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1.
Steroids ; 182: 108995, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245531

RESUMO

Biochemical investigation of crude solvent extract of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (family Sepiidae) led to the isolation of two undescribed disecolactonic ergosteroids, pharaonoids A-B. The compounds were characterized as 11ß-acteoxy-7α-hydroxy-19-Nor-1,10:9,10-disecoergosta-3-ene-61-oxa-1-one (pharaonoid A) and 11ß-hydroxy-19-Nor-1,10:9,10-disecoergosta-3-ene-61-oxa-1-one (pharaonoid B) in conjunction with spectroscopic analysis encompassing one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometric analyses. Pharaonoid A, bearing an acetoxy and hydroxyl groups, respectively at C-11 and C-7 positions exhibited considerably greater inhibition potential against carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes α-amylase (IC50 1.14 mM) and α-glucosidase (IC50 1.23 mM) than those displayed by pharaonoid B (IC50 1.49/1.38 mM), and was proportionate with those exhibited by standard drug acarbose (IC50 0.60 and 0.40 mM, respectively), thereby recognizing the anti-hyperglycemic potential of pharaonoid A. Promising anti-oxidant property for pharaonoid A (IC50 âˆ¼ 1 mM) could conceivably corroborate its attenuation potential against carbohydrate digestive enzymes. Greater electronic parameters along with optimum lipophilic-hydrophobic balance of pharaonoid A were directly corroborated to the anti-carbolytic properties occurring via transcellular mechanism. Greater binding energies (-9.50 kcal mol-1) and inhibition constant (Ki 48.21 nM) at the active site of α-amylase enzyme were displayed by pharaonoid A than those exhibited by its B analogue. Promising bioactive properties of the disecolactonic steroids isolated from the marine pharaoh cuttlefish are anticipated to be utilized as functional food components and potential nutraceuticals against oxidative stress and hyperglycemic disorders.


Assuntos
Sepia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carboidratos , Decapodiformes , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepia/fisiologia , alfa-Amilases
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 232: 113256, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131585

RESUMO

In this study, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was examined as an additional supplement to improve the ammonia stress resistance of S. pharaonis. Specifically, we added different doses of GABA (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg) to food, cultivated S. pharaonis in regular seawater for 8 weeks and then in 8.40 mg/L ammonia seawater for 48 h and then investigated the accumulation of ammonia (the hepatic ammonia content), ammonia detoxification process (the urea content), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities), immune response (the serum haemolytic complement (C3) and lysozyme (LYZ) contents), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and histopathology of the liver. The results showed that ammonia poisoning could induce ammonia and MDA accumulation and subsequently lead to oxidative stress (decreases in SOD and CAT activities), immunosuppression (reductions in the haemolytic C3 and LYZ content), and histopathological injury in the liver. The application of GABA had a significant effect on alleviating the adverse effect of ammonia poisoning, and 80-100 mg/kg treatment exerted the best effect. This treatment significantly reduced the ammonia and MDA contents, significantly increased the urea content, increased the SOD, CAT, C3 and LYZ activities, reduced the MDA content, suppressed membrane lipid peroxidation, and significantly improved the histopathological injury to the liver. In summary, the results could provide a new method for mitigating liver damage, alleviating the physiological and metabolic disorders caused by ammonia stress in cuttlefish, and provide a theoretical basis for the application of GABA in alleviating ammonia poisoning.


Assuntos
Sepia , Amônia/metabolismo , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Decapodiformes , Imunidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(19): 28675-28687, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988792

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the concentration of selected heavy metals in common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) caught in the south west of Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia). To reach this objective, cuttlefish samples were collected from each area (Sfax and Djerba) situated along the Gulf of Gabes, and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) were measured in the gills, gonads, digestive glands, and muscles. Sample preparation and quantification of the metals were accomplished via the wet digestion method and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of heavy metals varied significantly among organs and sites. In fact, the population from Sfax (Gargour) shows the highest concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead compared to the population from Djerba. Globally, recorded metal concentrations were within the range or below the levels in similar species from other regions across the world. To our knowledge, this study is the first that interests to the bioaccumulation of metals in this cuttlefish species from the two investigated areas and to the evaluation of their levels in different tissues.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Metais Pesados , Sepia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais Pesados/análise , Tunísia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 276: 118715, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823761

RESUMO

Four fractions of water-extracted Sepia esculenta ink polysaccharides (SIP) were separated by dicthylaminoethy (DEAE) cellulose chromatography. The eluted fraction with the highest yield was characterized as a sulfate-rich glycosaminoglycan named SIP-IV. According to the analysis of laser scattering and refractive index signals, SIP-IV was determined to be 14.4 kDa and spherical molecular conformation in salt solution. SIP-IV is composed of fucose, galactosamine, glucosamine, mannose and glucuronic acid with a molar ratio of 5.1:7.3:3.8:1:4.4, which is obviously different from reported SIPs. SIP-IV promoted yeast proliferation and intercellular antioxidant level. Based on multi-omics strategy, data of transcriptome analysis suggested that growth promotion of SIP-IV on Saccharomyces cerevisiae might be attributed to regulation of Rho protein signal transduction, nuclear autophagy and nitrogen utilization. Combined with the metabolome results, SIP-IV also re-profiled metabolism of amino acids and phospholipids in yeast cells.


Assuntos
Glicosaminoglicanos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepia/química , Sulfatos/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosaminoglicanos/química , Tinta , Metaboloma , Conformação Molecular , Peso Molecular , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma
5.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718445

RESUMO

While they are mostly renowned for their visual capacities, cephalopods are also good at olfaction for prey, predator, and conspecific detection. The olfactory organs and olfactory cells are well described but olfactory receptors-genes and proteins-are still undescribed in cephalopods. We conducted a broad phylogenetic analysis of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family in mollusks (iGluR), especially to identify IR members (Ionotropic Receptors), a variant subfamily whose involvement in chemosensory functions has been shown in most studied protostomes. A total of 312 iGluRs sequences (including 111 IRs) from gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods were identified and annotated. One orthologue of the gene coding for the chemosensory IR25 co-receptor has been found in Sepia officinalis (Soff-IR25). We searched for Soff-IR25 expression at the cellular level by in situ hybridization in whole embryos at late stages before hatching. Expression was observed in the olfactory organs, which strongly validates the chemosensory function of this receptor in cephalopods. Soff-IR25 was also detected in the developing suckers, which suggests that the unique « taste by touch ¼ behavior that cephalopods execute with their arms and suckers share features with olfaction. Finally, Soff-IR25 positive cells were unexpectedly found in fins, the two posterior appendages of cephalopods, mostly involved in locomotory functions. This result opens new avenues of investigation to confirm fins as additional chemosensory organs in cephalopods.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Receptores Odorantes , Sepia , Animais , Cefalópodes/genética , Cefalópodes/metabolismo , Filogenia , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Sepia/genética , Sepia/metabolismo , Olfato
6.
J Food Biochem ; 45(10): e13919, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486135

RESUMO

Marine pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (family Sepiidae) is regarded as an economically important class of cephalopod in the coastal Mediterranean and Asian regions. Bioassay-guided chromatographic purification of solvent extract of S. pharaonis led to the identification of a trans-decalin based spirolactone, spiropharanone, which was characterized as 1-hydroxy-7-(4'-methoxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3,9,15-trimethyl-8-oxo-octahydro-5H-spiro[furan-8,9-naphtho]-8-yl-acetate by spectroscopic techniques. Spiropharanone exhibited significantly greater anti-inflammatory activity by attenuating pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 1.02 mM) than the non-steroidal drug ibuprofen (IC50 4.61 mM, p ≤ .05). Superior antioxidant properties of spiropharanone against free radicals (EC50 ~1.20 mM) and other oxidants (hydroxyl [EC50 0.97 mM] and superoxide [EC50 1.47 mM] scavenging) also reinforced its promising anti-inflammatory activity. The studied spiropharanone also exhibited significant attenuation toward insulin secretion regulating enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (IC50 0.92 mM) recognizing its anti-hyperglycemic potential. Significantly higher electronic properties (topological polar surface area ~100) combined with balanced hydrophilic-lipophilic properties (partition coefficient of logarithmic octanol-water ~3) and lesser docking parameters of spiropharanone demonstrated that the compound could be utilized as an important bioactive lead against oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemic-related ailments. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Nutritionally rich edible marine pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis occupies a prominent place among seafood fisheries owing to the presence of bioactive nutrients and functional food ingredients. These marine cuttlefish are widely distributed along the Asian and Mediterranean coasts, and consumed as culinary delicacy for decades. An undescribed trans-decalin spirolactone, spiropharanone was isolated from the organic extract of S. pharaonis based on bioactivity-assisted sequential chromatographic fractionation. Spiropharanone displayed promising antioxidant potential along with attenuation properties against inducible pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase and insulin secretion regulating enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4. This study established the ameliorating potential of a naturally derived marine food constituent against inflammatory and diabetic ailments, and thus anticipated as functional food lead in pharmaceutical formulations towards inflammation and maintaining glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Sepia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase , Decapodiformes , Lactonas , Lipoxigenase , Naftalenos , Alimentos Marinhos , Serina Proteases
7.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 40(9): 2571-2577, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197652

RESUMO

Contamination of the marine environment by antidepressants may affect neurophysiological processes in nontarget organisms, such as the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. The present study tested whether environmentally realistic concentrations of antidepressants, that is, fluoxetine alone (5 ng L-1 ) or cumulated with venlafaxine (2.5 or 5 ng L-1 ), affect camouflage in newly hatched cuttlefish. The results show that antidepressants improved uniform body patterns, whereas disruptive body patterns were not affected. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:2571-2577. © 2021 SETAC.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes , Sepia , Animais , Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Sepia/fisiologia , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina
8.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 177, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to prioritize people living with HIV (PLWH) by risk of future transmissions could aid public health officials in optimizing epidemiological intervention. While methods exist to perform such prioritization based on molecular data, their effectiveness and accuracy are poorly understood, and it is unclear how one can directly compare the accuracy of different methods. We introduce SEPIA (Simulation-based Evaluation of PrIoritization Algorithms), a novel simulation-based framework for determining the effectiveness of prioritization algorithms. SEPIA expands upon prior related work by defining novel metrics of effectiveness with which to compare prioritization techniques, as well as by creating a simulation-based tool with which to perform such effectiveness comparisons. Under several metrics of effectiveness that we propose, we compare two existing prioritization approaches: one phylogenetic (ProACT) and one distance-based (growth of HIV-TRACE transmission clusters). RESULTS: Using all proposed metrics, ProACT consistently slightly outperformed the transmission cluster growth approach. However, both methods consistently performed just marginally better than random, suggesting that there is significant room for improvement in prioritization tools. CONCLUSION: We hope that, by providing ways to quantify the effectiveness of prioritization methods in simulation, SEPIA will aid researchers in developing novel risk prioritization tools for PLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sepia , Algoritmos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Filogenia
9.
J Exp Biol ; 224(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109984

RESUMO

To conceal themselves on the seafloor, European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, express a large repertoire of body patterns. Scenes with 3D relief are especially challenging because it is not possible either to directly recover visual depth from the 2D retinal image or for the cuttlefish to alter its body shape to resemble nearby objects. Here, we characterised cuttlefish camouflage responses to 3D relief, and to cast shadows, which are complementary depth cues. Animals were recorded in the presence of cylindrical objects of fixed (15 mm) diameter, but varying in height, greyscale and strength of cast shadows, and to corresponding 2D pictorial images. With the cylinders, the cuttlefish expressed a '3D' body pattern, which is distinct from previously described Uniform, Mottle and Disruptive camouflage patterns. This pattern was insensitive to variation in object height, contrast and cast shadow, except when shadows were most pronounced, in which case the body patterns resembled those used on the 2D backgrounds. This suggests that stationary cast shadows are not used as visual depth cues by cuttlefish, and that rather than directly matching the 2D retinal image, the camouflage response is a two-stage process whereby the animal first classifies the physical environment and then selects an appropriate pattern. Each type of pattern is triggered by specific cues that may compete, allowing the animal to select the most suitable camouflage, so the camouflage response is categorical rather than continuously variable. These findings give unique insight into how an invertebrate senses its visual environment to generate the body pattern response.


Assuntos
Sepia , Animais , Decapodiformes , Pigmentação da Pele , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121131

RESUMO

CREB (cAMP response element-binding) transcription factors are conserved markers of memory formation in the brain and peripheral circuits. We provide immunohistochemical evidence of CREB phosphorylation in the dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, following the inaccessible prey (IP) memory experiment. During the IP experiment, cuttlefish are shown prey enclosed in a transparent tube, and tentacle strikes against the tube decrease over time as the cuttlefish learns the prey is inaccessible. The cues driving IP learning are unclear but may include sensory inputs from arms touching the tube. The neural activity marker, anti-phospho-CREB (anti-pCREB) was used to determine whether IP training stimulated cuttlefish arm sensory neurons. pCREB immunoreactivity occurred along the oral surface of the arms, including the suckers and epithelial folds surrounding the suckers. pCREB increased in the epithelial folds and suckers of trained cuttlefish. We found differential pCREB immunoreactivity along the distal-proximal axis of trained arms, with pCREB concentrated distally. Unequal CREB phosphorylation occurred among the 4 trained arm pairs, with arm pairs 1 and 2 containing more pCREB. The resulting patterns of pCREB in trained arms suggest that the arms obtain cues that may be salient for learning and memory of the IP experiment.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Sepia/fisiologia , Animais , Extremidades/fisiologia , Fosforilação
11.
Dev Dyn ; 250(12): 1688-1703, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dwarf cuttlefish Sepia bandensis, a camouflaging cephalopod from the Indo-Pacific, is a promising new model organism for neuroscience, developmental biology, and evolutionary studies. Cuttlefish dynamically camouflage to their surroundings by altering the color, pattern, and texture of their skin. The skin's "pixels" (chromatophores) are controlled by motor neurons projecting from the brain. Thus, camouflage is a visible representation of neural activity. In addition to camouflage, the dwarf cuttlefish uses dynamic skin patterns for social communication. Despite more than 500 million years of evolutionary separation, cuttlefish and vertebrates converged to form limbs, camera-type eyes and a closed circulatory system. Moreover, cuttlefish have a striking ability to regenerate their limbs. Interrogation of these unique biological features will benefit from the development of a new set of tools. Dwarf cuttlefish reach sexual maturity in 4 months, they lay dozens of eggs over their 9-month lifespan, and the embryos develop to hatching in 1 month. RESULTS: Here, we describe methods to culture dwarf cuttlefish embryos in vitro and define 25 stages of cuttlefish development. CONCLUSION: This staging series serves as a foundation for future technologies that can be used to address a myriad of developmental, neurobiological, and evolutionary questions.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Sepia/embriologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Decapodiformes/embriologia , Decapodiformes/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião não Mamífero , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Filogenia , Sepia/fisiologia
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(5): 1873-1880, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042384

RESUMO

Common cuttlefish is mainly distributed in the eastern North Atlantic and the coastal waters of Africa, which is an important fishing target for trawl fisheries and the most important commercial species in the Atlantic sepia family. In this study, based on the cuttlefish samples collected from the west Africa coast in July-August 2015, we measured the outer morphological parameters of 283 cuttlebones. Combined with the age information of cuttlebones, we examined the growth characteristics of cuttlefish of different genders. The results showed that there were significant differences in body length and body weight between different genders. The dominant age group of female and male was both 80-100 days. Among the fitting functions of the outer shape of cuttlebone and the age, the logistic function was the best one. The females' maximum likelihood estimates of the outer morphological parameters of cuttlebone were larger than that of males. The absolute and instantaneous relative growth rates of the cuttlebone length and width of male and female cuttlefish peaked at 110-120 days and 100-110 days, respectively. The age of males and females at first sexual maturity was 111 days and 104 days, respectively. The growth difference between genders might be related to environment.


Assuntos
Sepia , África Ocidental , Animais , Peso Corporal , Decapodiformes , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812154

RESUMO

Inking is part of a defensive stress response in cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid, and octopus). Some individual cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) die after continued stress and inking; however, the physiological effects of cephalopods in response to stress and inking remain unknown. The present study investigated the metabolic profile and discussed the physiological roles of S. pharaonis tissues in response to continuous inking using the 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. A total of 50 metabolites, including amino acids, organic osmolytes, nucleotides, energy storage compounds, and obvious tissue-specific metabolites induced by inking stress, were identified in S. pharaonis tissues. Exposure to inking stress had different effects on the levels of the studied metabolites, for example, the levels of isoleucine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and betaine increased, but those of arginine and ATP decreased in the liver; inosine and lactate were accumulated whereas glutamate and choline were depleted in the gill; the levels of lactate and isoleucine were elevated but those of arginine and glycogen were depleted in the muscle tissue. Furthermore, the corresponding metabolic pathways of the characteristic metabolites indicated major changes in the functions of these metabolites. Histological changes in the studied tissues revealed liver lobule damage immediately after inking, with the presence of disordered epithelial cells and partial cell necrosis in the gill. Our results demonstrated that a combination of metabolomics and histological analyses could provide molecular-level insights for elucidating the defense response of cuttlefish against predators.


Assuntos
Sepia/fisiologia , Sepia/ultraestrutura , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Osmorregulação , Sepia/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 304: 113718, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476661

RESUMO

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of the most important neuroendocrine regulators for animal reproduction. GnRH-like peptide (GnRH-like) has recently been shown to play a critical reproductive role mainly in gametogenesis or steroidogenesis in the gonads of some molluscs, including cephalopods. However, its involvement in gonadal sex differentiation remains unknown. Here, we show the expression profile of GnRH-like in the brain of the cephalopod kisslip cuttlefish, Sepia lycidas, throughout gonadal sex differentiation, by quantitative real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that GnRH-like could be detected in the brain at a sexually undifferentiated stage, and its expression level significantly increased upon initiation of gonadal sex differentiation. However, no significant difference in GnRH-like expression levels was observed between sexes during gonadal sex differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrated immunoreactivity of GnRH-like in glial cells or immature neurons, which are mainly distributed in the non-reproductive related area of the cephalopod brain, suggesting the immature function of the reproductive endocrine axis during early ontogenesis. Our results demonstrate for the first time, the expression profile of GnRH-like during early ontogenesis in cephalopods.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Sepia , Diferenciação Sexual , Animais , Encéfalo , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Gônadas , Masculino , Diferenciação Sexual/genética
15.
Anim Cogn ; 24(1): 23-32, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651650

RESUMO

Learning can occur through self-experience with the environment, or through the observation of others. The latter allows for adaptive behaviour without trial-and-error, thus maximizing individual fitness. Perhaps given their mostly solitary lifestyle, cuttlefish have seldomly been tested under observational learning scenarios. Here we used a multi-treatment design to disentangle if and how neurally immature cuttlefish Sepia officinalis hatchlings (up to 5 days) incorporate social information into their decision-making, when performing a task where inhibition of predatory behaviour is learned. In the classical social learning treatment using pre-trained demonstrators, observers did not register any predatory behaviour. In the inhibition by social learning treatment, using naïve (or sham) demonstrators, more observers than demonstrators learned the task, while also reaching learning criterion in fewer trials, and performing less number of attacks per trial. Moreover, the performance of demonstrator-observer pairs was highly correlated, indicating that the mere presence of conspecifics did not explain our results by itself. Additionally, observers always reported higher latency time to attack during trials, a trend that was reversed in the positive controls. Lastly, pre-exposure to the stimulus did not improve learning rates. Our findings reveal the vicarious capacity of these invertebrate newborns to learn modulation (inhibition) of predatory behaviour, potentially through emulation (i.e. affordance learning). Despite ongoing changes on neural organization during early ontogeny, cognitively demanding forms of learning are already present in cuttlefish newborns, facilitating behavioural adaptation at a critical life stage, and potentially improving individual fitness in the environment.


Assuntos
Sepia , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Decapodiformes , Recém-Nascido , Inibição Psicológica , Aprendizagem
16.
Invert Neurosci ; 20(4): 16, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876847

RESUMO

Electron microscopy revealed that glial cells in the posterior sub-esophageal mass of the brain in Sepia officinalis had a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum formed by long coverslips with rectilinear or curvilinear arrangements. The coverslips appeared dilated and have a large amount of adhered polysomes. Vesicular lamellae coexisted with the elongated lamellae of RER and dictyosomes of Golgi apparatus. Endocytosis was evidenced through the pale vesicles which were appeared next to the apical border of microvilli in some glial cells. Sub-cellular features of endocytosis, predominantly the fluid phase, were observed in the apical glial cell cytoplasm. Glial cells were related to phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons, endocytosis, pinocytosis and adsorption. These functions were proposed based on their ultrastructure characteristics and a significant number of vesicles with different shapes (oval to polygonal), sizes 0.052-0.67 µm and contents. Glycogen, MPS and lipid were detected in the glial cells. Alkaline phosphatase was not observed, while an activity of acid phosphatase was bound to lysosomes. ATPases were present in the glial cells along the lateral and basal plasma lemma as well as on the membranes of cell organelles. Unspecific esterase was clearly recognizable by electron microscopy. The monoamine and cytochrome oxidase activities were demonstrated, while the succinate dehydrogenase showed a weak enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Neuroglia/química , Neuroglia/ultraestrutura , Sepia/citologia , Animais , Endocitose , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Complexo de Golgi/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Polirribossomos
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23450-23459, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913055

RESUMO

Cuttlefish, a unique group of marine mollusks, produces an internal biomineralized shell, known as cuttlebone, which is an ultra-lightweight cellular structure (porosity, ∼93 vol%) used as the animal's hard buoyancy tank. Although cuttlebone is primarily composed of a brittle mineral, aragonite, the structure is highly damage tolerant and can withstand water pressure of about 20 atmospheres (atm) for the species Sepia officinalis Currently, our knowledge on the structural origins for cuttlebone's remarkable mechanical performance is limited. Combining quantitative three-dimensional (3D) structural characterization, four-dimensional (4D) mechanical analysis, digital image correlation, and parametric simulations, here we reveal that the characteristic chambered "wall-septa" microstructure of cuttlebone, drastically distinct from other natural or engineering cellular solids, allows for simultaneous high specific stiffness (8.4 MN⋅m/kg) and energy absorption (4.4 kJ/kg) upon loading. We demonstrate that the vertical walls in the chambered cuttlebone microstructure have evolved an optimal waviness gradient, which leads to compression-dominant deformation and asymmetric wall fracture, accomplishing both high stiffness and high energy absorption. Moreover, the distribution of walls is found to reduce stress concentrations within the horizontal septa, facilitating a larger chamber crushing stress and a more significant densification. The design strategies revealed here can provide important lessons for the development of low-density, stiff, and damage-tolerant cellular ceramics.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Osso e Ossos/química , Sepia/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cerâmica/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Dureza , Porosidade
18.
Mar Drugs ; 18(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993031

RESUMO

The hydrolysate of golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) was prepared by using papain, and then, it was further separated by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide components of the active fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and then two novel peptides, SeP2 (DVEDLEAGLAK, 1159.27 Da) and SeP5 (EITSLAPSTM, 1049.22 Da), were obtained and displayed significant alleviation effects on oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Studies indicated that S. esculenta antioxidant peptides (SePs) increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levelsin oxidation-damaged nematodes. Using transgenic CF1553 nematodes, the sod-3p::GFP expression in the worms treated with SePs was significantly higher than that of the control nematodes. Real-time PCR also demonstrated that the expression of stress-related genes such as sod-3 is up-regulated by SePs. Furthermore, studies showed that SePs could obviously decrease fat accumulation as well as reduce the elevated ROS and MDA levels in high-fat nematodes. Taken together, these results indicated that SePs are capable of the activation of antioxidant defense and the inhibition of free radicals and lipid peroxidation, play important roles in attenuating oxidative stress and fat accumulation in C. elegans, and might have the potential to be used in nutraceutical and functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Sepia/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111553, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810671

RESUMO

Amongst cephalopods microplastics have been reported only in jumbo squid gut. We investigated microplastics in the digestive system of wild cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) as they are predators and prey and compared the stomach, caecum/intestine and digestive gland (DG) of wild and cultured animals, exposed to seawater from a comparable source. Fibers were the most common type (≈90% of total count) but were ≈2× higher in relation to body weight in wild vs. cultured animals. Fibers were transported to the DG where the count was ≈2× higher /g in wild (median 1.85 fibers/g) vs. cultured. In wild-caught animals the DG was the predominant location but in cultured animals the fibers were more evenly distributed in the digestive tract. The potential impact of microplastics on health of cuttlefish is discussed. Cuttlefish represent a previously unrecognized source of microplastic trophic transfer to fish and finding fibers in cultured animals has implications for aquaculture.


Assuntos
Sepia , Animais , Decapodiformes , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Água do Mar
20.
Mar Drugs ; 18(8)2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731522

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model to explore the preventive effect of two marine polysaccharides separately derived from Sepia esculenta ink (SIP) and Laminaria japonica (FL) as well as one terrestrial polysaccharides from Eleocharis tuberosa peel (WCPP) on toxic injury induced by acrylamide (AA). The growth of yeast was evaluated by kinetics indexes including doubling time, lag phase and maximum proliferation density. Meanwhile, intracellular redox state was determined by contents of MDA and GSH, and SOD activity. The results showed that AA inhibited yeast growth and destroyed the antioxidant defense system. Supplement with polysaccharides, the oxidative damage of cells was alleviated. According to the growth recovery of yeast, FL and WCPP had similar degree of capacity against AA associated cytotoxicity, while SIP was 1.5~2 folds as strong as FL and WCPP. SIP and FL significantly reduced production of MDA by AA administration. Moreover, SIP, FL and WCPP increased SOD activity and repressed GSH depletion caused by AA.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eleocharis/química , Laminaria/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepia/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Tinta , Cinética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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