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1.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 200-211, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. It is considered a major cause of health loss, but data for the global burden of sepsis are limited. As a syndrome caused by underlying infection, sepsis is not part of standard Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) estimates. Accurate estimates are important to inform and monitor health policy interventions, allocation of resources, and clinical treatment initiatives. We estimated the global, regional, and national incidence of sepsis and mortality from this disorder using data from GBD 2017. METHODS: We used multiple cause-of-death data from 109 million individual death records to calculate mortality related to sepsis among each of the 282 underlying causes of death in GBD 2017. The percentage of sepsis-related deaths by underlying GBD cause in each location worldwide was modelled using mixed-effects linear regression. Sepsis-related mortality for each age group, sex, location, GBD cause, and year (1990-2017) was estimated by applying modelled cause-specific fractions to GBD 2017 cause-of-death estimates. We used data for 8·7 million individual hospital records to calculate in-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality, stratified by underlying GBD cause. In-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality was modelled for each location using linear regression, and sepsis incidence was estimated by applying modelled case-fatality to sepsis-related mortality estimates. FINDINGS: In 2017, an estimated 48·9 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 38·9-62·9) incident cases of sepsis were recorded worldwide and 11·0 million (10·1-12·0) sepsis-related deaths were reported, representing 19·7% (18·2-21·4) of all global deaths. Age-standardised sepsis incidence fell by 37·0% (95% UI 11·8-54·5) and mortality decreased by 52·8% (47·7-57·5) from 1990 to 2017. Sepsis incidence and mortality varied substantially across regions, with the highest burden in sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, south Asia, east Asia, and southeast Asia. INTERPRETATION: Despite declining age-standardised incidence and mortality, sepsis remains a major cause of health loss worldwide and has an especially high health-related burden in sub-Saharan Africa. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the University of Pittsburgh, the British Columbia Children's Hospital Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and the Fleming Fund.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846050

RESUMO

Two minor outbreaks of puerperal sepsis in two different hospitals are presented. In four (out of totally five) cases nosocomial transmission of group A streptococci (GAS) from health care workers to patients was likely to have occurred, based on epidemiological links and microbiological typing results. This is a reminder of the importance of careful adherence to standard precautions, but also illustrates the difficulties in keeping up good results over time.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Sepse , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17704, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689800

RESUMO

For early diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC), the well-known risk factors may not apply in the intensive care unit (ICU). This retrospective study identified the risk factors predicting IC and candidemia in cancer patients under intensive care after gastrointestinal surgery.Enrolled were 229 cancer patients admitted to our oncology surgical ICU after gastrointestinal surgery between January 1, 2010 and October 31, 2014.The most common types of solid gastrointestinal cancers were gastric (49.8%), colon (20.1%), and esophageal (18.3%). The percentage of patients with corrected Candida colonization index (CCI) ≥0.4 was 31.9%. IC was confirmed in 19 patients (8.3%), and the ICU mortality was 15.8%. Candida albicans accounted for 52.6% of the total number of pathogenic Candida isolates. Among patients with CCI ≥0.4, the cancers with the highest prevalence were cardiac (45%) and gastric (36%), with ICU mortalities of 20% and 4.9%, respectively. For the diagnosis of candidemia, (1-3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) ≥80 pg/mL showed a sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 82.7%, respectively, positive and negative predictive values 6.7% and 95.7%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.512. CCI ≥0.4 was the only significant predictor of IC, and number of organ failures was the only predictor of candidemia (P = .000 and .026).CCI ≥0.4 was the only significant risk factor predicting IC, with greater prediction of intra-abdominal candidiasis but failure to predict candidemia. Blood culture and BDG detection are recommended to supplement diagnosis. Patients may have multifocal and high-grade Candida colonization after cardiac surgery, and; therefore, are at high risk of IC, which should be taken seriously.


Assuntos
Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , APACHE , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia
4.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1910-1923, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656474

RESUMO

Background: There is a high prevalence of paediatric emergency cases in less developed countries. However, prolonged hospital stay at emergency units may further overstretch the facilities. Objective: To assess the patterns of presentations, services offered and predictors of a prolonged stay at the Children Emergency Room of a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional, study was conducted at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria from 1st January-31st December 2014. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of consecutively recruited children (n=633) were recorded in a proforma. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors of prolonged stay (>72 hours). Result: The median age of participants was 2 (1 - 4.6) years. Three-fifths of children were admitted at off-hours and the commonest symptom was fever (73.9%). About 16.4% (95%CI:13.6% - 19.4%, n= 103/633) of the children had prolonged stay while those with sepsis had the longest mean stay (65.5±72.1 hours). Children admitted on account of Sickle cell disease (OR:11.2, 95%CI:1.3-95.1, P-value = 0.03), Malaria (OR:10.7, 95%CI:1.4-82.5, P-value = 0.02) or sepsis (OR:10.5, 95%CI:1.3 - 82.7, P-value = 0.03) had higher odds of prolonged hospital stay. There was no significant difference in hospital stay among children admitted by the consultant as compared to other health personnel (P-value = 0.08). Conclusion: Prevention and proper management of Sickle cell disease and malaria reduces paediatric hospital stay in our environment. Paediatric emergency medicine should be re-organized to cater for high volume of off-hour admissions.


Assuntos
Emergências/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1189-1193, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657322

RESUMO

Paraesophageal hernia (PEH) repair is typically performed electively. Complex PEHs (obstructed or gangrenous) require more urgent repair and can have significant complications. Although elective repair is primarily laparoscopic, limited data are available on the use of laparoscopy for complex cases. Patients undergoing complex PEH repair were identified from the NSQIP database, and predictors of morbidity and mortality were compared for 2473 laparoscopic and 861 open repairs. Compared with the laparoscopic approach, emergent surgeries (36.7% vs 10.8%, P < 0.001) and preoperative sepsis (22.9% vs 7.4%, P < 0.001) were more common in the open group. Operative times were shorter for open repairs (152.6 vs 172.2 minutes, P = 0.03). However, open repair was associated with increased morbidity (28.2% vs 11%, P < 0.001) and mortality (5.2% vs 1.4%, P < 0.001), likely because of higher rates of preoperative comorbidities in the open group. On multivariable regression analysis, preoperative sepsis was associated with increased mortality and morbidity, whereas laparoscopic repair was associated with decreased morbidity. If laparoscopic repair can be safely completed, it is associated with decreased morbidity, despite longer operative times.


Assuntos
Doenças do Esôfago/cirurgia , Hérnia Hiatal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/mortalidade , Laparoscopia/mortalidade , Idoso , Emergências/epidemiologia , Feminino , Herniorrafia/efeitos adversos , Herniorrafia/métodos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Morbidade , Duração da Cirurgia , Análise de Regressão , Sepse/epidemiologia
6.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(9): 1072-1077, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the epidemiology of Sepsis-1 and Sepsis-3 in Yuetan Subdistrict of Beijing, and to estimate the incidence of Sepsis-3 in China. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted. Through the database of Beijing Public Health Information System, the medical records of all adult residents hospitalized from July 1st, 2012 to June 30th, 2014 in Yuetan Subdistrict were reviewed. According to the clinical data of these patients, patients with Sepsis-1 and Sepsis-3 were enrolled in this analysis and the demographic characteristics of them were compared. Incidence and in-hospital mortality was calculated. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the risk factors of sepsis. RESULTS: Compared with non-septic patients with infections, patients with Sepsis-1 or Sepsis-3 were more likely to be male, older, had more comorbidities and lower body mass index (BMI), had more lower respiratory tract infections, more intra-abdominal infections and more blood flow infections, but had fewer urogenital tract infections, fewer upper respiratory tract infections, fewer gastrointestinal infections and fewer skin and soft tissue infections, and had pure prognosis with longer length of hospital stay [days, Sepsis-1 compared with non-Sepsis-1: 18 (10, 34) vs. 14 (9, 22), Sepsis-3 compared with non-Sepsis-3: 20 (11, 39) vs. 14 (9, 25)] and higher mortality [Sepsis-1 compared with non-Sepsis-1: 20.6% (353/1 716) vs. 2.5% (44/1 733), Sepsis-3 compared with non-Sepsis-3: 32.0% (299/935) vs. 3.9% (98/2 514), all P < 0.01]. Logistic regression analysis showed that male, elder (age ≥ 65 years old), low BMI, bed-rest state, and combined with cerebrovascular disease and hematological malignancies were risk factors for Sepsis-1 [all odds ratio (OR) > 1, all P < 0.05], while the male, elder (age ≥ 65 years old), low BMI, bed-rest state, and combined with cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic immune disease, malignant diseases of blood system and dementia were risk factors for Sepsis-3 (all OR > 1, all P < 0.05). Sepsis-3 was more common in males [OR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.01-1.40, P < 0.05] and elderly patients (age 65-84 years old: OR = 1.60, 95%CI was 1.28-1.99, P < 0.01; age ≥ 85 years old: OR = 1.76, 95%CI was 1.39-2.23, P < 0.01) as compared with Sepsis-1. After adjusted for gender and age, the standardized incidence of Sepsis-1 was 461 per 100 000 person-year, and that of Sepsis-3 was 236 per 100 000 person-year, with the standardized mortality of 79 per 100 000 person-year and 67 per 100 000 person-year, respectively, in Yuetan Subdistrict of Beijing. Corresponding to a speculative extrapolation of 4 856 532 new cases for Sepsis-1 and 2 487 949 new cases for Sepsis-3, there were 831 674 deaths and 700 437 deaths per year in China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Male, elder, more comorbidities and low BMI were risk factors for sepsis. The standardized incidence of Sepsis-3 in Yuetan Subdistrict of Beijing was 236 per 100 000 person-year, and speculated there were 2.5 million new cases of Sepsis-3 per year, resulting in more than 700 000 deaths in China. According to the diagnostic criterion of Sepsis-3, 2.36 million new cases per year were reduced, and the mortality was increased by 11.4%, as compared with the criterion of Sepsis-1.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia
7.
Heart Surg Forum ; 22(5): E325-E330, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed sternal closure commonly is used after pediatric cardiac surgery. Its benefits include relieving cardiac compression and stabilizing postoperative critically ill patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 72 patients, who had undergone delayed sternal closure, among 1,254 patients operated for congenital heart diseases. Indications of delayed sternal closure, perioperative hemodynamic and metabolic status, postoperative infection, and mortality were reported. RESULTS: Transposition of great arteries was the most common preoperative cardiac pathology (26.3%). Bleeding and hemodynamic instability were the most frequent indications for delayed sternal closure, representing 38.8% and 34.7%, respectively. The mean duration of open chest was 3.45 days ± 1.46 days. The mean duration of ICU stay was 20.95 days ± 20.06 days. Two patients had deep sternal wound infection. Sepsis was found in 39 patients (54.1%), and the most common causative organism was coagulase negative (30.5%). ICU stay was a significant risk factor for sepsis (P = .003); duration of open sternum, period of mechanical ventilation (MV), and total hospital stay were not statistically significant risk factors. Sternal closure time (SCT) was affected by period of hemodynamic instability (P = .036). Bypass time, clamping time, and nonsurgical bleeding did not significantly affect SCT. The mortality rate was 15.2% (N = 11). CONCLUSION: Delayed sternal closure is a simple and effective technique that could prevent postoperative cardiac compression in hemodynamic instability states after pediatric cardiac operations.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Esterno/cirurgia , Ferida Cirúrgica/cirurgia , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17511, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593121

RESUMO

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is a serious disease which can causes gastrointestinal bleeding and death. Although black color change is not essential factor of organ necrosis, AEN is also known as "black esophagus." Because of its rarity, there are limited studies regarding risk factors of mortality and recurrence. Thus, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study in order to evaluate the clinical characteristics of AEN. Method Clinical datum of AEN patients from 7 tertiary hospitals located in Daejeon-Choongcheong province were evaluated based on medical records. Our primary endpoint was risk factors for mortality and the secondary endpoint was risk factors for recurrence and clarifying whether "black esophagus" is a right terminology.Fourty one patients were enrolled. Thirty six patients were male, mean age was 69.5 years. Nine patients had died, and 4 patients showed recurrence. Sepsis and white color change in endoscopy were related to high mortality (Chi-Squared test, P < .05). Old age, high pulse rate, low hemoglobin, and low albumin were also related to high mortality. Unexpectedly, heavy drinking showed favorable a mortality. Septic condition and high pulse rate showed poor mortality in logistic regression test (P < .05). Coexisting duodenal ulcer was related to recurrence (Chi-Squared test, P < .05). There was no difference in the underlying condition except patients with a coexisting cancer and white-form displayed lower hemoglobin level. Conclusion: Our results imply that white color change, septic condition, high pulse rate, and low hemoglobin & albumin are poor prognostic factors in AEN. Further evaluation may help clarify the findings of our study.


Assuntos
Doenças do Esôfago/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Necrose/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Albuminas/análise , Úlcera Duodenal/epidemiologia , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Doenças do Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Esôfago/patologia , Esôfago/irrigação sanguínea , Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/complicações , Necrose/patologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/mortalidade
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17521, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have neglected to report the specific action of different probiotic genera in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of specific probiotic genera, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to identify the best prevention strategy for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials had been searched for randomized control trials reporting the probiotics strategy for premature infants. RESULTS: We identified 34 eligible studies of 9161 participants. The intervention in the observation group was to add probiotics for feeding: Lactobacilli in 6 studies; Bifidobacterium in 8 studies; Bacillus in 1 study; Saccharomyces in 4 studies and probiotic mixture in 15 studies. This NMA showed a significant advantage of probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium to prevent the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A probiotic mixture showed effectiveness in reducing mortality in preterm infants. CONCLUSION: The recent literature has reported a total of 5 probiotic strategies, including Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, and probiotic mixture. Our thorough review and NMA provided a piece of available evidence to choose optimal probiotics prophylactic strategy for premature infants. The results indicated that probiotic mixture and Bifidobacterium showed a stronger advantage to use in preterm infants; the other probiotic genera failed to show an obvious effect to reduce the incidence of NEC, sepsis and all-cause death. More trials need to be performed to determine the optimal probiotic treatment strategy to prevent preterm related complications.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 29(11): 1436-1445, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556797

RESUMO

Introduction: Major colorectal surgery procedures are complex operations that can result in significant postoperative pain and complications. More evidence is needed to demonstrate how opioid-related adverse drug events (ORADEs) after colorectal surgery can affect hospital length of stay (LOS), hospital revenue, and what their association is with clinical conditions. By understanding the clinical and economic impact of potential ORADEs within colorectal surgery, we hope to further guide approaches to perioperative pain management in an effort to improve patient care and reduce hospital costs. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study utilizing the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Administrative Database to analyze Medicare discharges involving three colorectal surgery diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to identify potential ORADEs. The impact of potential ORADEs on mean hospital LOS and hospital revenue was analyzed. Results: The potential ORADE rate in patients undergoing colorectal surgery was 23.92%. The mean LOS for discharges with a potential ORADE was 5.35 days longer than without an ORADE. The mean hospital revenue per day with a potential ORADE was $418 less than without an ORADE. Any type of open surgery had a statistically significant higher potential ORADE rate than the matched laparoscopic case (P < .001). Clinical conditions most strongly associated with ORADEs in colorectal surgery included septicemia, pneumonia, shock, and fluid and electrolyte disorders. Conclusion: The incidence of ORADEs in colorectal surgery is high and is associated with longer hospital stays and reduced hospital revenue. Reducing the use of opioids in the perioperative setting, such as using multimodal analgesia strategies, may lead to positive outcomes with shorter hospital stays, increased hospital revenue, and improved patient care.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/cirurgia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/economia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/economia , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Reto/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Choque/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/epidemiologia
12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 69: 245-249, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Stroke is the second leading cause of death globally that predisposed to sepsis. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the risk factors and epidemiologic features of sepsis in ischemic stroke patients admitted to ICUs. METHODS: Throughout this prospective study, we investigated all severe ischemic stroke patients admitted to ICUs of Namazi and Ali-Ashghar Hospitals in Shiraz. After ICU admission and diagnosing stroke by a neurologist according to NIHSS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale) criteria, sepsis work-up was performed in all patients suspected to have sepsis. Then the incidence of sepsis and its risk factors in ICU admitted stroke patients were determined. RESULTS: A total of 149 patients were screened in this study. The mean age of the participants was 65.37 ±â€¯15.40 years old and 57.4% of them were male. Hypertension was the most common coexistent disease (74.6%) in stroke patients. Seventy-six patients (62.3%) were diagnosed with sepsis and pneumonia was the most common infection leading to sepsis in stroke patients. Our data showed significant differences between two groups in terms of APACHE-IV score (P < 0.001), NIHSS and APS (P < 0.001) before ICU admission (P < 0.001) and NIHSS at admission (P < 0.001); however, age (P = 0.07) and sex (P = 0.17) were not significantly different between the groups. Logistic regression analysis displayed that severe stroke (NIHSS = 21-42, OR = 49.09) and severe loss of consciousness (GCS < 8, OR = 27.95) at admission were the most essential predictive factors for sepsis after ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that ICU patients with severe ischemic stroke were more susceptible to sepsis during the hospital course.


Assuntos
Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , APACHE , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(8): 1004-1007, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of PICU sepsis children in Anhui Children's Hospital from May 2015 to May 2018 was performed. The children were divided into AKI group and non-AKI group according to whether AKI occurred within 48 hours of PICU [referring to the diagnostic criteria for Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)]. The general data, physiological data and clinical outcomes of the two groups were compared; Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of AKI in children with sepsis and the prognostic factors. RESULTS: AKI occurred in 55 of 127 children with sepsis, the incidence of AKI was 43.3%, and the overall mortality was 28.3% (36/127), with 41.8% (23/55) in AKI group and 18.1% (13/72) in non-AKI group. (1) Compared with non-AKI group, oxygenation index, albumin, the pediatric critical illness case score (PCIS) and urine volume in AKI group were significantly decreased, while cystatin C, procalcitonin (PCT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), pediatric multiple organ dysfunction score (P-MODS), the proportions of mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drug use, shock, septic shock and mortality were significantly increased, while there was no difference in age, gender, mean arterial pressure (MAP), white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the two groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that low serum albumin [odds ratio (OR) = 0.627, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.495-0.794, P = 0.000] and homocystatin C (OR = 2.641, 95%CI = 1.157-6.032, P = 0.021) were risk factors for AKI in children with sepsis. (2) Compared with the survival group of children with sepsis AKI, the proportion of mechanical ventilation, septic shock, vasoactive drug use, positive balance ratio of liquid for 72 hours, 6-hour lactate clearance rate < 10%, and AKI 3-stage patients in the death group of children with sepsis AKI were significantly increased. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that 72-hour positive liquid balance (OR = 8.542, 95%CI = 1.956-37.307, P = 0.004) and 6-hour lactate clearance rate < 10% (OR = 5.980, 95%CI = 1.393-25.676, P = 0.016) were risk factors for the death of children with sepsis AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Serum albumin and cystatin C should be closely monitored in children with sepsis. Early detection and intervention of positive fluid balance and low lactate clearance rate can reduce the mortality of AKI in children with sepsis.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Sepse/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia
14.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 114(4): 487-493, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511135

RESUMO

Introduction: Crohn disease (CD) has seen a steady increase in incidence over the years in Romania. Laparoscopy had a slow evolution as a feasible therapeutic option for patients with CD. Material and Method: The study is retrospective. The period on which the data was gathered spread over 8 years (01.01.2011-01.01.2019). Data was retrieved from three Clinical Hospitals in Bucharest, Romania Results: the preoperative diagnosis of an intestinal fistula (p = 0,02), sepsis (p = 0.01 ) or increased age should be regarded as a limitation for a laparoscopic approach in CD complications. Also in emergency settings an open approach should be the mainstay treatment (approach p = 0.000001). Conclusion: Laparoscopy is a feasible surgical option in the treatment of surgical complication in CD. In order to increase the safety of the intervention, correct selection of patients is important.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/epidemiologia , Fístula Intestinal/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Romênia/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Helicobacter ; 24 Suppl 1: e12645, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486233

RESUMO

This article is a review of the most important, accessible, and relevant literature published between April 2018 and April 2019 in the field of Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori. The initial part of the review covers new insights regarding the presence of gastric and enterohepatic non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH) in humans and animals, while the subsequent section focuses on the progress in our understanding of the pathogenicity and evolution of these species. Over the last year, relatively few cases of gastric NHPH infections in humans were published, with most NHPH infections being attributed to enterohepatic Helicobacters. A novel species, designated "Helicobacter caesarodunensis," was isolated from the blood of a febrile patient and numerous cases of human Helicobacter cinaedi infections underlined this species as a true emerging pathogen. With regard to NHPH in animals, canine/feline gastric NHPH cause little or no harm in their natural host; however they can become opportunistic when translocated to the hepatobiliary tract. The role of enterohepatic Helicobacter species in colorectal tumors in pets has also been highlighted. Several studies in rodent models have further elucidated the mechanisms underlying the development of NHPH-related disease, and the extra-gastric effects of a Helicobacter suis infection on brain homeostasis was also studied. Comparative genomics facilitated a breakthrough in the evolutionary history of Helicobacter in general and NHPH in particular. Investigation of the genome of Helicobacter apodemus revealed particular traits with regard to its virulence factors. A range of compounds including mulberries, dietary fiber, ginseng, and avian eggs which target the gut microbiota have also been shown to affect Helicobacter growth, with a potential therapeutic utilization and increase in survival.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter/classificação , Helicobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/patologia , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter/patogenicidade , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Humanos , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/patologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/patologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 760, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of sepsis in pediatric patients is vital but remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that presepsin is potentially a reliable diagnostic biomarker for sepsis in adult and neonates. However, there is no pooled analysis of its efficacy as a diagnostic biomarker for sepsis in children. The aims of the present meta-analysis were to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in pediatric sepsis and compare it to those for C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline/Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Science to identify relevant studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in patients with pediatric sepsis. Sensitivities and specificities were pooled by bivariate meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated by χ2 test. RESULTS: We identified 129 studies in total. Most were disqualified on the basis of their titles/abstracts and duplication. Four studies were included in the final analysis. They comprised 308 patients aged between 1 mo and 18 y. The pooled diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of presepsin were 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.99) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.35-0.92), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio, positive likelihood ratio (LR), and negative LR of presepsin were 32.87 (95% CI: 2.12-510.09), 3.24 (95% CI, 1.14-12.38), and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.01-0.74), respectively. Heterogeneity was found in both sensitivity (χ2 = 11.17; P = 0.011) and specificity (χ2 = 65.78; P < 0.001). No threshold effect was identified among the studies (r = - 0.938). The pooled sensitivity of presepsin (0.94) was higher than that of CRP (0.51) and PCT (0.76), whereas the overall specificity of presepsin (0.71) was lower than that of CRP (0.81) and PCT (0.76). The AUC of presepsin (0.925) was higher than that of CRP (0.715) and PCT (0.820). CONCLUSION: Currently available evidence indicates that presepsin has higher sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy, but lower specificity, than PCT or CRP in detecting sepsis in children. However, these results must be carefully interpreted as the number of studies included was small and the studies were statistically heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Masculino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Pró-Calcitonina/análise , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/epidemiologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16867, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415421

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex syndrome with a variety of possible etiologies and symptoms. It is characterized by high mortality and poor recovery of renal function. The incidence and mortality rates of patients with AKI in intensive care units are extremely high. It is generally accepted that early identification and prompt treatment of AKI are essential to improve outcomes. This study aimed to develop a model based on risk stratification to identify and diagnose early stage AKI for improved prognosis in critically ill patients.This was a single-center, retrospective, observational study. Based on relevant literature, we selected 13 risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, total bilirubin, emergency surgery, mechanical ventilation, sepsis, heart failure, cancer, and hypoalbuminemia) for AKI assessment using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) diagnostic criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine risk factors for eventual entry into the predictive model. The AKI predictive model was established using binary logistic regression, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC or AUC) was used to evaluate the predictive ability of the model and to determine critical values.The AKI predictive model was established using binary logistic regression. The AUROC of the predictive model was 0.81, with a sensitivity of 69.8%, specificity of 83.4%, and positive likelihood ratio of 4.2.A predictive model for AKI in critically ill patients was established using 5 related risk factors: heart failure, chronic kidney disease, emergency surgery, sepsis, and total bilirubin; however, the predictive ability requires validation.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Bilirrubina/sangue , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 271, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between sociodemographic and obstetric variables and delays in care with maternal near misses (MNMs) and their health indicators. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a high-risk maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil from June 2015 to May 2016 that included all pregnant women seen at the maternity hospital during the data collection period and excluded those who had not been discharged at the end of the study or whom we were unable to contact after the 42nd postpartum day for MNM control. We used the MNM criteria recommended by the WHO. Risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The p values of all tests were two-tailed, and the significance level was set to 5%. RESULTS: A total of 1094 pregnant women were studied. We identified 682 (62.4%) women without adverse maternal outcomes (WOAMOs) and 412 (37.6%) with adverse maternal outcomes (WAMOs), of whom 352 had potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTCs) (85.4%), including 55 MNM cases (13.3%) and five maternal deaths (1.2%). During the study period, 1002 live births (LBs) were recorded at the maternity hospital, resulting in an MNM ratio of 54.8/1000 LB. The MNM distribution by clinical condition identified hypertension in pregnancy (67.2%), hemorrhage (42.2%) and sepsis (12.7%). In the multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of MNM were fewer than six prenatal visits (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.74-5.64) and cesarean section in the current pregnancy (OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.45-5.82). CONCLUSIONS: The factors significantly associated with the occurrence of MNM were fewer than six prenatal visits and cesarean section in the current pregnancy. These findings highlight the need for improved quality, an increased number of prenatal visits and the identification of innovative and viable models of labor and delivery care that value normal delivery and decrease the percentage of unnecessary cesarean sections.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Maternidades , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção Puerperal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo para o Tratamento , Hemorragia Uterina/epidemiologia , Inércia Uterina/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426735

RESUMO

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2017 survey was the fifth year to focus on blood stream infections, and included Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Seven thousand nine hundred and ten isolates, comprising Enterobacterales (7,100, 89.8%), P. aeruginosa (697, 8.8%) and Acinetobacter species (113, 1.4%), were tested using commercial automated methods. The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2018). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 11.3%/11.3% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria), 8.8%/8.8% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 5.7%/5.7% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 12.1%/18.0% for E. coli, 4.4%/11.2% for K. pneumoniae, 1.3%/3.5% for K. oxytoca, 3.0%/8.5% for Enterobacter cloacae complex, and 5.1%/9.8% for P. aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 2.8%/5.9%, 3.7%/7.3%, 9.6%/11.0%, 22.5%/27.6%, and 6.4%/13.2% for the same five species respectively. Twenty-seven isolates from 25 patients were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene: 12 blaIMP (11 patients), five blaOXA-181 (four patients), three blaOXA-23, two blaNDM, two blaKPC, two blaVIM, and one blaGES.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Relatórios Anuais como Assunto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1138, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of sepsis/septicemia hospitalization in the US have risen significantly during recent years. Antibiotic resistance and use may contribute to those rates through various mechanisms, including lack of clearance of resistant infections following antibiotic treatment, with some of those infections subsequently devolving into sepsis. At the same time, there is limited information on the effect of prescribing of certain antibiotics vs. others on the rates of septicemia and sepsis-related hospitalizations and mortality. METHODS: We used multivariable linear regression to relate state-specific rates of outpatient prescribing overall for oral fluoroquinolones, penicillins, macrolides, and cephalosporins between 2011 and 2012 to state-specific rates of septicemia hospitalization (ICD-9 codes 038.xx present anywhere on a discharge diagnosis) in each of the following age groups of adults: (18-49y, 50-64y, 65-74y, 75-84y, 85 + y) reported to the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) between 2011 and 2012, adjusting for additional covariates, and random effects associated with the ten US Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. RESULTS: Increase in the rate of prescribing of oral penicillins by 1 annual dose per 1000 state residents was associated with increases in annual septicemia hospitalization rates of 0.19 (95% CI (0.02,0.37)) per 10,000 persons aged 50-64y, of 0.48(0.12,0.84) per 10,000 persons aged 65-74y, and of 0.81(0.17,1.40) per 10,000 persons aged 74-84y. Increase by 1 in the percent of African Americans among state residents in a given age group was associated with increases in annual septicemia hospitalization rates of 2.3(0.32,4.2) per 10,000 persons aged 75-84y, and of 5.3(1.1,9.5) per 10,000 persons aged over 85y. Average minimal daily temperature was positively associated with septicemia hospitalization rates in persons aged 18-49y, 50-64y, 75-84y and over 85y. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest positive associations between the rates of prescribing for penicillins and the rates of hospitalization with septicemia in US adults aged 50-84y. Further studies are needed to better understand the potential effect of antibiotic replacement in the treatment of various syndromes, including the potential impact of the recent US FDA guidelines on restriction of fluoroquinolone use, as well as the potential effect of changes in the practices for prescribing of penicillins on the rates of sepsis-related hospitalization and mortality.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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