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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, nov. 2022 / Collection Evidence Synthesis
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56622

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Introducción. Las infecciones y la sepsis materna durante o después del parto aumentan la mortalidad materna y provocan una carga alta de enfermedad en la Región de las Américas. El riesgo de infección des- pués de la cesárea y el parto instrumentado puede ser reducido mediante el uso de antisépticos cutáneos y profilaxis antibiótica apropiados. Objetivos. Sintetizar las recomendaciones desarrolladas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) con el fin de mejorar la calidad del cuidado y los desenlaces en salud relacionados con la profilaxis antibiótica de rutina en mujeres con parto vaginal instrumentado, la profilaxis antibiótica de rutina en mujeres con parto por cesárea, la elección de antisépticos y el método de aplicación para la preparación de la piel antes de una cesárea, y la irrigación vaginal con antisépticos en las mujeres en quienes se realiza una cesárea. Métodos. Las directrices elaboradas por la OMS siguieron los métodos de elaboración de la directriz GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation) del Manual para el desarrollo de directrices de la OMS. Se llevó a cabo una síntesis de las recomendaciones de cuatro directrices de la OMS. Adicionalmente, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en PubMed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence, Episte- monikos y literatura gris de estudios desarrollados en las Américas para identificar barreras, facilitadores y estrategias de implementación, y para establecer indicadores. Resultados. Se formularon cinco recomendaciones para la profilaxis antibiótica de rutina en mujeres con parto vaginal instrumentado, la profilaxis antibiótica de rutina en mujeres con parto por cesárea, la elección de antisépticos y el método de aplicación para la preparación de la piel antes de una cesárea, y la irrigación vaginal con antisépticos en las mujeres que tienen una cesárea. Se identificaron barreras y facilitadores para la implementación, y se crearon indicadores de adherencia y resultado. Conclusiones. Las recomendaciones formuladas proveen orientación para mejorar la calidad del cuidado y los desenlaces en salud relacionados con la profilaxis antibiótica y la elección de antisépticos en las mujeres con parto vaginal instrumentado o cesárea.


[ABSTRACT]. Introduction. Maternal sepsis and infections during or after childbirth increase maternal mortality, leading to a high burden of disease in the Region of the Americas. The risk of infection after a cesarean section or instru- mental vaginal delivery can be reduced with the appropriate skin antiseptic agents and antibiotic prophylaxis. Objectives. To synthesize World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to improve the quality of care and health outcomes related to routine antibiotic prophylaxis in women during instrumental vaginal deli- very; routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in women having a cesarean section; the choice of antiseptics and skin preparation methods before a cesarean; and vaginal irrigation with antiseptics in women undergoing a cesarean. Methods. The WHO guidelines were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology as described in the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development. Recommendations contained in four WHO guidelines were synthesized and a systematic search for studies carried out in the Region of the Americas was conducted in PubMed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence, Epis- temonikos, and gray literature to identify barriers, facilitators, and implementation strategies. Results. Five recommendations were made on the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in women undergoing instrumental vaginal delivery, routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in women having a cesarean section, the choice of antiseptics and skin preparation prior to a cesarean section, and vaginal irrigation with antiseptics during a cesarean section. Implementation barriers and facilitators were identified, and indicators were crea- ted to assess adherence and outcomes. Conclusions. The formulated recommendations aim to provide guidance on how to improve quality of care and outcomes related to antibiotic prophylaxis and the choice of antiseptics in women undergoing instrumen- tal vaginal delivery or a cesarean section.


[RESUMO]. Introdução. As infecções maternas e a sepse durante ou após o parto aumentam a mortalidade materna e causam uma alta carga de doenças na Região das Américas. O risco de infecção após a cesariana e o parto operatório pode ser reduzido com o uso apropriado de antissépticos cutâneos e profilaxia antibiótica. Objetivos. Sintetizar as recomendações desenvolvidas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) para melhorar a qualidade da assistência e os desfechos de saúde relacionados à profilaxia antibiótica de rotina em mulheres submetidas a parto vaginal operatório, à profilaxia antibiótica de rotina em mulheres submetidas a parto cesáreo, à escolha de antissépticos e ao método de aplicação para a preparação da pele antes de uma cesariana e à ducha vaginal com antissépticos em mulheres submetidas à cesariana. Métodos. As diretrizes desenvolvidas pela OMS seguiram os métodos de desenvolvimento da diretriz GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation), do Manual para o desenvolvimento de diretrizes da OMS. Foi realizada uma síntese das recomendações de quatro diretrizes da OMS. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence e Epistemonikos e na literatura cinzenta de estudos realizados nas Américas para identificar barreiras, facilita- dores e estratégias de implementação, e para estabelecer indicadores. Resultados. Foram formuladas cinco recomendações para a profilaxia antibiótica de rotina em mulheres sub- metidas a parto vaginal operatório, a profilaxia antibiótica de rotina em mulheres submetidas a parto cesáreo, a escolha de antissépticos e o método de aplicação para a preparação da pele antes de uma cesariana e a ducha vaginal com antissépticos em mulheres submetidas a cesariana. Foram identificadas barreiras e faci- litadores para a implementação e foram criados indicadores de adesão e resultados. Conclusões. As recomendações formuladas fornecem orientações para melhorar a qualidade da assistência e os desfechos de saúde relacionados à profilaxia antibiótica e à escolha de antissépticos em mulheres sub- metidas a parto vaginal operatório ou cesariana.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Saúde Materna , Parto , Cesárea , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Saúde Materna , Sepse Neonatal , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea , Cesárea , Antibioticoprofilaxia , América , Sepse , Saúde Materna , Parto Obstétrico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Terapêutica , América
2.
Clin Lab ; 68(11)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 proteins in serum diagnosis of neonatal sepsis (NS) was explored. METHODS: Analysis of PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 expression in serum from NS patients and their correlations were manifested. Evaluation of the ability of PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 to identify NS was manifested. Analysis of the prognostic value of PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 was in NS. RESULTS: Elevated PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 were found in serum from NS patients. Serum PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 have diagnostic value for NS. Moreover, PALLD could predict the overall survival of NS patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study clarifies elevated PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 in NS patients. Meanwhile, PALLD, PRKCH, AKAP12, PDK4, and CHIT1 are available to offer brand-new non-invasive biomarkers for NS's prognosis and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Prognóstico , Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A
3.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(3): 438-441, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host response to infection. Aim of the study is Neonatal sepsis refers to infection involving the blood stream in neonates. It is major health problem causing neonatal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Our study aimed to assess the correlation between lactate clearance and blood lactate levels with outcome of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Seventy-three eligible neonates recruited with convenience sampling technique. Study was conducted at the Neonatology department, The Children's Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Lahore. After approval from institutional review board, and informed consent of parents/guardians, neonates with sepsis were selected through a present inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected with the predetermined demographics, inflammatory markers and lactate levels. RESULTS: This research revealed 37% (n=27) mortality rate among septic neonates who were having higher blood lactate levels and low lactate clearance at 6 hours of admission in nursery. Hence higher serum lactate levels and low lactate clearance (<10%) at 6 hours were significant predictors of poor outcome in septic neonates (p-Value, <0.05). The lactate level of neonates who could not survive was 5.68±1.22 as compared to who were discharged 4.11±1.14 (p-Value, <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher blood lactate levels and lactate clearance of less than 10% at 6 hours of admission in nursery are significant predictors of mortality in neonatal sepsis. Early lactate stabilization and sepsis management can improve the clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Ácido Láctico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Biomarcadores
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062975, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and perinatal health services and outcomes in Mozambique. DESIGN: This is an observational study analysing routine service delivery data using interrupted time series analysis. We used 43 months of district-level panel data with April 2020 as the point of interruption, adjusting for seasonality and population growth to analyse service utilisation outcomes. SETTING: The 222 public health facilities in Nampula Province, Mozambique, from January 2018 to July 2021. OUTCOME MEASURES: The change in the number of antenatal care (ANC) visits and facility deliveries, and the change in the rate of adverse birth outcomes at pandemic onset and over time compared with expected levels and trends, respectively. RESULTS: There were no significant disruptions to ANC at pandemic onset. Following this, there was a significant monthly increase of 29.8 (18.2-41.4) first ANC visits and 11.3 (5.5-17.2) ANC visits within the first trimester per district above prepandemic trends. There was no significant change in the number of fourth ANC visits completed. At the onset of COVID-19, districts experienced a significant decrease of 71.1 (-110.5 to -31.7) facility deliveries, but the rate then increased significantly above prepandemic trends. There was no significant increase in any adverse birth outcomes during the pandemic. Conversely, districts observed a significant monthly decrease of 5.3 uterine rupture cases (-9.9 to -0.6) and 19.2 stillbirths (-33.83 to -4.58) per 100 000 facility deliveries below prepandemic trends. There was a significant drop of 23.5 cases of neonatal sepsis/100 000 facility deliveries per district at pandemic onset. CONCLUSION: Despite pandemic interference, Nampula Province saw no disruptions to ANC, only temporary disruptions to facility deliveries and no increases in adverse birth outcomes. ANC visits surprisingly increased, and the rates of uterine rupture, stillbirth and neonatal sepsis decreased, suggesting that Nampula Province may offer insights about health system resilience.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sepse Neonatal , Complicações na Gravidez , Ruptura Uterina , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Natimorto
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20187, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418418

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is a systemic infection that occurs at an early age. Its etiology varies from one region to the other. The contribution of sepsis to neonatal mortality and morbidity is significant in resource-limited countries; however, there is limited information about the etiology of sepsis in Sidama Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial caused newborn sepsis, associated factors, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacteria. A hospital-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 392 sepsis suspected newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from March 2021 to November 2021. Blood specimens were collected and bacteria were isolated using the standard culture method. The drug resistance profile of bacteria was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. The socio-demographic and clinical parameters of participants were gathered using a questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the determinants of sepsis. A variable with a p < 0.05 was considered a significant determinant of neonatal sepsis with a 95% confidence level. The prevalence of sepsis caused by bacteria among newborns was 143 (36.5%); 95% CI (31.3-41.4). The predominant bacteria was Klebsiella species (n = 61; 42.65%), followed by non-lactose fermenting Gram-negative bacteria (n = 27; 18.88%) and Enterococcus species (n = 26; 18.18%). The overall proportions of antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacteria range from 10.2 to 99.1%. All Klebsiella species were resistant to ceftriaxone. Ppremature rupture of membrane [AOR = 12.7 (95% CI 6.430-25.106)], absence of respiratory support [AOR = 3.53 (95% CI 1.840-6.759)], sex of newborns [AOR = 2.10 (1.214-3.560)] and reason for admission [AOR = 3.17 (95% CI 1.278-7.859)] were significantly associated with culture-confirmed neonatal sepsis. This study indicated the contribution of bacteria in causing sepsis among newborns; the majority of them were Gram-negative bacteria. Most recovered bacteria were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Pre-term, mode of delivery and types of respiratory support were significantly associated with the occurrence of sepsis caused by bacteria.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Bactérias , Klebsiella , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2243691, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416819

RESUMO

Importance: Appropriate use of antibiotics is life-saving in neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS), but overuse of antibiotics is associated with antimicrobial resistance and long-term adverse outcomes. Large international studies quantifying early-life antibiotic exposure along with EOS incidence are needed to provide a basis for future interventions aimed at safely reducing neonatal antibiotic exposure. Objective: To compare early postnatal exposure to antibiotics, incidence of EOS, and mortality among different networks in high-income countries. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study of late-preterm and full-term neonates born between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2018, in 13 hospital-based or population-based networks from 11 countries in Europe and North America and Australia. The study included all infants born alive at a gestational age greater than or equal to 34 weeks in the participating networks. Data were analyzed from October 2021 to March 2022. Exposures: Exposure to antibiotics started in the first postnatal week. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the proportion of late-preterm and full-term neonates receiving intravenous antibiotics, the duration of antibiotic treatment, the incidence of culture-proven EOS, and all-cause and EOS-associated mortality. Results: A total of 757 979 late-preterm and full-term neonates were born in the participating networks during the study period; 21 703 neonates (2.86%; 95% CI, 2.83%-2.90%), including 12 886 boys (59.4%) with a median (IQR) gestational age of 39 (36-40) weeks and median (IQR) birth weight of 3250 (2750-3750) g, received intravenous antibiotics during the first postnatal week. The proportion of neonates started on antibiotics ranged from 1.18% to 12.45% among networks. The median (IQR) duration of treatment was 9 (7-14) days for neonates with EOS and 4 (3-6) days for those without EOS. This led to an antibiotic exposure of 135 days per 1000 live births (range across networks, 54-491 days per 1000 live births). The incidence of EOS was 0.49 cases per 1000 live births (range, 0.18-1.45 cases per 1000 live births). EOS-associated mortality was 3.20% (12 of 375 neonates; range, 0.00%-12.00%). For each case of EOS, 58 neonates were started on antibiotics and 273 antibiotic days were administered. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that antibiotic exposure during the first postnatal week is disproportionate compared with the burden of EOS and that there are wide (up to 9-fold) variations internationally. This study defined a set of indicators reporting on both dimensions to facilitate benchmarking and future interventions aimed at safely reducing antibiotic exposure in early life.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Masculino , Humanos , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Austrália , América do Norte/epidemiologia
7.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 73(3): 265-273, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331302

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess adherence to screening recommendations for the prevention of neonatal sepsis, and describe the prevalence of colonization by Group B streptococcus (GBS) as well as the perinatal outcomes associated with colonization by this bacterium. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort study that included pregnant women at term and their newborns, seen at a private high-complexity clinic in Bogota, between July 1 and December 31, 2019. Adherence to screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus, as well as the prevalence of colonization and early adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed. Results: Overall, 1928 women were included. Adherence to screening was 68.0 % (95 % CI: 66-70.1) and 87.9 % to intrapartum antibiotic administration (95 % CI: 87.8-88); non-indicated use of antibiotics occurred in 14.7 % of the women, for 86.3 % final adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 12.5 % (95 % CI: 10.7-14.3); the incidence of neonatal hospitalization was 27.5 % (95 % CI: 16.3-33.7). There were no cases of mortality or early neonatal sepsis attributable to screening status, colonization or prophylactic antibiotics for GBS. Conclusions: Additional studies in other centers are required in order to determine adherence to this guideline, particularly in those that receive users affiliated to the subsidized regime which covers the most vulnerable population. Also, new population studies of GBS prevalence and cost-effectiveness of universal screening compared to risk factor-based antibiotic prophylaxis are needed.


Objetivos: evaluar la adherencia a las recomendaciones de tamización para la prevención de la sepsis neonatal, describir la prevalencia de colonización por estreptococo del grupo B y los desenlaces perinatales asociados a la colonización por esta bacteria. Materiales y métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectiva que incluyó gestantes a término y sus recién nacidos, en una clínica universitaria privada de alta complejidad en Bogotá, entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2019. Se evaluó la adherencia a la tamización y a la profilaxis antibiótica intraparto para las gestantes colonizadas con EGB, la prevalencia de colonización y los desenlaces perinatales adversos tempranos. Resultados: se incluyeron 1.928 mujeres. La adherencia a la tamización fue de 68,0 % (IC 95%: 66-70,1), a la administración de antibióticos intraparto de 87,9 % (IC 95 %: 87,8 -88), pero hubo uso no indicado de antibióticos en 14,7 % de mujeres para una adherencia final a profilaxis antibiótica de 86,3 %. La prevalencia de colonización por EGB fue 12,5 % (IC 95 %: 10,7-14,3), la incidencia de hospitalización neonatal fue de 27,5 % (IC 95 %: 16,3-33,7); no hubo casos de mortalidad ni sepsis neonatal temprana atribuibles al estado de tamización, colonización o profilaxis antibiótica para EGB. Conclusiones: se requieren nuevos estudios en otras instituciones para determinar la adherencia a esta guía, en especial en aquellas regiones que atienden usuarias adscritas al régimen subsidiado, con cobertura a la población más vulnerable, así como nuevos estudios poblacionales de prevalencia de EGB y costo-efectividad de la estrategia de tamización universal en comparación con la profilaxis antibiótica basada en factores de riesgo.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Streptococcus agalactiae , Humanos , Colômbia , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1016877, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330515

RESUMO

Neonates, especially preterm neonates, have the highest risk of sepsis of all age groups. Transient immaturity of the neonatal immune system is an important risk factor. Neonates suffer from hypogammaglobulinemia as nor IgA nor IgM is transferred over the placenta and IgG is only transferred over the placenta late in gestation. In addition, neutrophil numbers and complement function are also decreased. This mini-review focuses on strategies to improve neonatal host-defense. Both clinical and preclinical studies have attempted to boost neonatal immunity to lower the incidence of sepsis and improve outcome. Recent advances in the development of (monoclonal) antibodies show promising results in preclinical studies but have yet to be tested in clinical trials. Strategies to increase complement activity seem efficient in vitro but potential disadvantages such as hyperinflammation have held back further clinical development. Increase of neutrophil numbers has been tested extensively in clinical trials but failed to show improvement in mortality. Future research should focus on clinical applicability of promising new prevention strategies for neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico
9.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 268, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections affecting neonates caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread in healthcare facilities; hence, novel strategies are needed to fight this pathogen. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the FDA-approved medications ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, and sodium bicarbonate to reduce the virulence of the resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that causes neonatal sepsis and seek out suitable alternatives to the problem of multi-drug resistance. METHODS: Tested drugs were assessed phenotypically and genotypically for their effects on virulence factors and virulence-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, drugs were tested in vivo for their ability to reduce Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. RESULTS: Sub-inhibitory concentrations (1/8 MIC) of ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, and sodium bicarbonate reduced the production of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, including biofilm formation, staphyloxanthin, proteases, and hemolysin production, as well as resistance to oxidative stress. At the molecular level, qRT-PCR was used to assess the relative expression levels of crtM, sigB, sarA, agrA, hla, fnbA, and icaA genes regulating virulence factors production and showed a significant reduction in the relative expression levels of all the tested genes. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings reveal that ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, and sodium bicarbonate have strong anti-virulence effects against Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, suggesting that they might be used as adjuvants to treat infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in combination with conventional antimicrobials or as alternative therapies.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Sepse Neonatal , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
10.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 77: 100111, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between lipoprotein levels and late-onset neonatal sepsis has shown controversial results. The aims are to assess lipid profile, cytokines, and Monocyte-to-HDL (M/H) ratio as diagnostic and prognostic markers for late-onset neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This prospective study included 49 septic neonates and 17 controls. Cholesterol (CT), Triglyceride (TG), Very-Low-Density (VLDLc), Low-Density (LDLc), and High-Density Lipoproteins (HDLc) were measured at admission (D0) and on days 3, 7 and 10 to evaluate septic shock outcomes. Cytokines and monocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Septic newborns showed higher IL-6 and IL-8 at D0 and CT levels on D7 and on D10, which also presented higher TG, VLDLc and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations than controls. The septic shock group (n = 22) revealed a higher number of male subjects, CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels, while lower TG, HDLc, monocyte numbers and M/H ratio at admission compared to the non-shock group (n = 27). M/H ratio and non-HDL cholesterol on D0 were risk factors for septic shock (OR = 0.70, 0.49‒0.99; OR = 0.96, 0.92‒0.99, respectively). Decreasing levels from D0 to D3 of CT (OR = 0.96, 0.93‒0.99), VLDLc (OR = 0.91, 0.85‒0.98), and non-HDL cholesterol (OR = 0.92, 0.87‒0.98) were also predictors of septic shock. CONCLUSIONS: Lower M/H ratios and non-HDL cholesterol at admission and decreasing levels of cholesterol, VLDLc and non-HDL cholesterol during a hospital stay are associated with the development of septic shock in newborns with late-onset neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Colesterol , HDL-Colesterol , Citocinas , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Lipoproteínas , Monócitos , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Triglicerídeos , Feminino
11.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(6)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many improvements in neonatal care have been achieved, mortality rates for sepsis and septic shock in newborns are still high. The vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) was designed and studied to predict mortality in different settings. There are currently no data on the predictive ability of the VIS for mortality in newborn patients with septic shock. METHODS: Patients with late-onset neonatal sepsis who required inotropes because of fluid-refractory septic shock during the study period were included in the study. Four distinct VIS values were calculated for each septic shock episode after inotropic treatment had begun, that is, at the initiation of inotropic treatment and at 24 and 48 h after inotropic treatment had begun, and the highest VIS (VISmax) at any time after initiation of inotropic agents. RESULTS: The 98 episodes studied were divided into two groups according to the outcomes of their sepsis episodes as survivors (n = 39) or nonsurvivors (n = 59). The areas under the curve of the VIS values for the prediction of mortality were the VISmax (0.819, p < 0.001), followed by the VIS48 (0.802, p < 0.001), VIS24 (0.762, p = 0.001) and VIS0 (0.699, p = 0.015). Patients with a VISmax of greater than 20 had significantly higher odds of mortality (p < 0.001, ß = 14.7, 95% confidence interval [4.7-45.9]). CONCLUSION: We found that the VISmax was an easy-to-use and helpful tool for predicting a poor outcome in neonatal sepsis. Physicians should be aware that the prognosis is poor for any newborn with a VIS of 20 or greater at any point after the onset of sepsis.


Neonatal sepsis is still one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in the neonatal period, and it is also a significant public health problem. Researchers have been looking for reliable biomarkers and scoring systems to detect neonatal sepsis and predict outcomes. The vasoactive inotropic score has been validated and found to be useful for predicting mortality in septic shock in adults and children and newborns who underwent cardiac surgeries. However, there are no neonatal sepsis data. In this retrospective study, we showed that a maximal vasoactive inotropic score of 20 or greater is an easy, noninvasive and useful tool to determine the poor outcome.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e054491, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk factors for neonatal sepsis in Sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, African Index Medicus and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for observational studies from January 2010 to August 2020. SETTING: Sub-Saharan Africa, at all levels of healthcare facilities. PARTICIPANTS: 'Neonates' (<28 days of age) at risk of developing either clinical and/or laboratory-dependent diagnosis of sepsis. OUTCOME MEASURES: Identification of any risk factors for neonatal sepsis. RESULTS: A total of 36 studies with 23 605 patients from secondary or tertiary level of care facilities in 10 countries were included. Six studies were rated as good quality, 8 as fair and 22 as poor. Four studies were omitted in the meta-analysis due to insufficient data. The significant risk factors were resuscitation (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.36 to 5.35), low birth weight <1.5 kg (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.59 to 7.13) and 1.5-2.5 kg (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.83), low Apgar score at the first minute (OR 3.69, 95% CI 2.34 to 5.81) and fifth minute (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.46 to 4.45), prematurity <37 weeks (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.86), no crying at birth (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.42 to 8.55), male sex (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67), prolonged labour (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.27), premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.47), multiple digital vaginal examinations (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.89), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.58 to 4.69), intrapartum maternal fever (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18 to 4.39), foul-smelling vaginal discharge (OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.16 to 5.09) and low socioeconomic status (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.35). We found considerable heterogeneity in the meta-analysis of 11 out of 15 identified risk factors. CONCLUSION: Multiple risk factors for neonatal sepsis in Sub-Saharan Africa were identified. We revealed risk factors not listed by the WHO guidelines. The included studies overall had high risk of bias and high heterogeneity and thus, additional research of high quality is needed. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020191067.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/complicações , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233238

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening condition with high mortality. Virulence determinants relevant in causing Gram-negative (GN) neonatal sepsis are still poorly characterized. A better understanding of virulence factors (VFs) associated with GN neonatal sepsis could offer new targets for therapeutic interventions. The aim of this review was to assess the role of GN VFs in neonatal sepsis. We primarily aimed to investigate the main VFs leading to adverse outcome and second to evaluate VFs associated with increased invasiveness/pathogenicity in neonates. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for studies reporting data on the role of virulome/VFs in bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacterales among neonates and infants aged 0-90 days. Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only 4 studies reported data on the association between pathogen virulence determinants and neonatal mortality, whereas 16 studies were included in the secondary analyses. The quality of reporting was suboptimal in the great majority of the published studies. No consistent association between virulence determinants and GN strains causing neonatal sepsis was identified. Considerable heterogeneity was found in terms of VFs analysed and reported, included population and microbiological methods, with the included studies often showing conflicting data. This variability hampered the comparison of the results. In conclusions, pathogens responsible for neonatal sepsis are widely heterogenous and can use different pathways to develop invasive disease. The recent genome-wide approach needs to include multicentre studies with larger sample sizes, analyses of VF gene profiles instead of single VF genes, alongside a comprehensive collection of clinical information. A better understanding of the roles of virulence genes in neonatal GN bacteraemia may offer new vaccine targets and new markers of highly virulent strains. This information can potentially be used for screening and preventive interventions as well as for new targets for anti-virulence antibiotic-sparing therapies.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Gammaproteobacteria , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Virulência/genética
14.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 60(8): 602-603, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282682

RESUMO

We have read with great interest the article published by Arias-Arellano Santiago et al on the risk factors associated with late neonatal sepsis. This study aims to determine the neonatal risk factors for the use of invasive and maternal methods associated with neonatal sepsis (early and late) in a neonatology unit during 2016 in a hospital in Ecuador.


Hemos leído el artículo publicado por Santiago Arias Arellano et al. acerca de los factores de riesgo asociados a sepsis neonatal tardía. El citado trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar los factores de riesgo neonatales y maternos por uso de métodos invasivos asociados a sepsis neonatal (temprana y tardía) en una unidad de neonatología en un hospital de Ecuador.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 192(1): 125-147, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280317

RESUMO

Sepsis is a highly heterogeneous, life-threatening organ dysfunction primarily caused by a dysregulated immune response to counter bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, resulting in haemodynamic changes and significant morbidity and mortality across all ages. In recent times, it has become one of the foremost causes of morbidity and mortality among newborns globally. The neonates, particularly the preterm neonates, due to their immature immune systems and non-canonical microbial community acquisition in the gastrointestinal tract and other body habitats, are adversely affected compared to the elderly with immunocompromised conditions. The neonates could acquire microbiota in utero or during delivery from the mother's genital tract or postnatally from contact with hospital personnel and the immediate hospital environment after the birth. Other factors that may enhance the risk include early colonization of microbiota by pathogens that trigger dysbiosis of the gut microbiome accompanied by a dysregulated immune response, organ dysfunction, and potential death. The sepsis-linked mortality could be prevented by timely diagnosis, selective antibiotic therapy, and supportive postnatal care. Infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria severely restrict possible therapeutic options, thus extending hospital stays. A comprehensive analysis of the infecting pathogens, cognate host responses, and the microbiota present would certainly help formulate appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Idoso , Disbiose , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Sepse/complicações , Antibacterianos
16.
Neoreviews ; 23(11): 756-770, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316253

RESUMO

Early-onset sepsis (EOS) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among newborn infants, particularly among those born premature. The epidemiology of EOS is changing over time. Here, we highlight the most contemporary data informing the epidemiology of neonatal EOS, including incidence, microbiology, risk factors, and associated outcomes, with a focus on infants born in high-income countries during their birth hospitalization. We discuss approaches to risk assessment for EOS, summarizing national guidelines and comparing key differences between approaches for term and preterm infants. Lastly, we analyze contemporary antibiotic resistance data for EOS pathogens to inform optimal empiric treatment for EOS.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
17.
Neoreviews ; 23(11): 738-755, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316254

RESUMO

Neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) continues to threaten morbidity and mortality in the NICU and poses ongoing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Early recognition of clinical signs, rapid evaluation, and prompt initiation of treatment are critical to prevent life-threatening deterioration. Preterm infants-born at ever-decreasing gestational ages-are at particularly high risk for life-long morbidities and death. This changing NICU population necessitates continual reassessments of diagnostic and preventive measures and evidence-based treatment for LOS. The clinical presentation of LOS is varied and nonspecific. Despite ongoing research, reliable, specific laboratory biomarkers facilitating early diagnosis are lacking. These limitations drive an ongoing practice of liberal initiation of empiric antibiotics among infants with suspected LOS. Subsequent promotion of multidrug-resistant microorganisms threatens the future of antimicrobial therapy and puts preterm and chronically ill infants at even higher risk of nosocomial infection. Efforts to identify adjunctive therapies counteracting sepsis-driven hyperinflammation and sepsis-related functional immunosuppression are ongoing. However, most approaches have either failed to improve LOS prognosis or are not yet ready for clinical application. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic tools, and treatment options of LOS in the context of increasing numbers of extremely preterm infants. It addresses the question of whether LOS could be identified earlier and more precisely to allow for earlier and more targeted therapy and discusses rational approaches to antibiotic therapy to avoid overuse. Finally, this review elucidates the necessity of long-term follow-up of infants with a history of LOS.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Idade Gestacional , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco
19.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(10): 1111-1116, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes in the pathogen spectrum and antimicrobial resistance over time in neonatal sepsis. METHODS: The medical data were collected from the neonates who were diagnosed with sepsis in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2010 to December 2019. The incidence rate of sepsis, the pathogen spectrum, and the characteristics of antimicrobial resistance were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence rate of neonatal sepsis was 4.02% (447/11 111). The top four pathogens detected were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Candida. The incidence rate of sepsis and the pathogen spectrum showed no significant changes over time. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen in preterm infants, very low birth weight infants, and small-for-gestational-age infants, accounting for 33.9%, 29.5%, and 42.5%, respectively. CoNS, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli had a high resistance rate to penicillins and third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of neonatal sepsis is high, and the main pathogen is CoNS. The pathogens of neonatal sepsis have a high resistance rate to penicillins and third-generation cephalosporins. It is recommended to enhance the prevention and control of neonatal infection, strengthen the surveillance of pathogens, and further standardize the rational use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/complicações , Escherichia coli , Cefalosporinas , Penicilinas
20.
ACS Sens ; 7(10): 3144-3152, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198198

RESUMO

A graphene oxide/nickel/platinum nanoparticle micromotor (MM)-based fluorescent aptassay is proposed to determine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum samples from low-birth-weight infants (gestational age of less than 32 weeks and birthweight below 1000 g) with sepsis suspicion. In this kind of patients, IL-6 has demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sepsis, both for early and late onset sepsis. The approach was based on the adsorption of the aptamer for IL-6 tagged with 6-FAM as a fluorescent label (AptIL-6, λem = 520 nm) on the graphene oxide external layer (MMGO-AptIL-6) inducing fluorescence quenching (OFF state) and a subsequent on-the-move affinity recognition of IL-6 from AptIL-6 (IL-6-AptIL-6 complex) recovering the fluorescence (ON state). An aptamer against IL-6 was selected and developed by the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technology. This approach displayed a suitable linear range of 0.07-1000 pg mL-1 (r = 0.995) covering the cut-off and clinical practice levels, allowing direct determination without any dilution and simplifying the analysis as well as exhibiting an excellent sensitivity (LOD = 0.02 pg mL-1) in ultralow volumes of diagnostic clinical samples (2 µL). A high agreement between IL-6 levels obtained from our MM-based approach and the method used by the Hospital was obtained (relative error < 3%). The MM-based aptassay is competitive in comparison with that of the Hospital, in terms of a significant reduction of the sample volume (15 times less) and enhanced sensitivity, employing similar analysis times. These results position MM technology with enough potential to achieve high sensitivities in low sample volumes, opening new avenues in diagnosis based on low sample volumes.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Interleucina-6 , Sepse/diagnóstico
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