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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 784-792, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116078

RESUMO

This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the department of Neonatology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2017 to December 2017 to determine antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in neonatal sepsis. Ninety four neonates (0-28 days) who were admitted in NICU with suspected sepsis were included in this study by purposive sampling technique. After admission written informed consent from parents or guardians obtained and then septic screening along with blood culture and antimicrobial sensitivity was done. All data were compiled, tabulated and then analyzed by SPSS version 21.0. Among 94 cases, 68(72.3%) were preterm and 26(23.4%) were term. There was male predominance and male female ratio was 1.9:1. Most of the patient admitted within 72 hours of birth. Most (84%) had low birth weight (<2500gm). Pre-mature onset of labour, pre-mature rupture of membrane >18 hours, vaginal route of delivery, instrumental resuscitation, pre-lacteal feeding, bottle feeding were the major perinatal risk factors in this study. Early onset sepsis (76.6%) was most prevalent in this study. Blood culture yielded positive growth in 20(21.3%) cases. Among them, Klebsiella was found in 7(35%). E. coli in 6(30%), Acinetobacter was in 3(15%), Staphylococcus aureus in 2(10%) cases. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were found in rest 2(10%) of the cases. Gram negative bacteria were found in 18(90%) cases. Klebsiella was sensitive to Imipenem (85.7%), Colistin (85.7%) and Ciprofloxacin (77.5%). Sensitivity of E. coli was Imipenem (100%), Colistin (100%), Amikacin (66.7%), Ciprofloxacin (66.7%), Netilmicin (66.7%) and Gentamicin (50%). Acinatobecter had sensitivity to Netilmicin, Colistin, Imipenem (100%). Staphylococcus was 100% sensitive to Imipenem, Netilmicin and Vancomycin. Pseudomonas was found sensitive to Imipenem (100%), Amikacin (100%), Netilmicin (100%) and Colistin (100%). Enterobacter was found highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Colistin and Imipenem. Almost all organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime. Based on result it is concluded that Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in this study and most of them resistant to multiple antibiotics. Organisms found more sensitive to Imipenem, Colistin, Ciprofloxacin and Netilmicin.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16384, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009426

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak is becoming a public health emergency. Data are limited on the clinical characteristics and causes of death. A retrospective analysis of COVID-19 deaths were performed for patients' clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and causes of death. In total, 56 patients (72.7%) of the decedents (male-female ratio 51:26, mean age 71 ± 13, mean survival time 17.4 ± 8.4 days) had comorbidities. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) and sepsis were the main causes of death. Increases in C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and lactic acid and decreases in lymphocytes were common laboratory results. Intergroup analysis showed that (1) most female decedents had cough and diabetes. (2) The proportion of young- and middle-aged deaths was higher than elderly deaths for males, while elderly decedents were more prone to myocardial injury and elevated CRP. (3) CRP and LDH increased and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ and CD8+ cells decreased significantly in patients with hypertension. The majority of COVID-19 decedents are male, especially elderly people with comorbidities. The main causes of death are ARF and sepsis. Most female decedents have cough and diabetes. Myocardial injury is common in elderly decedents. Patients with hypertension are prone to an increased inflammatory index, tissue hypoxia and cellular immune injury.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Sepse/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Causas de Morte , China , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Sepse/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/etiologia
5.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 851-859, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150×10³/µL) is associated with poor outcomes in various critical illness settings. However, the prognostic value of platelet count in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 1202 patients between January 2014 and December 2018 from a multicenter retrospective-prospective cohort registry of CS. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between the patients with and without thrombocytopenia. RESULTS: At presentation with CS, 244 (20.3%) patients had thrombocytopenia. The patients with thrombocytopenia had lower blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and worse liver and renal functions compared to the patients without. During hospitalization, the patients with thrombocytopenia had more frequent gastrointestinal bleeding (10.5% vs. 3.8%, p=0.009), sepsis (8.3% vs. 2.6%, p=0.013), requirement of renal replacement therapy (36.5% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001), requirement of mechanical ventilation (65.2% vs. 54.4%, p=0.003), longer intensive care unit stay (8 days vs. 4 days, p<0.001), and thirty-day mortality (40.2% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001) compared to those without. In addition, the platelet count was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (per 103/µL decrease; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.002, 95% confidence interval: 1.000-1.003, p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Thrombocytopenia at CS presentation was associated with worse clinical findings, higher frequencies of complications, and longer stay at the intensive care unit. Also, thrombocytopenia was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality. (Clinical trial registration No. NCT02985008).


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Choque Cardiogênico , Trombocitopenia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/epidemiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 652, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently there are only two population studies on sepsis incidence in Asia. The burden of sepsis in Hong Kong is unknown. We developed a sepsis surveillance method to estimate sepsis incidence from a population electronic health record (EHR) in Hong Kong using objective clinical data. The study objective was to assess our method's performance in identifying sepsis using a retrospective cohort. We compared its accuracy to administrative sepsis surveillance methods such as Angus' and Martin's methods. METHOD: In this single centre retrospective study we applied our sepsis surveillance method on adult patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. Two clinicians independently reviewed the clinical notes to determine which patients had sepsis. Performance was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under the curve (AUC) of Angus', Martin's and our surveillance methods using clinical review as "gold standard." RESULTS: Between January 1 and February 28, 2018, our sepsis surveillance method identified 1352 adult patients hospitalised with suspected infection. We found that 38.9% (95%CI 36.3-41.5) of these patients had sepsis. Using a 490 patient validation cohort, two clinicians had good agreement with weighted kappa of 0.75 (95% CI 0.69-0.81) before coming to consensus on diagnosis of uncomplicated infection or sepsis for all patients. Our method had sensitivity 0.93 (95%CI 0.89-0.96), specificity 0.86 (95%CI 0.82-0.90) and an AUC 0.90 (95%CI 0.87-0.92) when validated against clinician review. In contrast, Angus' and Martin's methods had AUCs 0.56 (95%CI 0.53-0.58) and 0.56 (95%CI 0.52-0.59), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A sepsis surveillance method based on objective data from a population EHR in Hong Kong was more accurate than administrative methods. It may be used to estimate sepsis population incidence and outcomes in Hong Kong. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov on October 3, 2019 ( NCT04114214 ).


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Carga Global da Doença/métodos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/mortalidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22071, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) offers long-term survival benefit to patients with low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) after resection surgery is still under heated debate. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the comparative effectiveness and safety of prophylactic HIPEC regimens in LAMNs METHODS:: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), clinicaltrials.gov and controlledtrials.com will be performed. All published RCTs and quasi-RCTs through July 20, 2020 with language restricted in English will be included in this review study. Two reviewers will independently conduct the procedures of study identification, data collection, and methodological quality assessment. The primary outcomes are overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary outcomes consist of peritonitis and sepsis, colonic fistula, chemotherapy-associated adverse events, and adhesive intestinal obstruction. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) and relative 95% confident intervals (CIs) of each outcome measurement will be calculated. EndNote X9 software will be applied to manage all citations. The Stata software version 14.0 and R x64 software version 3.5.1 will be employed for main statistical analyses. DISCUSSION: This study will employ a network meta-analysis to summarize direct and indirect evidence in the specific area to provide detailed individualized guidance on surgical management for LAMNs. REGISTRATION: This protocol was registered with the International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (INPLASY) on 25 July 2020 (registration number INPLASY202070112).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/terapia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/patologia , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Metanálise em Rede , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Apêndice/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Fístula Intestinal/epidemiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Sepse/epidemiologia , Aderências Teciduais/complicações , Aderências Teciduais/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Neurology ; 95(16): e2271-e2279, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations with sepsis experience higher epilepsy risk than survivors of ICU hospitalizations without sepsis, and to identify sepsis survivors at highest risk. METHODS: We used linked, administrative health care databases to conduct a population-based, retrospective matched cohort study of adult Ontario residents discharged from an ICU between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015, identified using the Discharge Abstract Database. We used propensity scores to match patients who experienced sepsis during their index ICU hospitalization with up to 4 patients who did not experience sepsis. We applied marginal Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the risk of epilepsy within 2 years following the index ICU hospitalization. Among sepsis survivors, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify factors associated with epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 143,892 patients were included, 32,252 (22.4%) of whom were exposed. Sepsis survivors were at significantly higher epilepsy risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.80). The risk of epilepsy marginally decreased with increasing age (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99); patients with chronic kidney disease (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.48-3.43) were at highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world analysis, sepsis survivors, particularly those who are younger and have chronic kidney disease, are at significantly higher epilepsy risk. These findings indicate that sepsis may be an unrecognized epilepsy risk factor.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008381, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804954

RESUMO

The world's most consequential pathogens occur in regions with the fewest diagnostic resources, leaving the true burden of these diseases largely under-represented. During a prospective observational study of sepsis in Takeo Province Cambodia, we enrolled 200 patients over an 18-month period. By coupling traditional diagnostic methods such as culture, serology, and PCR to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and advanced statistical analyses, we successfully identified a pathogenic cause in 46.5% of our cohort. In all, we detected 25 infectious agents in 93 patients, including severe threat pathogens such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and viral pathogens such as Dengue virus. Approximately half of our cohort remained undiagnosed; however, an independent panel of clinical adjudicators determined that 81% of those patients had infectious causes of their hospitalization, further underscoring the difficulty of diagnosing severe infections in resource-limited settings. We garnered greater insight as to the clinical features of severe infection in Cambodia through analysis of a robust set of clinical data.


Assuntos
Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Testes Sorológicos , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013209, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for infections due to the complexity of surgical procedures combined with the impact of immunosuppression. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antimicrobial agents for preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies was searched up to 21 April 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in any language assessing prophylactic antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients at any time point after transplantation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality, and extracted data. Primary outcomes were surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Other outcomes included urinary tract infections, pneumonias and septicaemia, death (any cause), graft loss, graft rejection, graft function, adverse reactions to antimicrobial agents, and outcomes identified by the Standardised Outcomes of Nephrology Group (SONG), specifically graft health, cardiovascular disease, cancer and life participation. Summary effect estimates were obtained using a random-effects model and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using the risk of bias and the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight eligible studies (718 randomised participants). Overall, five studies (248 randomised participants) compared antibiotics versus no antibiotics, and three studies (470 randomised participants) compared extended duration versus short duration antibiotics. Risk of bias was assessed as high for performance bias (eight studies), detection bias (eight studies) and attrition bias (two studies). It is uncertain whether antibiotics reduce the incidence of surgical site infections as the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.85; 5 studies, 226 participants; I2 = 25%). The certainty of the evidence was very low for all other reported outcomes (death, graft loss, and other infections). It is uncertain whether extended duration antibiotics reduces the incidence of surgical site infections in either solid organ transplant recipients (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.48; 2 studies, 302 participants; I2 = 0%) or kidney-only transplant recipients (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.48; 1 study, 205 participants) as the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all other reported outcomes (death, graft loss, and other infections). None of the eight included studies evaluated antimicrobial agent adverse reactions, graft health, cardiovascular disease, cancer, life participation, biochemical and haematological parameters, intervention cost, hospitalisation length, or overall hospitalisation costs. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to methodological limitations, risk of bias and significant heterogeneity, the current evidence for the use of prophylactic perioperative antibiotics in transplantation is of very low quality. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs would help better inform clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transplantados , Viés , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/mortalidade
11.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1662-1667, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has proposed a rule change to redefine the metric by which organ procurement organizations (OPOs) are evaluated. The metric relies on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data on inpatient deaths from causes consistent with donation among patients <75 years of age. Concerns have been raised that this metric does not account for rates of ventilation, and prevalence of cancer and severe sepsis, without objective data to substantiate or refute such concerns. METHODS: We estimated OPO-level donation rates using CDC data, and used Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality/Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data from 43 State Inpatient Databases to calculate "adjusted" donation rates. RESULTS: The CMS metric and the ventilation-adjusted CMS metric were highly concordant in absolute terms (Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients ≥0.95). In the Bland-Altman plot, 100% (48/48) of paired values (standard deviations [SDs] of the CMS and "ventilation adjusted" metrics) were within 1.96 SDs of the mean difference, with near-perfect correlation in Passing and Bablok regression (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient: 0.97). The CMS metric and the ventilation/cancer/sepsis-adjusted metric were highly concordant in absolute terms (Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients ≥0.94). In the Bland-Altman plot, 97.9% (47/48) of paired values (SDs of the CMS and "ventilation/cancer/sepsis adjusted" metrics) were within 1.96 SDs of the mean difference, with near-perfect correlation in the Passing and Bablok regression (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient: 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: These conclusions should provide CMS, and the transplant community, with comfort that the proposed CMS metric using CDC inpatient death data as a tool to compare OPO is not compromised by its lack of inclusion of ventilation or other comorbidity data.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/normas , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S./normas , Transplante de Rim/normas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Benchmarking/métodos , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 161, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 4.2 million confirmed cases and more than 285,000 deaths, COVID-19 pandemic continues to harm significant number of people worldwide. Several studies have reported the impact of COVID-19 in general population; however, there is scarcity of information related to pharmacological management and maternal and perinatal outcomes during the pandemic. Altered physiological, anatomical, and immunological response during pregnancy makes it more susceptible to infections. Furthermore, during pregnancy, a woman undergoes multiple interactions with the health care system that increases her chance of getting infected; therefore, managing pregnant population presents a unique challenge. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions in relation to COVID-19: What are the different clinical characteristics presented in maternal and perinatal population? What are the different maternal and perinatal outcome measures reported? What are the distinct therapeutic interventions reported to treat COVID-19? Is it safe to use "medications" used in the treatment of COVID-19 during antenatal, perinatal, postnatal, and breastfeeding? METHOD: The search will follow a comprehensive, sequential three step search strategy. Several databases relevant to COVID-19 and its impact on pregnancy including Medline, CINAHL, and LitCovid will be searched from the inception of the disease until the completion of data collection. The quality of this search strategy will be assessed using Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies Evidence-Based Checklist (PRESS EBC). An eligibility form will be developed for a transparent screening and inclusion/exclusion of studies. All studies will be sent to RefWorks, and abstraction will be independently performed by two researchers. Risk of bias will be assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-randomized studies, and for case reports, Murad et al. tool will be used. Decision to conduct meta-analysis will be based on several factors including homogeneity and outcome measures reported; otherwise, a narrative synthesis will be deemed appropriate. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will summarize the existing data on effect of COVID-19 on maternal and perinatal population. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review addressing therapeutic management and safety of medicines to treat COVID-19 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review has been registered and published with Prospero ( CRD42020172773 ).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade Materna , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Apgar , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sepse/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 123-125, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are reported to range from 2.5% to 41%. HAI increases the risk of death by 2 - 11%, and three-quarters of these deaths are directly attributable to SSIs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of HAI and to identify risk factors amenable to modification with a resultant reduction in infection rates. METHODS: An analysis of HAIs was performed between January and April 2018 in the trauma centre surgical wards at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. RESULTS: There were 769 admissions during the study period. Twenty-two patients (0.03%) developed an HAI. The majority were men, and the mean age was 32 years (range 18 - 57). The mean length of hospital stay (LoS) was 9 days, higher than the mean LoS for the hospital of 6 days. Fourteen patients underwent emergency surgery, 3 patients underwent abbreviated damage control surgery, and 9 patients were admitted to the critical care unit. Most patients with nosocomial sepsis were treated with appropriate culture-based antibiotics (82%). Four patients were treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid presumptively prior to culture and sensitivity results, after which antibiotic therapy was tailored. All but 1 patient received antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of measures is required to prevent trauma-related infections. By determining the incidence of nosocomial infections in our trauma patients, uniform policies to reduce infection rates further could be determined. Our low incidence of infection may be explained by established preventive care bundles already in place.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21050, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702847

RESUMO

The ability of sepsis to induce acute phase hearing impairment has been evaluated in septic and sepsis-surviving mice. The relationship between septicemia and long-term hearing impairment remains unknown in humans.The data were obtained from the Taiwan Longitudinal National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2013. We identified patients suffering from septicemia after discharge, excluding those younger than 18 years old and older than 65 years old. The comparison group was matched based on age, sex, and comorbidities. The outcome was hearing impairment occurring after septicemia. The risk factors associated with hearing impairment were established using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression.Our study found that septicemia associated with hearing impairment had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 53.11 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.74-67.59). The other factors related to hearing impairment in young and middle-aged septicemia survivors included male sex (adjusted HR 1.31 [95% CI: 1.14-1.5]), chronic kidney disease (adjusted HR 1.63 [95% CI: 1.38-1.94]), and otoscleroisis (adjusted HR 231.54 [95% CI: 31.61-1695.8]).Our study revealed that septicemia was associated with increased development of hearing impairment in young and middle-aged humans in the long term. Clinicians should be aware of long-term septicemia-related hearing impairment and provide prevention strategies for otopathy in septicemia survivors.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/complicações , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 980-987, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620729

RESUMO

Background: Perinatal and neonatal care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have changed significantly during the past two decades. However, it is unclear how these changes have affected neonatal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the advanced neonatal care on short-term outcomes of VLBW infants. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to compare the mortality and morbidity of VLBW infants between period I (2007-2011) and period II (2012-2016) in our unit. Results: A total of 188 infants in period I and 214 infants in period II were evaluated. The overall in-hospital mortality for VLBW infants dropped from 26.1% in period I to 13.1% in period II. The incidence of birth asphyxia decreased significantly during period II (10.1% [period I] vs 3.7% [period II]). The rate of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) use (69.8% vs 87.1%) and the duration of NCPAP therapy (median: 3 days [period I] vs 5 days [period II]) increased significantly, while the proportion of infants treated with mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilation significantly decreased. There was a significant increase in the proportion of survivors without major neonatal morbidity, mainly due to a significant increase in the incidence of survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (72.7% vs 82.8%). In contrast, the incidence of late-onset sepsis increased significantly during period II (7.9% vs 19.4%). Conclusions: Active perinatal care is associated with improvements in survival and survival free of BPD for VLBW infants. However, late-onset sepsis is still a major concern.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Sepse/complicações , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Morbidade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Georgian Med News ; (302): 92-96, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672697

RESUMO

Sepsis is a common and potentially lethal syndrome. Its global prevalence is rising during last decades, which is related to older population, comorbidities, such as diabetes, malignancies and increased numbers of interventions. Currently there is no specific treatment for sepsis. Lethal outcome is depending under several factors, such as site of infections, infectious agent, severity of sepsis, organ dysfunction, age, sex, social and economic factors, race and ethnicity. Severe sepsis is related to about 30% of lethality but outcome is not always predictable according to severity of sepsis. This paradox can be explained on basis of genetic, ethnic, race and phenotype properties of patient. Influence of these factors on sepsis outcome is not yet properly investigated. Future studies are needed for definition of correlation between different race, nation, genetic and phenotype properties and on this basis will be possible the development of more effective personal treatment of septic patients.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Choque Séptico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fenótipo , Sepse/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are a common but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID). They can be severe, and hospitalisations of PWID with SSTI are rising. The most common SSTI presentations are abscesses and cellulitis. METHODS: We used data from Care & Prevent, a cross-sectional community survey of PWID in London. We reported the lifetime prevalence of SSTI, severity of infections, key risk factors, and associated sequelae. Pictorial questions were used to assess SSTI severity. RESULTS: We recruited 455 PWID. SSTI lifetime prevalence was high: 64% reported an abscess and/or cellulitis. Over one-third (37%) reported a severe infection, 137 (47%) reported hospitalisation. SSTIrisk factors were: aged 35+ years, injecting once or more times a day, subcutaneous or intra-muscular injections, and making four or more attempts to achieve an injection. Those who reported having other health conditions were at higher odds of having an abscess or cellulitis, with risk tending to increase with number of reported conditions. Half (46%) employed self-care for their worst SSTI, and 43% waited for ten or more days before seeking medical care or not seeking medical care at all. CONCLUSIONS: Abscess and cellulitis are very common among PWID in London. We corroborate findings indicating SSTIs are associated with risks, e.g. venous access problems, as well as other co-morbid conditions: septicaemia, endocarditis, DVT, and kidney disease. These co-morbidities may impact SSTIs severity and outcomes. Delayed healthcare seeking potentially exacerbates infection severity, which in turn increases poorer health outcomes and complications.


Assuntos
Abscesso/epidemiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abscesso/complicações , Abscesso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Celulite (Flegmão)/complicações , Celulite (Flegmão)/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/complicações , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/fisiopatologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/fisiopatologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699026

RESUMO

According to the Third International Consensus Definition for Sepsis and Septic Shock, sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction resulting from dysregulated host responses to infection. Epidemiological data about sepsis from the 2017 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factor Study showed that the global burden of sepsis was greater than previously estimated. Bacteria have been shown to be the predominant pathogen of sepsis among patients with pathogens detected, while sepsis caused by viruses is underdiagnosed worldwide. The coronavirus disease that emerged in 2019 in China and now in many other countries has brought viral sepsis back into the vision of physicians and researchers worldwide. Although the current understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis has improved, the differences between viral and bacterial sepsis at the level of pathophysiology are not well understood. Diagnosis methods that can broadly differentiate between bacterial and viral sepsis at the initial stage after the development of sepsis are limited. New treatments that can be applied at clinics for sepsis are scarce and this situation is not consistent with the growing understanding of pathophysiology. This review aims to give a brief summary of current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of viral sepsis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Consenso , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Medição de Risco , Sepse/terapia , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003202, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing have coincided with increasing awareness of sepsis. We aimed to estimate the probability of sepsis following infection consultations in primary care when antibiotics were or were not prescribed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study including all registered patients at 706 general practices in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, with 66.2 million person-years of follow-up from 2002 to 2017. There were 35,244 first episodes of sepsis (17,886, 51%, female; median age 71 years, interquartile range 57-82 years). Consultations for respiratory tract infection (RTI), skin or urinary tract infection (UTI), and antibiotic prescriptions were exposures. A Bayesian decision tree was used to estimate the probability (95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) of sepsis following an infection consultation. Age, gender, and frailty were evaluated as association modifiers. The probability of sepsis was lower if an antibiotic was prescribed, but the number of antibiotic prescriptions required to prevent one episode of sepsis (number needed to treat [NNT]) decreased with age. At 0-4 years old, the NNT was 29,773 (95% UI 18,458-71,091) in boys and 27,014 (16,739-65,709) in girls; over 85 years old, NNT was 262 (236-293) in men and 385 (352-421) in women. Frailty was associated with greater risk of sepsis and lower NNT. For severely frail patients aged 55-64 years, the NNT was 247 (156-459) in men and 343 (234-556) in women. At all ages, the probability of sepsis was greatest for UTI, followed by skin infection, followed by RTI. At 65-74 years, the NNT following RTI was 1,257 (1,112-1,434) in men and 2,278 (1,966-2,686) in women; the NNT following skin infection was 503 (398-646) in men and 784 (602-1,051) in women; following UTI, the NNT was 121 (102-145) in men and 284 (241-342) in women. NNT values were generally smaller for the period from 2014 to 2017, when sepsis was diagnosed more frequently. Lack of random allocation to antibiotic therapy might have biased estimates; patients may sometimes experience sepsis or receive antibiotic prescriptions without these being recorded in primary care; recording of sepsis has increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: These stratified estimates of risk help to identify groups in which antibiotic prescribing may be more safely reduced. Risks of sepsis and benefits of antibiotics are more substantial among older adults, persons with more advanced frailty, or following UTIs.


Assuntos
Infecções/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Probabilidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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