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1.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 8779061, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664433

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the correlation of blood glucose level with inflammatory response and immune indicators in patients with sepsis. Methods: Between February 2019 and February 2021, 30 sepsis patients and 30 sepsis patients complicated with diabetes mellitus admitted to our hospital were recruited and assigned to either the experimental group (sepsis patients) or the observation group (sepsis patients with diabetes mellitus). Another 30 healthy subjects in the same period were included as the control group. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, CD4+, and CD8+ in the three groups of patients were compared to analyze the correlation of blood glucose levels with inflammatory response and immune indicators in patients with sepsis. The difference of counting data was analyzed using the chi-square test, and the difference of measurement data was analyzed using the t-test. Results: The control group showed the lowest levels of IL-6 at 14.32 ± 4.98 pg/ml, followed by 18.33 ± 3.27 pg/ml in the experimental group and then 22.64 ± 5.16 pg/ml in the observation group (P < 0.05). The levels of other inflammatory factors including TNF-α and IL-1ß were the lowest in the control group, followed by the experimental group, and then the observation group (P < 0.05). The lowest immune function indicator CD4+ and CD8+ levels were found in the observation group, followed by the experimental group, and then the control group (P < 0.05). The blood glucose level of patients with sepsis was positively correlated with the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß and was negatively correlated with the levels of CD4+/CD8+. The higher the blood glucose, the lower the number of immune cells. Conclusion: The blood glucose level of patients with sepsis is positively correlated with inflammatory response and negatively with immune indicators. An increased blood sugar level is associated with aggravated inflammatory responses and a decreased number of immune cells, which provides a reference for the disease severity assessment and treatment of patients with sepsis.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Sepse , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Sepse/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 895991, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655465

RESUMO

Background: Data concerning the epidemiology of sepsis in critically ill post-craniotomy patients are scarce. This study aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of sepsis in this population. Methods: This was a single-center prospective cohort study. Post-craniotomy patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened daily for the presence of infection and sepsis. Results: Of the 900 included patients, 300 developed sepsis. The cumulative incidence of sepsis was 33.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 30.2-36.4%]. Advanced age, male, hypertension, trauma, postoperative intracranial complications, and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on the first postoperative day were independent risk factors of sepsis. Septic patients had higher hospital mortality (13.7 vs. 8.3%, P = 0.012), longer ICU length of stay (LOS) (14 vs. 4 days, P < 0.001), longer hospital LOS (31 vs. 19 days, P < 0.001), and higher total medical cost (CNY 138,394 vs. 75,918, P < 0.001) than patients without sepsis. Conclusion: Sepsis is a frequent complication in critically ill post-craniotomy patients. Advanced age, male, hypertension, trauma, postoperative intracranial complications, and lower GCS on the first postoperative day were independent risk factors of sepsis.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Sepse , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/etiologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 549, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is an emerging infection in Sri Lanka with a high case fatality rate. The disease usually manifests as pneumonia, however multisystem involvement is common. Myositis is an extremely rare occurrence and this is the only documented case where the initial presentation of melioidosis has been myositis and later complicated to myonecrosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old gentleman with pre-existing diabetes presented with a tender, right thigh lump for 1 week duration without any history of trauma or infection. Investigations revealed neutrophil leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels whilst ultrasonography showed focal myositis of right quadriceps. The patient went into sepsis amidst antibacterial treatment which warranted urgent surgery. At surgery, a large intramuscular abscess with myonecrosis was observed within vastus medialis which was completely drained and pus was taken for culture which eventually isolated Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis was diagnosed and intravenous meropenem was prescribed for 3 weeks. Following complete recovery, the patient was discharged on doxycycline and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole for 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Melioidosis, an endemic disease in south east Asia and northern Australia, is an emerging infection in Sri Lanka. Myositis is a rare presentation of the disease that can lead to myonecrosis and abscess formation which can cause rapid disease escalation and sepsis. Early surgical intervention may be life-saving in such cases where antibiotic therapy alone may not suffice.


Assuntos
Burkholderia pseudomallei , Melioidose , Miosite , Sepse , Abscesso/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Melioidose/complicações , Melioidose/diagnóstico , Melioidose/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/complicações , Miosite/diagnóstico , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/etiologia , Sri Lanka
4.
J Surg Res ; 277: 372-383, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis has complex, time-sensitive pathophysiology and important phenotypic subgroups. The objective of this study was to use machine learning analyses of blood and urine biomarker profiles to elucidate the pathophysiologic signatures of subgroups of surgical sepsis patients. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 243 surgical sepsis patients admitted to a quaternary care center between January 2015 and June 2017. We applied hierarchical clustering to clinical variables and 42 blood and urine biomarkers to identify phenotypic subgroups in a development cohort. Clinical characteristics and short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between clusters. A naïve Bayes classifier predicted cluster labels in a validation cohort. RESULTS: The development cohort contained one cluster characterized by early organ dysfunction (cluster I, n = 18) and one cluster characterized by recovery (cluster II, n = 139). Cluster I was associated with higher Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (30 versus 16, P < 0.001) and SOFA scores (13 versus 5, P < 0.001), greater prevalence of chronic cardiovascular and renal disease (P < 0.001) and septic shock (78% versus 17%, P < 0.001). Cluster I had higher mortality within 14 d of sepsis onset (11% versus 1.5%, P = 0.001) and within 1 y (44% versus 20%, P = 0.032), and higher incidence of chronic critical illness (61% versus 30%, P = 0.001). The Bayes classifier achieved 95% accuracy and identified two clusters that were similar to development cohort clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning analyses of clinical and biomarker variables identified an early organ dysfunction sepsis phenotype characterized by inflammation, renal dysfunction, endotheliopathy, and immunosuppression, as well as poor short-term and long-term clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Sepse , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia
5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(3): e13842, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With an increasing number of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (allo-HCT) bloodstream infections (BSI) are still among the most common and serious complications. This study aimed to analyze the incidence, etiology, risk factors, and outcomes of pre-engraftment BSI after the first and the second allo-HCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 284 patients who underwent the first allo-HCT and 37 patients after the second allo-HCT at the National Research Center for Hematology in Moscow, Russia, from January 2018 till September 2021. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of pre-engraftment BSI was 29.9% after the first allo-HCT and 35.1% after the second (p = .805). The median time to the first BSI was 9 days (range 0-61 days) after the first and 16 days (range 1-28 days) after the second allo-HCT (p = .014). A total of 113 pathogens were isolated during 94 BSI episodes after the first allo-HCT (gram-negative bacteria 52.2%; gram-positive bacteria 47.7%). Fourteen pathogens were isolated during 14 BSI episodes after the second allo-HCT (gram-negative bacteria 50.0%; gram-positive bacteria 50.0%). The only significant difference was found in the rate of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, which was higher after the second allo-HCT compared to the first (57.1% vs. 13.6%; p = .048). Mismatched unrelated donor (hazards ratio [HR] 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-5.60; p < .0001) and haploidentical donor transplantations (HR 1.84; 95% CI: 1.02-3.33; p = .042) were the only independent risk factors associated with the higher risk of pre-engraftment BSI. Overall 30-day survival after all BSI episodes was 94.4%. Survival was lower after BSI during the second allo-HCT compared to the first (71.4% vs. 97.9%; p < .0001), particularly after BSI was caused by carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (25.0% vs. 100.0%; p = .0023). The non-relapse mortality rate at day +60 was 4.0%, and the risk was highly associated with primary graft failure (HR 9.62; 95% CI: 1.33-71.43), second allo-HCT (HR 6.80; 95% CI: 1.36-34.48), and pre-engraftment BSI caused by carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (HR 32.11; 95% CI: 4.91-210.15). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-engraftment BSI is still a common complication after allo-HCT, particularly after mismatched unrelated and haploidentical donor transplantations. BSI incidence was slightly higher after the second allo-HCT with a significantly higher rate of carbapenem-resistant BSI. Although pre-engraftment BSI would generally follow a benign clinical course, survival was dramatically lower during the second allo-HCT, especially after carbapenem-resistant BSI.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Sepse , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias , Carbapenêmicos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/etiologia
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 843067, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547733

RESUMO

The diagnostic value of procalcitonin and the prognostic role of PCT clearance remain unclear in neutropenic period after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation introduction. This study evaluated 219 febrile neutropenic patients (116, retrospectively; 103, prospectively) who underwent allo-HSCT from April 2014 to March 2016. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of PCT for detecting documented infection (DI) was 0.637, and that of bloodstream infection (BSI) was 0.811. In multivariate analysis, the inability to decrease PCT by more than 80% within 5-7 days after the onset of fever independently predicted poor 100-day survival following allo-HSCT (P = 0.036). Furthermore, the prognostic nomogram combining PCTc and clinical parameters showed a stable predictive performance, supported by the C-index of 0.808 and AUC of 0.813 in the primary cohort, and C-index of 0.691 and AUC of 0.697 in the validation cohort. This study demonstrated the diagnostic role of PCT in documented and bloodstream infection during the neutropenic period after allo-HSCT. PCTc might serve as a predictive indicator of post-HSCT 100-day mortality. A nomogram based on PCTc and several clinical factors effectively predicted the 100-day survival of febrile patients and may help physicians identify high-risk patients in the post-HSCT neutropenic period.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Sepse , Calcitonina , Febre/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pró-Calcitonina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/etiologia
9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(4): 100651, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence regarding gestational age at birth, length of stay, sepsis incidence, days on mechanical ventilation, and mortality between preterm and term deliveries in pregnancies complicated by gastroschisis. DATA SOURCES: We conducted database searches of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov without language restrictions through August 16, 2021. References of all relevant articles were reviewed. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled trials, and observational studies were evaluated comparing length of stay, sepsis, days on mechanical ventilation, and mortality between either elective preterm delivery and expectant management (Group 1) or preterm gestational age and term gestational age (Group 2). METHODS: Two researchers independently selected studies and evaluated risk of bias with the Risk of Bias 2 tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. Mean differences and odds ratios were calculated using a random-effects model for inclusion and methodological quality. The primary outcome was length of stay. Secondary outcomes were incidence of sepsis, mortality, days on mechanical ventilation, and gestational age. RESULTS: Thirty studies with a total of 7409 patients were included in the systematic review, of which 25 were included in the analysis. Group 1 studies found no difference in length of stay or mortality and a trend toward fewer days on mechanical ventilation (mean difference, -0.40; 95% confidence interval, -0.89 to -0.10; P=.12; I2=35%). Subgroup analysis excluding premature delivery demonstrated lower sepsis incidence in elective preterm delivery (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.84; P=.01; I2=0%). Group 2 studies found increased length of stay (mean difference, 15.44; 95% confidence interval, 8.44-21.83; P<.00001; I2=94%), sepsis (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.50; P=.008; I2=51%), days on mechanical ventilation (mean difference, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-2.66; P=.03; I2=66%), and mortality (odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-5.55; P=.0007; I2=0%). Gestational age was significantly lower in Group 2 studies than in Group 1 studies. CONCLUSION: Data continue to be conflicting, but subgroup analysis suggested a possible reduction in sepsis incidence and mean days on mechanical ventilation with elective early term delivery.


Assuntos
Gastrosquise , Nascimento Prematuro , Sepse , Feminino , Gastrosquise/diagnóstico , Gastrosquise/epidemiologia , Gastrosquise/terapia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Respiração Artificial , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(11): 1159-1171, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the most significantly adverse events that can occur after liver transplantation (LT) in children. AIM: To analyze the profile of BSI according to the postoperative periods and assess the risk factors after pediatric LT. METHODS: Clinical data, collected from medical charts of children (n = 378) who underwent primary LT, were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome considered was BSI in the first year after LT. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for BSI and respective odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Of the examined patients, 106 (28%) experienced 162 episodes of pathogen-confirmed BSI during the first year after LT. There were 1.53 ± 0.95 episodes per children (mean ± SD) among BSI-complicated patients with a median onset of 0.4 mo post-LT. The most common pathogenic organisms identified were Coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. About half (53%) of the BSIs were of unknown origin. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that young age (≤ 1.3 year; OR = 2.1, P = 0.011), growth failure (OR = 2.1, P = 0.045), liver support system (OR = 4.2, P = 0.008), and hospital stay of > 44 d (OR = 2.3, P = 0.002) were independently associated with BSI in the year after LT. CONCLUSION: BSI was frequently observed in patients after pediatric LT, affecting survival outcomes. The profile of BSI may inform clinical treatment and management in high-risk children after LT.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Transplante de Fígado , Sepse , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Criança , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia
11.
World Neurosurg ; 162: e91-e98, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if a penicillin allergy is an independent risk factor for poor outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). METHODS: A retrospective database review was performed using the PearlDiver data set. The study population included all patients younger than 85 years who underwent elective PLF or ACDF with diagnosis of penicillin allergy using International Classification of Diseases codes. Study patients were compared with controls for 90-day complications and 1-year reoperation rates. A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent effect of penicillin allergy on the postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: PLF cohort multivariate analysis showed that patients with a penicillin allergy had a significantly increased risk of sepsis (2.6% vs. 2.0%; P = 0.020), urinary tract infection (10.8% vs. 8.4%; P < 0.001), emergency room visits (27.3% vs. 20.2%; P < 0.001), and readmissions (9.6% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.001) within 90 days index of surgery. Similarly, the ACDF cohort multivariate analysis showed that a penicillin allergy was associated with an increased risk of sepsis (1.8% vs. 1.1%; P < 0.001), emergency room visits (27.2% vs. 20.7%; P < 0.001), and readmissions (6.8% vs. 5.6%; P = 0.003) within 90 days index of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found that a reported penicillin allergy is associated with an increase in sepsis, urinary tract infection, emergency room visit, and readmission postoperatively within 90 days after PLF and ACDF. The findings can help physicians provide patients with more comprehensive preoperative counseling in the setting of patient-reported penicillin allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Sepse , Fusão Vertebral , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos
12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 63(4): 578-586, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study reports on open TAAA repair comparing short and long term patient outcome according to the type of repair defined by the Crawford classification and elective vs. emergency repair. Endpoints were death, acute kidney injury (AKI), sepsis, spinal cord ischaemia (SCI), and re-intervention rate. METHODS: This was a retrospective study reporting the outcomes of 255 patients (between 2006 and 2019), designed according to the STROBE criteria. RESULTS: The TAAA distribution was type I 25%, type II 26%, type III 23%, type IV 18%, and type V 7%. Fifty-one (20%) patients had an emergency procedure. Of all the patients, 51% had a history of aortic surgery, 58% suffered from post-dissection TAAA, and 26% had connective tissue disease. The in hospital mortality rate among electively treated patients was 16% (n = 33) vs. 35% (n = 18) in the emergency subgroup; the total mortality rate was 20% (n = 51). The adjusted odds ratio for in hospital death following emergency repair compared with elective repair was 2.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15 - 5.48). Temporary renal replacement therapy because of AKI was required in 29% (n = 74) of all patients, sepsis from different cause was observed in 37% (n = 94), and SCI in 7% (n = 18, 10 patients suffering from paraplegia and eight from paraparesis). The mean follow up time was 3.0 years (median 1.5, range 0 - 12.8 years). Aortic related re-intervention was required in 2.8%. The total mortality rate during follow up was 22.5% (n = 46); 5.3% (n = 11) of all patients died because of aortic related events. CONCLUSION: Open TAAA repair is associated with an important morbidity and mortality rate, yet the incidence of spinal cord ischaemia may be favourably low if a neuromonitoring protocol is applied. The aortic related re-intervention and aortic related mortality rate during follow up are low.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Sepse , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/etiologia , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/etiologia , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(6): 2249-2262, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348825

RESUMO

Sepsis due to the administered probiotic strain/s is a barrier against adoption of prophylactic probiotic supplementation in preterm infants to reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC ≥ Stage II), all-cause mortality, late-onset sepsis, and feeding intolerance. We aimed to conduct a systematic review for reports of probiotic sepsis in preterm infants (gestation < 37 weeks). Databases including PubMed, Embase, Emcare, Cochrane Central library, and Google Scholar were searched in August 2021 and updated in Jan 2022. Probiotic sepsis was defined as positive blood/CSF culture isolating administered probiotic strain with symptoms suggestive of infection. Data collection included birth weight, gestation, comorbidities (e.g. gut surgery, NEC), presence of central venous catheters, treatment, and outcome. Literature search revealed 1569 studies. A total of 16 reports [randomised control trial (RCT): none; non-RCT: 1; case series: 8; case report: 7] involving 32 preterm infants with probiotic sepsis were included after exclusions for various reasons. Majority of the cases were born < 32 weeks' gestation. Bifidobacterium (N = 19) was the most commonly isolated organism followed by Lactobacillus (N = 10), and Saccharomyces (N = 3). A total of 25/32 cases were confirmed to be due to the administered probiotic strain on full genomic analysis. Two studies reported one neonatal death each. Twelve neonates had comorbidities. Majority were treated with antibiotics (29/32) whereas others (3/32) required antifungal treatment. CONCLUSION: Probiotics sepsis is relatively an uncommon event in preterm infants. Majority of the cases recovered after antibiotic or antifungal treatment. The importance of optimal surveillance and treatment of probiotic sepsis and research towards alternatives to probiotics (e.g. postbiotics) is emphasised. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Probiotics have been shown to reduce necrotising enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, all-cause mortality, and time to reach full enteral feeds in preterm infants. • Despite the evidence, use of probiotics is not universal due to concerns regarding probiotic-associated sepsis in preterm infants. WHAT IS NEW: • This comprehensive systematic review showed that probiotic sepsis is a relatively rare phenomenon in preterm infants. • All except one case where the diagnosis was uncertain recovered after antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Probióticos , Sepse , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/prevenção & controle
14.
Urolithiasis ; 50(3): 341-348, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246692

RESUMO

The objective of this prospective observational study was to assess the clinical significance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) as potential biomarkers to identify post-PNL SIRS or sepsis. Demographic data and laboratory data including hemoglobin (Hb), total leucocyte count (TLC), serum creatinine, urine microscopy and culture were collected. The NLR, LMR and PLR were calculated by the mathematical division of their absolute values derived from routine complete blood counts from peripheral blood samples. Stone factors were assessed by non-contrast computerized tomography of kidneys, ureter and bladder (NCCT KUB) and included stone burden (Volume = L × W × D × π × 0.167), location and Hounsfield value and laterality. Intraoperative factors assessed were puncture site, tract size, tract number, operative time, the need for blood transfusion and stone clearance. Of 517 patients evaluated, 56 (10.8%) developed SIRS and 8 (1.5%) developed sepsis. Patients developing SIRS had significantly higher TLC (10.4 ± 3.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6, OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.3, p = 0.000002), higher NLR (3.6 ± 2.4 vs 2.5 ± 1.04, OR 1.3, 95% CI = 1.09-1.5, p = 0.0000001), higher PLR (129.3 ± 53.8 vs 115.4 ± 68.9, OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001-1.008, p = 0.005) and lower LMR (2.5 ± 1.7 vs 3.2 ± 1.8, OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34, p = 0.006). Staghorn stones (12.8 vs 3.24%, OR 4.361, 95% CI 1.605-11.846, p = 0.008) and long operative times (59.6 ± 14.01 vs 55.2 ± 16.02, OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03, p = 0.05) had significant association with postoperative SIRS. In conclusion, NLR, PLR and LMR can be useful independent, easily accessible and cost-effective predictors for early identification of post-PNL SIRS/sepsis.


Assuntos
Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Sepse , Humanos , Linfócitos , Microscopia , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Urinálise
15.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 19(2): 100-111, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a public health problem that harms patients' outcomes and healthcare costs, especially in susceptible populations such as patients with cancer. Overall, systematic queries about etiology, risks, and epidemiology are explained by data from observational studies, which better underline the relationship between factors and incidence of disease. However, no recent systematic reviews of observational studies on adult patients with cancer have been conducted on this topic, considering the wide range of all potential factors which can contribute to the increase in infection rate in the hospitalized adults with cancer. This study systematically reviewed observational studies investigating the occurrence rate of CLABSI and its risk factors for long-term inserted central catheter-related infections in hospitalized adult cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on four databases from the earliest available date until December 2020. Retrospective and prospective cohort studies focused on the occurrence rate of CLABSI and its risk factors in hospitalized adult cancer patients. The pooled occurrence rate of CLABSI (95% CI) was calculated by applying a random-effects model. RESULTS: Of 1712 studies, 8 were eligible, and the data of device-related infection rate were meta-analyzed. The pooled occurrence rate of CLABSI was roughly 8% (95% CI [4%, 14%]). The device characteristics, device's management aspects, therapies administration, and select patients' clinical conditions represent the main risk factors for long-term catheter-related infection in cancer patients. LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Considering the substantial infection rate among cancer patients, identifying risk rate factors is pivotal to support evidence-grounded preventive strategies and maximize cancer patient safety. This study's results could guide policymakers and healthcare leaders and future research studies to disseminate appropriate risk-reducing management culture and implement standardized research and clinical approach to the investigated phenomenon as an infection surveillance strategy.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Neoplasias , Sepse , Adulto , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6808239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35309171

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the potential risk factors that affect the development of urosepsis following uroscopic minimally invasive lithotripsy and to develop a nomogram that predicts the probability of postoperative urosepsis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from patients that underwent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) or ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) between January 2018 and December 2019. The enrolled patients were grouped twice according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA). After univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified the independent predictive factors affecting the development of postoperative SIRS and urosepsis, and built the nomograms. Results: From January 2018 to December 2019, 1959 patients underwent PCNL or URL, of whom 236 patients were accorded with the inclusion criteria. Of all 236 patients, 64 (27.12%) patients developed postoperative SIRS, and 17 (7.20%) patients developed postoperative urosepsis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that positive preoperative urine culture (PUC+) (OR = 2.331, P = 0.044), procalcitonin (PCT) (OR = 1.093, P = 0.037), C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 1.017, P < 0.001), and neutrophil ratio (NEUT%) (OR = 1.091, P = 0.004) of postoperative were independent predictors of SIRS, and PCT (OR = 1.017, P = 0.003) and CRP (OR = 1.080, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of urosepsis. Additionally, the nomograms demonstrated good accuracy in predicting SIRS and urosepsis with a C-index of 0.884 (95% CI: 0.835-0.934) and 0.941 (95% CI: 0.885-0.996), respectively. Conclusions: The nomograms achieved the prediction of SIRS and urosepsis after uroscopic minimally invasive lithotripsy. Using this model, the risk of SIRS or urosepsis for an individual patient can be determined, which facilitates early diagnosis and rational treatment.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Litotripsia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Sepse , Infecções Urinárias , Proteína C-Reativa , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nomogramas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262938, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extended differential parameters (EDPs) are generated with the automated differential count by Sysmex XN-series automated hematology analysers, and include the immature granulocyte count (IG%), the neutrophil fluorescent light intensity (NE-SFL) and the neutrophil fluorescent light distribution width (NE-WY). These have been proposed as early biomarkers of bacteremia. This study aimed to evaluate the NE-SFL, NE-WY and IG% in comparison to neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) expression (as a high quality sepsis biomarker) among patients with suspected bacterial sepsis at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: A daily search of the laboratory information system identified samples submitted for a blood culture (BC) and a concurrent full blood count (FBC). Automated differential counts using a Sysmex XN-9000 haematology analyser and neutrophil CD64 expression by flow cytometry were assessed on the residual FBC samples. RESULTS: A total of 151 samples were collected, of which 83 were excluded due to equivocal results with regards to the presence of bacterial infection. The remaining 68 samples included 23 with bacteremia, 28 with evidence of non-bacteremic bacterial infection, 13 with no evidence of bacterial infection and 4 with Tuberculosis. HIV status was documented in 90 of the patients, with a seropositivity rate of 57.8%. The EDPs were all significantly higher among patients with bacteremia as compared to those without bacterial infection, but on ROC curve analyses, only the NE-SFL showed good performance (AUC>0.8) for discriminating cases with bacteremia from those without bacterial infection at a cut-off value of 49.75. In comparison to the nCD64, the NE-SFL showed moderate agreement (kappa = 0.5). On stratification of the ROC analysis by HIV status, the NE-SFL showed superior performance among persons with HIV infection (AUC = 1), while the automated IG% showed better performance among the patients without HIV infection (AUC = 0.9). CONCLUSION: In this study, EDPs showed differential performance as biomarkers for bacteremia according to HIV-status in the South African setting, with the most promising results seen with the NE-SFL and IG% parameters among people with and without HIV infection, respectively. Further assessment of these parameters without pre-selection of patients likely to have infection is required to further determine their clinical utility, particularly among patients with underlying inflammatory conditions or malignancy.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Hemocultura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/etiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263421, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130306

RESUMO

Early recognition of the clinical signs of bloodstream infection in pediatric burn patients is key to improving survival rates in the burn unit. The objective of this study was to propose a simple scoring criteria that used readily available temperature, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) data to accurately predict bloodstream infection in pediatric burn patients. A retrospective chart review included 100 patients admitted to the pediatric burn unit for >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injuries. Each patient had multiple blood culture tests, and each test was treated as a separate and independent "infection event" for analysis. The time at each blood culture draw was time 0 for that event, and temperature, HR and MAP data was collected for 24 hours after the blood culture was drawn. "Infection events" included in this study had at least six complete sets of temperature, HR and MAP data entries. Median temperature, HR and MAP, as well as mean fever spikes, HR spikes and MAP dips, were compared between infection group (positive blood cultures) and control group (negative blood cultures). These vital sign fluctuations were evaluated individually and as a combination of all three as timely predictors of bloodstream infection. In addition, we tested the prediction of Gram-negative bacteria versus Gram-positive or fungi present in blood cultures. Patients in the infection group had significantly higher median temperatures (p<0.001), mean fever spikes (p<0.001) and mean HR spikes (p<0.001), compared to the control group. Using the combination scoring criteria to predict bloodstream infection, the strongest predictive values in the 24-hour timeframe had high sensitivity (93%) and specificity (81%). The predictive test metric based on vital sign spikes predicted Gram-negative bacteria, but with limited sensitivity (57%) and specificity (44%). A simple scoring criteria using a combination of fever spikes, HR spikes and MAP dips predicted bloodstream infection in pediatric burn patients, and can be feasibly implemented in routine clinical care. There is also potential to use the predictive metric to detect a few select organisms based on vital signs, however further work is necessary to enhance accuracy to levels that would allow consideration for clinical use.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/diagnóstico , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sinais Vitais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Unidades de Queimados , Queimaduras/complicações , Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções/diagnóstico , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pediatria , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos
19.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(2): 141-146, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the features of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) or central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) after peripherally inserted central catheterization (PICC) in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the risk factors for CRBSI or CLABSI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of the neonates who were treated and required PICC in the NICU of the Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from June 1, 2018 to May 1, 2020. The catheterization-related data were collected, including placement time, insertion site, removal time, and antimicrobial lock of PICC. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate the risk factors for CRBSI or CLABSI in the neonates. RESULTS: A total of 446 neonates were enrolled, with a mean gestational age of (30.8±4.0) weeks, a mean birth weight of (1 580±810) g, a median age of 9 days, and a median duration of PICC of 18 days. The incidence rates of CLABSI and CRBSI were 5.6 and 1.46 per 1 000 catheter days, respectively. Common pathogens for CLABSI caused by PICC included Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=19) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=11), and those for CRBSI caused by PICC included Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=6). The risk of CLABSI caused by PICC increased significantly with prolonged durations of PICC and antibiotic use, and the PICC-related infection probability at head and neck was significantly lower than that in the upper and low limbs (P<0.05), while the above conditions were more obvious in neonates with a birth weight of <1 500 g. The risk of CRBSI caused by PICC decreased with the increase in gestational age (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CRBSI and CLABSI remain serious issues in NICU nosocomial infection. The identification of the risk factors for CRBSI and CLABSI provides a basis for improving the quality of clinical care and management.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateterismo Periférico , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Sepse , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/complicações , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/etiologia
20.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4200605, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35111234

RESUMO

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by viral infection. The circulatory dysfunction caused by sepsis is also called septic shock or septic shock. The main characteristics are rapid onset, rapid changes, and involvement. Multiple organs in the body make diagnosis difficult, which seriously threatens the survival of patients. As many as one million people worldwide die every year because of SIRS, it is also the leading cause of death among children in hospital ICUs. This article is aimed at studying the clinical characteristics of severe sepsis in children and the risk factors for death. Based on the analysis of the pathogenesis of sepsis and the treatment of septic shock, 65 cases of children with PICU sepsis admitted to a hospital were selected. Data, to study its clinical characteristics and risk factors for death. The results of the study showed that despite the interaction among the removal factors of the three indexes of serum lactic acid value, PCIS level, and the number of organs involved in MODS, they are still related to the mortality of children with severe sepsis.


Assuntos
Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Apoptose , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Biologia Computacional , Citocinas/biossíntese , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/etiologia , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/terapia
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