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3.
Med Anthropol Q ; 32(2): 214-232, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726292

RESUMO

Sufferers of medically unexplained conditions that are not observable in the clinic can experience multiple layers of invisibility: a lack of biomedical diagnosis; legal skepticism; political disinterest; and a loss of their prior social identity. For those with environmental sensitivities, this is compounded by literal hiddenness due to often being housebound. Drawing on an online survey of people with multiple chemical sensitivity, this article examines how the everyday experience of invisibility is mitigated by engaging with other patients online. Respondents used online forums to undertake various forms of "visibility work," including attempts to crystallize their suffering into something recognizable medically, legally, and politically, and to reconstruct an identity considered valid and deserving-although the therapeutic potential of online support was contingent on intra-group politics. This study demonstrates that online forums allow biomedicine's "invisible others" to struggle for alternative forms of recognition beyond the clinical gaze.


Assuntos
Internet , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Grupos de Autoajuda , Identificação Social , Adulto , Idoso , Antropologia Médica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Complement Integr Med ; 14(2)2017 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731314

RESUMO

Background Food and chemical sensitivities have detrimental effects on health and the quality of life. The natural course of such sensitivities can potentially be altered through various types of allergen-specific immunotherapy, including low-dose immunotherapy. The molecular mechanism by which low-dose immunotherapy causes desensitization has not thus far been elucidated. While resting lymphocytes maintain a low cytosolic calcium ion concentration, antigen receptor signaling results in calcium ion influx, predominantly via store-operated calcium channels. We therefore hypothesized that desensitization by low-dose immunotherapy is associated with reduced influx of calcium ions into lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. Methods Intracellular lymphocytic calcium ion concentrations were assayed in a total of 47 patients, following incubation with picogram amounts of the test allergens, using a cell-permeable calcium-sensing ratiometric fluorescent dye and fluorescence spectroscopy, both at baseline and following successful provocation neutralization treatment with low-dose immunotherapy. Results Low-dose immunotherapy was associated with a reduction in lymphocytic intracellular calcium ion concentration following treatment of: 23 % for metabisulfite sensitivity (p<0.0004); 12 % for salicylate sensitivity (p<0.01); 23 % for benzoate sensitivity (p<0.01); 30 % for formaldehyde sensitivity (p<0.0001); 16 % for sensitivity to petrol exhaust (p<0.003); 16 % for natural gas sensitivity (p<0.001); 13 % for nickel sensitivity (p<0.05); 30 % for sensitivity to organophosphates (p<0.01); and 24 % for sensitivity to nitrosamines (p<0.05). Conclusions Low-dose immunotherapy may affect baseline levels of intracellular calcium in lymphocytes, supporting the premise that allergens affect cell signaling in immune cells and provocation neutralization immunotherapy helps to promote more normal immune cell signaling.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Doença Ambiental/terapia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Benzoatos/efeitos adversos , Doença Ambiental/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/metabolismo , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Gás Natural/efeitos adversos , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Nitrosaminas/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Salicilatos/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos
6.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 29(5): 267-277, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of transcranially applied pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on functional impairments and symptom severity in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients. METHODS: The study was conducted as a nationwide trial in Denmark using a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Sample size was estimated at 40 participants. Eligibility criteria were age 18-75 years and fulfilment of the MCS case criteria. Participants received either PEMF or placebo PEMF (no stimulation) applied transcranially for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the Life Impact Scale (LIS) of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI). Secondary outcomes were the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and the Chemical Intolerance Scale of QEESI. RESULTS: A total of 39 participants were randomised to PEMF or placebo treatment. No significant difference was observed on QEESI LIS between groups with a mean change score of -5.9 in the PEMF group compared with -1.5 in the placebo group (p=0.35, effect size=-0.31). However, a significant decrease was detected on QEESI SSS within and between groups with a mean change score of -11.3 in the PEMF group compared with -3.2 in the placebo group (p=0.03, effect size=-0.60). CONCLUSION: PEMF treatment of 6 weeks showed no effect on functional impairments in MCS. However, a significant decrease in symptom severity was observed.


Assuntos
Terapia de Campo Magnético , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Psychosom Res ; 79(6): 628-34, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26311155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a medically unexplained condition characterized by symptoms from multiple organ systems following the perception of common odorants. The condition can cause severe functional impairment for afflicted individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with MCS. METHODS: The intention-to-treat sample (ITT) included 69 individuals who had been randomized to either MBCT or treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome measure was the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI), which measures the following aspects of MCS: impact of MCS on daily life, symptoms, and reactions following chemical exposures. Secondary outcome measures included the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) and the anxiety and depression subscales of the symptom checklist 92 (SCL-92). Participants were assessed at baseline and post treatment, and at follow-up periods of 6- and 12-months. RESULTS: We found no effect of MBCT on the primary outcome, nor did we find an effect on levels of depression or anxiety. We did, however, find positive changes in illness perceptions, which were sustained at 12-month follow-up. Dropout rates were low, suggesting MBCT was well received and regarded as an acceptable intervention by individuals with MCS. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results suggest that MBCT does not change overall illness status in individuals with MCS, but that MBCT positively changes emotional and cognitive representations. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Atenção Plena , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Cognição , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo , Emoções , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 11(9): 973-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26144241

RESUMO

A panel of Italian allergists gathered to discuss the issue concerning the management of polysensitized patients. The main conclusions were as follows: polysensitization is a relevant clinical characteristic as it affects about 70-80% of the global allergic population; the diagnostic pathway needs the use of an adequate and thorough methodology, based on the demonstration of consistency between history and documented sensitization; polysensitization and polyallergy are not synonymous: true allergy should always be demonstrated; polysensitization does not constitute a limitation to allergen immunotherapy prescription, as 1-2 allergen extracts could be effective in polysensitized patients; the allergen immunotherapy product characteristics should include the following: high efficacy and optimal safety profile, standardized production, and documented presence and titration of the major allergen.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/imunologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Curr Rheumatol Rev ; 11(2): 167-84, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26088215

RESUMO

Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade Química Múltipla , Humanos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Trials ; 14: 256, 2013 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23947742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition of unknown etiology. MCS is characterized by recurrent nonspecific symptoms from multiple organ systems in response to chemical exposures in concentrations that are normally tolerated by the majority of the population. The symptoms may have severe impact on patients' lives, but an evidence-based treatment for the condition is nonexisting. The pathophysiology is unclarified, but several indicators point towards abnormal processing of sensory signals in the central nervous system. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) offer a promising new treatment for refractory depression and can be targeted at the brain, thereby activating biochemical cell processes. METHODS/DESIGN: In a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, the effects of PEMF in MCS patients will be assessed using the Re5 Independent System. Based on sample size estimation, 40 participants will be randomized to either PEMF therapy or placebo. The allocation sequence will be generated by computer. All involved parties (that is, participants, investigators, the research nurse, and the statistician) will be blinded to group allocation. The participants will receive PEMF therapy or placebo applied transcranially 30 minutes twice a day for 7 days a week over 6 consecutive weeks. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, once weekly during treatment, post treatment, and at 2.5-month and 4.5-month follow-up according to a predefined timetable. The primary outcome will be a measurement of the impact of MCS on everyday life. The secondary outcomes will be measurements of MCS symptoms, psychological distress (stress, anxiety or depressive symptoms), capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia, immunological markers in serum, and quality of life. DISCUSSION: This trial will assess the effects of PEMF therapy for MCS. Currently, there is no treatment with a documented effect on MCS, and in terms of healthcare there is very little to offer these patients. There is thus a great need for well-conducted randomized trials aimed at assessing possible treatment effects. A positive outcome will pave the way for improved healthcare and understanding of this very disabling and overlooked condition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01834781.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Atividades Cotidianas , Protocolos Clínicos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dinamarca , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e65713, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23799038

RESUMO

Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial condition in which people describe symptoms following exposure to electromagnetic fields from everyday electrical devices. However, double-blind experiments have found no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause these symptoms. In this study, we assessed whether recent newspaper reporting in the UK reflected this scientific evidence. We searched a database of newspaper articles to identify all those that contained IEI-EMF related keywords and selected a random sample of 60 for content analysis. For our primary outcomes, we assessed how many articles mainly or wholly presented an electromagnetic cause for IEI-EMF and how many discussed unproven treatments for the condition such as strategies intended to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields or the use of complementary and alternative therapies. We also assessed whether the type of information source used by a newspaper article (e.g. scientist, person with IEI-EMF, politician) or the type of newspaper (broadsheet, tabloid, local or regional) was associated with either outcome. Of the 60 articles, 43 (71.7%) presented a mainly electromagnetic cause, compared to 13 (21.7%) which presented mainly non-electromagnetic causes and 4 (6.7%) which did not discuss a cause. 29 (48.3%) did not mention any potential treatment, while 24 (40.0%) mentioned eletromagnetic field related strategies and 12 (20.0%) mentioned complementary or alternative therapies. Articles which quoted someone with IEI-EMF were significantly more likely to report an electromagnetic cause and to present unproven treatments. Those which used a scientist as a source were more likely to present a non-electromagnetic cause for the condition. The widespread poor reporting we identified is disappointing and has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields. Scientists should remain engaged with the media to counteract this effect.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/etiologia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Jornais como Assunto/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reino Unido
12.
Clin Ther ; 35(5): 572-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23642291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escalating numbers of people throughout the world are presenting to primary care physicians, allergists, and immunologists with myriad clinical symptoms after low-level exposure to assorted everyday chemicals such as smoke, perfumes, air fresheners, paints, glues, and other products. This clinical state is referred to by various diagnostic labels, including multiple chemical sensitivity disorder, environmental intolerance, chemical sensitivity (CS), and sensitivity-related illness, and has been the subject of much controversy within the health care community. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to provide a brief overview of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of CS. An evaluation of the medical community's response to this emerging diagnosis was also explored. METHODS: This review was prepared by assessing available medical and scientific literature from MEDLINE, as well as by reviewing numerous books, toxicology journals, conference proceedings, government publications, and environmental health periodicals. A primary observation, however, is that there is limited scientific literature available on the issue of CS. The format of a traditional integrated review was chosen because such reviews play a pivotal role in scientific research and professional practice in medical issues with limited primary study and uncharted clinical territory. RESULTS: The sensitization state of CS seems to be initiated by a significant toxic exposure, occurring as a 1-time event, or on surpassing a threshold of toxicity after toxicant accrual from repeated lower-level exposures. Once sensitized through a toxicant-induced loss of tolerance, individuals exposed to inciting triggers such as minute amounts of diverse everyday chemicals may experience various clinical and immune sequelae, sometimes involving lymphocyte, antibody, or cytokine responses. Precautionary avoidance of inciting triggers will prevent symptoms, and desensitization immunotherapy or immune suppression may improve symptoms in some cases. Sustained resolution of the CS state occurs after successful elimination of the accrued body burden of toxicants through natural mechanisms of toxicant bioelimination and/or interventions of clinical detoxification. Despite extensive clinical evidence to support the veracity of this clinical state, many members of the medical community are reluctant to accept this condition as a pathophysiologic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The emerging problem of ubiquitous adverse toxicant exposures in modern society has resulted in escalating numbers of individuals developing a CS disorder. As usual in medical history, iconoclastic ideas and emerging evidence regarding novel disease mechanisms, such as the pathogenesis of CS, have been met with controversy, resistance, and sluggish knowledge translation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia
13.
Rev Mal Respir ; 30(2): 99-104, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23419440

RESUMO

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition, which belongs to the group of medically unexplained syndromes. Patients (men as well as women) complain of many subjective symptoms such as nose and mouth irritation, sore throat, dyspnea, tiredness, dizziness, headache and concentration difficulties. Patient typically report at least four or five symptoms occurring when they are exposed to particular substances, at a very low concentration that usually does not cause symptoms or harm in normal individuals. The common feature of products that appear to be responsible (either occupational or domestic) is that they have a strong smell and include: solvent, paint, glue, tar, oil, pesticides, perfume, cosmetics and spray products. MCS is nowadays considered to be one aspect of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) whose other main aspect is hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields. If the diagnosis is suspected clinically it can be confirmed using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI(©)) self-questionnaire. MCS is often misdiagnosed as asthma or an allergic conditions which means that patients are frequently referred to respiratory and allergy specialists. Misdiagnosis can lead to many futile medical investigations. Psychotherapy can improve quality of life in some cases. Preventive measures are often ineffective and do not stop the condition worsening: hypersensitivity can spread to common environmental odors so that a few people become severely disabled and limited in their workplace as well as in private life. In France, 435 cases were registered in the university hospital occupational disease departments network (RNV3P) during the period 2007-2010. It is therefore important that every clinician be able to recognize the condition and ensure that their patients could get compensation when unable to go on working.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Responsabilidade Legal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Testes de Provocação Nasal , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
15.
Complement Ther Med ; 20(6): 400-8, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23131370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) is an acquired disorder with multiple recurrent symptoms, which is associated with diverse environmental factors that are tolerated by the majority of people. IEI is an illness of uncertain aetiology, making it difficult to treat using conventional medicine. Therefore, there is a need for novel therapies to control the symptoms of IEI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of aromatherapy massage for individuals with IEI. DESIGN: Non-blinded crossover trial. SETTING: IEI patients who attended a clinic in Sapporo city were recruited, and sixteen patients were enrolled. Participants were clinically examined by an experienced medical doctor and met the criteria included in the working definition of IEI disorder. INTERVENTIONS: During the active period, participants received four one-hour aromatherapy massage sessions every two weeks. During the control period, the participants did not receive any massages. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Scores on the IEI-scales trigger checklist, symptoms, life impact, and the State Anxiety Inventory were assessed before and after each period. Short-term mood enhancement was evaluated using the Profiles of Mood Status (POMS) before and after sessions. RESULTS: Due to period effects, evaluation of the results had to be restricted to the first period, and the result showed no effect of intervention. All six sub-scales of the POMS improved after each session (mean score differences: 4.89-1.33, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Aromatherapy was well tolerated by subjects with IEI; however, aromatherapy, as applied in this study, did not suggest any specific effects on IEI condition.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Massagem , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla , Adulto , Afeto , Ansiedade , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Projetos Piloto
16.
Trials ; 13: 179, 2012 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23016822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition characterized by recurrent, self-reported symptoms from multiple organ systems, attributable to exposure to a wide range of chemically unrelated substances at low levels. The pathophysiology is unknown, and affected individuals generally favor avoidance of the symptom triggering substances as a coping strategy. The impact of MCS on daily life may thus be severe. An intervention that may effectively reduce the impact of MCS, alleviate the symptoms and the psychological distress associated with the condition is therefore highly needed. In this study we will assess the effects of a mindfulness-based cognitive (MBCT) program on MCS. METHODS/DESIGN: Using a randomized controlled design (RCT), we will compare MBCT with treatment as usual (TAU). The MBCT intervention will include 8 weekly 2.5 hour sessions, and 45 minutes of mindfulness home practice 6 days each week. Participants will be asked to complete questionnaires at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 and 12 months' follow-up. Based on sample size estimation, 82 participants will be randomized to either the MBCT intervention or to TAU. The primary outcome will be a measure of the impact of MCS on the participants' lives. The secondary outcome measures are physical symptoms of psychological distress, perceived stress, illness perceptions, QOL, and work ability. Lastly, we will assess whether any effect of MBCT on the primary effect measure is mediated by level of mindfulness, self-compassion, perceived stress, and rumination. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide important information on the effects of MBCT on MCS. TRIALS REGISTRATION: Clinical trials identifier NCT01240395.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Psicofisiologia/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
17.
Scand J Psychol ; 53(3): 233-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22530938

RESUMO

Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) is a medically unexplained and socially disabling disorder characterized by negative health effects attributed to exposure to common airborne chemicals. Currently, there is no evidence-based treatment. The objectives of the study were to assess the feasibility of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program (MBCT) for adults with MCS and to evaluate possible effects on psychological distress and illness perception. The study design was a randomized clinical trial. The MBCT programme comprised 8 weekly sessions of 2½ hours. Forty-two adults were screened for eligibility and 37 were included. Mean age of the participants was 51.6 years, 35 (94.6%) were female and 21 (56.8%) were unemployed. Measures of psychological distress and illness perceptions were assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and at 3 months follow-up. No significant differences in effect measures were found between the groups. However, those who completed the MBCT program generally reported benefiting in terms of improved coping strategies and sleep quality. The positive verbal feedback from the participants in the MBCT group suggests that a larger randomized clinical trial on the effect of MBCT for MCS could be considered.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 8(7): 2770-97, 2011 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21845158

RESUMO

Whilst facing a worldwide fast increase of food and environmental allergies, the medical community is also confronted with another inhomogeneous group of environment-associated disabling conditions, including multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, electric hypersensitivity, amalgam disease and others. These share the features of poly-symptomatic multi-organ cutaneous and systemic manifestations, with postulated inherited/acquired impaired metabolism of chemical/physical/nutritional xenobiotics, triggering adverse reactions at exposure levels far below toxicologically-relevant values, often in the absence of clear-cut allergologic and/or immunologic involvement. Due to the lack of proven pathogenic mechanisms generating measurable disease biomarkers, these environmental hypersensitivities are generally ignored by sanitary and social systems, as psychogenic or "medically unexplained symptoms". The uncontrolled application of diagnostic and treatment protocols not corresponding to acceptable levels of validation, safety, and clinical efficacy, to a steadily increasing number of patients demanding assistance, occurs in many countries in the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Here we revise available information supporting the organic nature of these clinical conditions. Following intense research on gene polymorphisms of phase I/II detoxification enzyme genes, so far statistically inconclusive, epigenetic and metabolic factors are under investigation, in particular free radical/antioxidant homeostasis disturbances. The finding of relevant alterations of catalase, glutathione-transferase and peroxidase detoxifying activities significantly correlating with clinical manifestations of MCS, has recently registered some progress towards the identification of reliable biomarkers of disease onset, progression, and treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Doença Ambiental/diagnóstico , Marcadores Genéticos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Amálgama Dentário/toxicidade , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Doença Ambiental/terapia , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Fibromialgia/etiologia , Fibromialgia/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/etiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/etiologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/terapia , Fatores Sexuais
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