 seconds per visit), and minimal attachments control (1.45 visits, 0.61 seconds per visit). The hierarchy of most preferred appliances across all 250 respondents was as follows: minimal attachments control, ceramic brackets, posterior attachments, and anterior and/or posterior attachments. Overall, 88.4% of subjects would compromise appliance esthetics during treatment for a better outcome (n = 221). CONCLUSIONS: Eye-tracking data show that time to the first fixation was negatively correlated with its survey ranking and that an increase in attachments led to an increase in total fixation duration. There is a general desire for clear aligners without attachments and ceramic brackets over clear aligners with multiple attachments. Survey data suggest that although respondents viewed appliance esthetics as highly important, nearly all would compromise appliance esthetics during treatment if it resulted in a better outcome.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Cerâmica , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Sensação
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16438-16447, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601213

RESUMO

Chemosensory communication is essential to insect biology, playing indispensable roles during mate-finding, foraging, and oviposition behaviors. These traits are particularly important during speciation, where chemical perception may serve to establish species barriers. However, identifying genes associated with such complex behavioral traits remains a significant challenge. Through a combination of transcriptomic and genomic approaches, we characterize the genetic architecture of chemoperception and the role of chemosensing during speciation for a young species pair of Heliconius butterflies, Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno We provide a detailed description of chemosensory gene-expression profiles as they relate to sensory tissue (antennae, legs, and mouthparts), sex (male and female), and life stage (unmated and mated female butterflies). Our results untangle the potential role of chemical communication in establishing barriers during speciation and identify strong candidate genes for mate and host plant choice behaviors. Of the 252 chemosensory genes, HmOBP20 (involved in volatile detection) and HmGr56 (a putative synephrine-related receptor) emerge as strong candidates for divergence in pheromone detection and host plant discrimination, respectively. These two genes are not physically linked to wing-color pattern loci or other genomic regions associated with visual mate preference. Altogether, our results provide evidence for chemosensory divergence between H. melpomene and H. cydno, two rarely hybridizing butterflies with distinct mate and host plant preferences, a finding that supports a polygenic architecture of species boundaries.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Animais , Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Sensação
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