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3.
Nature ; 577(7792): 665-670, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969706

RESUMO

Our knowledge of ancient human population structure in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly prior to the advent of food production, remains limited. Here we report genome-wide DNA data from four children-two of whom were buried approximately 8,000 years ago and two 3,000 years ago-from Shum Laka (Cameroon), one of the earliest known archaeological sites within the probable homeland of the Bantu language group1-11. One individual carried the deeply divergent Y chromosome haplogroup A00, which today is found almost exclusively in the same region12,13. However, the genome-wide ancestry profiles of all four individuals are most similar to those of present-day hunter-gatherers from western Central Africa, which implies that populations in western Cameroon today-as well as speakers of Bantu languages from across the continent-are not descended substantially from the population represented by these four people. We infer an Africa-wide phylogeny that features widespread admixture and three prominent radiations, including one that gave rise to at least four major lineages deep in the history of modern humans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Migração Humana/história , Filogenia , Alelos , Animais , Arqueologia , Sepultamento , Camarões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Antigo/análise , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Idioma/história , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968000

RESUMO

The paper discusses results of an interdisciplinary research project integrating lead isotope, chemical, and archaeological analysis of 20 early metal objects from central Italy. The aim of the research was to develop robust provenance hypotheses for 4th and 3rd millennia BC metals from an important, yet hitherto neglected, metallurgical district in prehistoric Europe, displaying precocious copper mining and smelting, as well as socially significant uses of metals in 'Rinaldone-style' burials. All major (and most minor) ore bodies from Tuscany and neighbouring regions were characterised chemically and isotopically, and 20 Copper Age axe-heads, daggers and halberds were sampled and analysed. The objects were also reassessed archaeologically, paying special attention to find context, typology, and chronology. This multi-pronged approach has allowed us to challenge received wisdom concerning the local character of early metal production and exchange in the region. The research has shown that most objects were likely manufactured in west-central Italy using copper from Southern Tuscany and, quite possibly, the Apuanian Alps. A few objects, however, display isotopic and chemical signatures compatible with the Western Alpine and, in one case, French ore deposits. This shows that the Copper Age communities of west-central Italy participated in superregional exchange networks tying together the middle/upper Tyrrhenian region, the western Alps, and perhaps the French Midi. These networks were largely independent from other metal displacement circuits in operation at the time, which embraced the north-Alpine region and the south-eastern Alps, respectively.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Metalurgia/história , Mineração/história , Ligas/história , Sepultamento/história , Carvão Mineral/história , Cobre/história , Geografia , História Antiga , Isótopos/análise , Itália , Chumbo/análise
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007666, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961858

RESUMO

At the height of the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone in November 2014, a new decentralized approach to ending infection chains was adopted. This approach was based on building local, small-scale Community Care Centres (CCC) intended to serve as triage units for safe handling of patients waiting for test results, with subsequent transfer to Ebola Treatment Centers (ETC) for those who tested positive for Ebola. This paper deals with local response to the CCC, and explains, through qualitative analysis of focus group data sets, why this development was seen in a positive light. The responses of 562 focus group participants in seven villages with CCC and seven neighbouring referral villages without CCC are assessed. These data confirm that CCC are compatible with community values concerning access to, and family care for, the sick. Mixed reactions are reported in the case of "safe burial", a process that directly challenged ritual activity seen as vital to maintaining good relations between socially-enclaved rural families. Land acquisitions to build CCC prompted divided responses. This reflects problems about land ownership unresolved since colonial times between communities and government. The study provides insights into how gaps in understanding between international Ebola responders and local communities can be bridged.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Adulto , Sepultamento , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
6.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 266-273, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424577

RESUMO

Colombian forensic investigators required assistance locating clandestine burials of missing persons related to human right atrocities from 14 years ago. Geoscientific search methods were trialled, including a predictive spatial statistical model, using various input and database information, to select the most likely grave locations in difficult mountainous terrain. Groundwork using forensic geomorphology, near-surface geophysics (ERT) and subsequent probing identified suspect burial positions. One site was in mountainous terrain and the other in former school grounds, both difficult to access and in poor weather conditions. In the mountainous area, a negative resistivity anomaly area was identified and intrusively investigated, found to be a buried rock. In school grounds, after MESP and intelligence were used to identify a burial site, surface depressions were identified, and ERT datasets collected over the highest priority depression; intrusive investigations discovered a hand-dug pit containing animal bones. This approach is suggested for Latin American searches.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Colômbia , Impedância Elétrica , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Software
7.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 276-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305956

RESUMO

A body of an unknown adult female was found within a shallow burial ground in Malaysia whereas the skull was exposed and visible on the ground. During autopsy examination, nine insect larvae were recovered from the interior of the human skull and subsequently preserved in 70% ethanol. The larvae were greyish in appearance, each with a posterior elongated breathing tube. A week after the autopsy, more larvae were collected at the burial site, and some of them were reared into adults. Adult specimens and larvae from the skull and from the burial site were sequenced to obtain DNA barcodes. Results showed all adult flies reared from the burial site, as well as the larvae collected from the skull were identified as Eristalinus arvorum (Fabricius, 1787) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Here, we report the colonization of E. arvorum larvae on a human corpse for the first time.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/fisiologia , Crânio/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Sepultamento , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Malásia , Mudanças Depois da Morte
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110062, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786514

RESUMO

The renowned work of Clyde Snow and the development of the Equipo Argentino de Anthropología Forense (EAAF) team has inspired the use of forensic anthropological and archaeological skills in human rights interventions around the world. Whether for medico-legal intervention and acquisition of evidence or humanitarian repatriation and identification of human remains, forensic expertise has garnered attention in the global arena. Arguably fulfilling evidentiary and psychosocial needs, there has been growing interest in this post-conflict redress. However, as part of the critique of these interventions, scholars and practitioners have pointed out - primarily in medico-legal investigations - a lack of sensitization of local communities regarding forensic work, increasing the potential for re-traumatization, unrealistic expectations, or an unintentional increase in political tensions. Research regarding forensic intervention and human remains have permeated social sciences, peace and conflict studies, and science and technology studies, revealing both intentional and unintentional impacts of forensic sciences after mass violence. In an effort to mitigate negative impacts of medico-legal or humanitarian interventions, the research described here sought to sensitize communities in Uganda about forensic methods. Findings from this study suggest that sensitization is necessary and desired, and that a multi-step approach can assist in managing expectations.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Antropologia Forense/organização & administração , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Altruísmo , Arqueologia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Sepultamento , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Grupos Focais , Antropologia Forense/educação , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , População Rural , Uganda
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110056, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765883

RESUMO

The killings during the Second World War, with nearly one hundred thousand victims, is one of the greatest losses of life in Slovenia's modern history. This article presents the genetic identification of the victims of the largest family massacre that occurred in Slovenia, in which 10 members of the same family were killed. Seven of them were buried in a hidden mass grave and only two children survived. In 2015 and 2016, two graves were found and three incomplete female skeletons and at least three incomplete male skeletons were exhumed. A total of 12 bones and teeth were analysed and compared to two living relatives. Extracted DNA was quantified using the PowerQuant kit, and various autosomal and Y-STR kits were used for STR typing. Up to 2.7 ng DNA/g of powder was acquired from the samples analysed. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from seven bones and one molar. From the female grave, autosomal profiles were obtained only from one skeleton, and from the male grave from five out of six femurs. The relationships between the males were additionally confirmed by analyses of Y-STRs. STR profiles made possible the identification of four family members; one of the aunts from the female grave, and two uncles and the father of the surviving children, who were used as family references, from the male grave. The product rule was used to calculate a combined likelihood ratio for autosomal and Y-STRs, and statistical analyses showed high confidence of correct identification with posterior probability (PP) greater than 99.9 % for three out of four victims identified. For identifying the aunt, the PP obtained after ESI-17 and NGM STR typing was too low. To increase the PP, the next-generation sequencing Precision ID GlobalFiler NGS STR Panel was used and, after the analysis of additional STR loci, the statistical analysis showed a PP greater than 99.9 %, indicating that a sufficient number of genetic markers had been investigated in identifying the skeletal remains of the aunt. An elimination database containing the genetic profiles of all individuals that had been in contact with the bones was created to ensure traceability in case of contamination, and no matches were found. After more than 70 years, the skeletal remains were returned to the surviving children, who buried their relatives in a family grave.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Família , Dente/química , Restos Mortais , Sepultamento , Cromossomos Humanos Y , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Exumação , Feminino , Genética Forense , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Eslovênia , II Guerra Mundial
11.
J R Soc Med ; 112(12): 492, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825279

Assuntos
Sepultamento
12.
J R Soc Med ; 112(12): 492, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825282
15.
Nature ; 574(7777): 246-248, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554964

RESUMO

The study of childhood diet, including breastfeeding and weaning, has important implications for our understanding of infant mortality and fertility in past societies1. Stable isotope analyses of nitrogen from bone collagen and dentine samples of infants have provided information on the timing of weaning2; however, little is known about which foods were consumed by infants in prehistory. The earliest known clay vessels that were possibly used for feeding infants appear in Neolithic Europe, and become more common throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages. However, these vessels-which include a spout through which liquid could be poured-have also been suggested to be feeding vessels for the sick or infirm3,4. Here we report evidence for the foods that were contained in such vessels, based on analyses of the lipid 'fingerprints' and the compound-specific δ13C and Δ13C values of the major fatty acids of residues from three small, spouted vessels that were found in Bronze and Iron Age graves of infants in Bavaria. The results suggest that the vessels were used to feed infants with milk products derived from ruminants. This evidence of the foodstuffs that were used to either feed or wean prehistoric infants confirms the importance of milk from domesticated animals for these early communities, and provides information on the infant-feeding behaviours that were practised by prehistoric human groups.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/história , Sepultamento , Cerâmica , Leite/química , Ruminantes , Alcanos/análise , Alcanos/química , Animais , Sepultamento/história , Cemitérios , Cerâmica/história , Criança , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Alemanha , História Antiga , Humanos , Leite/história
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(12): 4315-4326, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465581

RESUMO

Mangrove forests play an important role in climate change adaptation and mitigation by maintaining coastline elevations relative to sea level rise, protecting coastal infrastructure from storm damage, and storing substantial quantities of carbon (C) in live and detrital pools. Determining the efficacy of mangroves in achieving climate goals can be complicated by difficulty in quantifying C inputs (i.e., differentiating newer inputs from younger trees from older residual C pools), and mitigation assessments rarely consider potential offsets to CO2 storage by methane (CH4 ) production in mangrove sediments. The establishment of non-native Rhizophora mangle along Hawaiian coastlines over the last century offers an opportunity to examine the role mangroves play in climate mitigation and adaptation both globally and locally as novel ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem C storage, sedimentation, accretion, sediment organic C burial and CH4 emissions from ~70 year old R. mangle stands and adjacent uninvaded mudflats. Ecosystem C stocks of mangrove stands exceeded mudflats by 434 ± 33 Mg C/ha, and mangrove establishment increased average coastal accretion by 460%. Sediment organic C burial increased 10-fold (to 4.5 Mg C ha-1  year-1 ), double the global mean for old growth mangrove forests, suggesting that C accumulation from younger trees may occur faster than previously thought, with implications for mangrove restoration. Simulations indicate that increased CH4 emissions from sediments offset ecosystem CO2 storage by only 2%-4%, equivalent to 30-60 Mg CO2 -eq/ha over mangrove lifetime (100 year sustained global warming potential). Results highlight the importance of mangroves as novel systems that can rapidly accumulate C, have a net positive atmospheric greenhouse gas removal effect, and support shoreline accretion rates that outpace current sea level rise. Sequestration potential of novel mangrove forests should be taken into account when considering their removal or management, especially in the context of climate mitigation goals.


Assuntos
Carbono , Ecossistema , Sepultamento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Hawaii , Áreas Alagadas
17.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 42: 268-274, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442669

RESUMO

In 1998, a Viking Age mass grave was discovered and excavated at St. Laurence´s churchyard in Sigtuna, Sweden. The excavated bones underwent osteoarchaeological analysis and were assigned to at least 19 individuals. Eleven skeletons showed sharp force trauma from bladed weapons. Mass graves are an unusual finding from this time period, making the burial context extraordinary. To investigate a possible maternal kinship among the individuals, bones and teeth from the skeletal remains were selected for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. Sanger sequencing of short stretches of the hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and HVS-II) was performed. A subset of the samples was also analysed by massively parallel sequencing analysis (MPS) of the entire mtDNA genome using the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel. A total of 15 unique and three shared mtDNA profiles were obtained. Based on a combination of genetic and archaeological data, we conclude that a minimum of 20 individuals was buried in the mass grave. The majority of the individuals were not maternally related. However, two possible pairs of siblings or mother-child relationships were identified. All individuals were assigned to West Eurasian haplogroups, with a predominance of haplogroup H. Although the remains showed an advanced level of DNA degradation, the combined use of Sanger sequencing and MPS with the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel revealed at least partial mtDNA data for all samples.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Sepultamento , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/química , Criança , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suécia , Dente/química , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(7): 913-915, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As one of the top three causes of death in the world, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)is a serious hazard to human health. Macrophages play an important role in COPD, and their efferocytosis function is essential for ending chronic inflammation of COPD. Efferocytosis damage of alveolar macrophages (AM) in patients with COPD causes the rising of bacterial infection and airway bacterial colonization risk in lungs, which is the main reason for the acute exacerbation and the rising of incidence rate and mortality rate in COPD. In recent years, the regulation of macrophage efferocytosis function in COPD has becoming a research hotspot. Progress on the role of macrophage efferocytosis function on COPD, and the breakthrough points of improving AM efferocytosis dysfunction by traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed, so as to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of COPD.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Alveolares , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Sepultamento , Humanos , Fagocitose
19.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 24-27, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A mass grave is any site that containing two or more associated corpses, at random or on purpose placed, of people who have died as a result of extra-judicial or random executions, not including those people who have died from armed confrontations or known major catastrophes. CASE PRESENTATION: The purpose of this paper is to explain how to reconstruct a biological profile of decomposed or skeletonized bodies and clarify the efforts done by the Libyan scientist after 2011 revolution and to set a reference for other researcher. The alleged location of the grave, as well as the alleged number and identities of the persons buried in the grave were obtained exclusively from witnesses' and relatives' testimonies. CONCLUSION: As the testimonies said, the grave was located at the alleged location and seven skeletons were exhumed. Also, the osteological and DNA study made investigators to identify the exhumed skeletons. And the dental analysis support the identification of a seven man alleged to have been buried in the grave, 7 victims were discovered.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Exumação , Adulto , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Sepultamento , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Antropologia Forense , Odontologia Legal , Humanos , Líbia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto , Dente/química , Guerra
20.
Sci Justice ; 59(4): 452-458, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256818

RESUMO

The role of infectious disease as a cause of death is undeniable. The affect infectious disease may have on decomposition after death is less well established. Furthermore, virtually no information is available regarding the effects of burial conditions in such circumstances, despite that numerous clandestine burials occur each year. Although many aspects of post-mortem pathology are well understood and provide frequent insight in medicolegal investigation, where buried bodies are concerned, there is great variation in the decomposition processes, depending on extrinsic and intrinsic conditions. Criminal burials and hurriedly dug clandestine graves are seldom deeper than 120 cm allowing access to certain invertebrates, excluding others that only develop in unburied bodies. Numerous studies have reported on such clandestine graves with a purpose to facilitate forensic investigation, but our knowledge of decomposition in deeper graves lags behind, despite several often-cited papers of over a century ago. The poor level of detail in deep-grave knowledge is in part due to resource deficiencies and ethical considerations, but in part due to lack of thorough investigation of the data in papers of often cited prior work. To this end, a metadata analysis assessed a paper written by Dr. Murray Galt Motter in 1898, providing detail of 150 disinterment events with linked medical records from City of Washington cemeteries. This paper, written more than a hundred years ago, was largely descriptive and the detailed data provided in a summary table were never fully analysed. The paper is often quoted despite these obvious oversights. The present study revisits this work, applying a frequency statistical analysis conducted using categorical data and chi-squared analysis. This new analysis reveals patterns and relationships so long 'locked-up' within the body of the table and provides greater understanding of the effect of infectious disease on the abundance of species in the entomofauna associated with deeply buried remains. The data confirm that the presence of adipocere (saponification) is detrimental to development of soil entomofauna ((X2 = 6·64, df = 1, p < 0·01)). Some species, in particular Proisotoma sepulcralis (Collembola), Eleusis pallida (Coleoptera) and Conicera tibialis (Diptera), were positively influenced by association with infectious disease cases (p < 0·01) while only Piophila casei (Diptera) demonstrated a negative association (p < 0·05). Furthermore, the presence of peri-mortem infectious disease, while not necessarily a cause of death, influences post-mortem colonisation of the buried body by insects. The abundance of some species is enhanced, suggesting that bacterial burdens enhance decomposition in a manner favourable to insect feeding and hence abundance, by releasing compounds that the entomofauna feeds on.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/classificação , Exumação/história , Insetos/classificação , Metadados , Animais , Sepultamento , Cemitérios/história , Exumação/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Patologia Legal/história , Patologia Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudanças Depois da Morte
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