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2.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(1): 101-113, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394313

RESUMO

Modern technologies enable the exchange of information about the expansion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the continually increasing number of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases almost in real time. The gravity of a current epidemiological situation is represented by the mortality rates, which are scrupulously updated daily. Performing autopsies on patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 is of high importance since these might not only improve clinical management but also reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection expansion. The following paper aimed to present the most crucial aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the point of view of forensic experts and pathologists, recommendations and safety precautions regarding autopsies, autopsy room requirements, possible techniques, examinations used for effective viral detection, recommendations regarding burials, and gross and microscopic pathological findings of the deceased who died due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autopsies remain the gold standard for determining the cause of death. Therefore, it would be beneficial to perform autopsies on patients with both suspected and confirmed COVID-19, especially those with coexisting comorbidities.


Assuntos
Autopsia/normas , Patologia Legal/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Filtros de Ar , Sepultamento , Cadáver , Vestuário , Cremação , Reservatórios de Doenças , Embalsamamento , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Radiografia , /patogenicidade , Manejo de Espécimes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 859-869, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study tests, for the first time, the applicability of a new method of sex estimation utilizing enamel peptides on a sample of deciduous and permanent teeth at different stages of mineralization, from nonadults of unknown sex, including perinates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 43 teeth from 29 nonadult individuals aged from 40 gestational weeks to 19 years old were analyzed. The sample included pairs of fully mineralized and just developing teeth from the same individual. The individuals were from four archaeological sites in England: Piddington (1st-2nd centuries AD), Coach Lane, Victoria Gate, and Fewston (all 18th-19th centuries). A method that identifies sex chromosome-linked isoforms of the peptide amelogenin from human tooth enamel was applied. The method utilizes a minimally destructive acid etching procedure and subsequent nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: It was possible to determine the sex of 28 of the nonadult individuals sampled (males = 20, females = 8, undetermined = 1). Only one sample failed (CL9), due to insufficient mineralization of the sampled tooth enamel. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD021683. DISCUSSION: Sufficient peptide material to determine sex can be recovered even from the crowns of developing perinatal teeth that are not fully mineralized. The minimally destructive and inexpensive (compared to ancient DNA) nature of this procedure has significant implications for bioarchaeological studies of infancy and childhood.


Assuntos
Amelogenina/análise , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/métodos , Dente/química , Dente/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Amelogenina/química , Arqueologia , Sepultamento/história , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esmalte Dentário/química , Esmalte Dentário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inglaterra , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 3-19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Warfare is assumed to be one of the defining cultural characteristics of steppe nomads in Eastern Eurasia. For the first-centuries CE, a period of political turmoil in Northern China and Southern Siberia, relatively few data are, however, available about the degree and variability of violence in these communities. Here, we provide new data on violence among steppe nomads during the first-centuries CE by analyzing the type, anatomical distribution, and demographic distribution of perimortem trauma at Tunnug1 (Tuva, Southern Siberia-second to fourth c. CE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Perimortem traumas were assessed on 87 individuals representing both sexes and different age classes. The timing of the lesions was assessed based on morphological criteria, including the absence and presence of bone reactive processes and the relative plasticity of the bone at the moment of impact. The distribution by age, sex, and anatomical location of trauma was analyzed by means of logistic models, Fisher's exact tests, and 3D visualizations. RESULTS: A total of 130 perimortem traumas, including chop marks, slice marks, penetrating lesions, and blunt traumas were identified on 22 individuals. Chop marks were mostly at the level of the skull and vertebrae and were likely caused by bladed weapons. Slice marks were found on the cervical vertebrae and cranium and may be the result of throat slitting and scalping by means of smaller bladed implements. Traumas were more frequent in males, and their presence is not correlated with age. DISCUSSION: This study adds new data to the few available regarding violence among steppe nomadic cultures and provides new insights about the effects of political instability on the life of the people inhabiting Eastern Eurasia during the early centuries CE.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Violência/história , Ferimentos Penetrantes/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Sepultamento/história , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Decapitação/história , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sibéria , Migrantes , Guerra/história , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 148, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193963

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan African countries have been hit by the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) since March 2020. Besides the resulting health and economic disasters is the psycho-socio-cultural problem related with the management of corpses of people dead from the disease, which might hinder the implementation of the response strategy. In Cameroon for instance, the current corpse management policy is very disputed. In fact, although they were recently made more flexible, the restrictions applied to burials still ban any transfer of dead bodies between cities. In light of the African cultural considerations of dead persons, the disputes observed between the families and the health personnel, the legislation and the available scientific evidence, this article analyses the risks and benefits of allowing families to bury their relatives. It thereafter suggests solutions that reconcile dignity (by allowing families to bury their dead relatives in their homes) and safety (by ensuring a sealed handling and the surveillance by a judiciary police officer). Applying these solutions could improve the population's trust towards the health system, and positively contribute to COVID-19 case prevention, identification and management.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus , Sepultamento , Cadáver , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Rituais Fúnebres , Práticas Mortuárias , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Sepultamento/ética , Sepultamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Camarões , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Cultura , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/legislação & jurisprudência , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Família , Humanos , Práticas Mortuárias/ética , Práticas Mortuárias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Opinião Pública , Medição de Risco , Gestão da Segurança/ética , Gestão da Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Gestão da Segurança/métodos
6.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 333-344, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990718

RESUMO

This paper focuses on an unusual Pre-Hispanic burial, 11-12th century cal AD, from Fuerteventura Island. The pattern of injuries of the skeletal remains, together with the grave's features suggest exceptional circumstances of death and funerary treatment differing from those commonly observed elsewhere among the indigenous population of the Canary Archipelago. The study first uses forensic anthropology techniques to characterise the individual's injuries before turning to archaeological and ethno-historical records of the indigenous populations to identify the potential scenarios explaining the fatal injuries. The nature of the peri-mortem lesions, especially those to the head, is consistent with an intention to kill. This case provides an opportunity to analyze the mechanisms of violence in a society with strong environmental limitations and conditions of isolation, as well as to deepen the concept of justice in ancient times.


Assuntos
Pena de Morte , Sepultamento , Humanos , Espanha , Violência
7.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101766, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919340

RESUMO

This study analyses variable levels of body fragmentation among secondary mass grave sites with similar formation process history. The study is based on data from 10 commingled secondary mass grave sites and two primary sites related to the war in Bosnia in 1995. The aim was to investigate differences in level of body fragmentation between mass graves of similar origin and taphonomy. In order to quantify the degree of fragmentation (and level of commingling) within a grave, we introduced a fragmentation index (FI). FI represents the ratio between the number of complete bodies and number of body parts from the same context. Results show high discrepancies in body fragmentations between different sites. FI for secondary sites of similar formation history varied from 0.01 to 0.59 (max = 1), while two primary sites have values 0.92 and 0.90 respectively. Variable levels of fragmentation among similar secondary sites suggest a possibility of different peri mortem circumstances of buried, so we tested whether the "body fragmentation index" could assist in elucidating the manner of death. Unusually high levels of body fragmentation (FI value below 0.1) in some secondary sites may indicate that body disarticulation was most likely caused peri-mortem by explosives, land mines, mortars or tank fire, all suggesting a combat situation.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/patologia , Sepultamento , Exumação , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Balística Forense/métodos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Guerra , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866194

RESUMO

Prone burials are among the most distinctive deviant burials during the Middle Ages and early modern period. Despite their worldwide distribution, the meaning of this burial practice is still a matter of debate. So far, a comprehensive analysis of prone burials is lacking for Central Europe. By compiling evidence from Germany, Switzerland and Austria, this study investigates how these findings fit into the scope of medieval funerary practices. 95 prone burials from 60 archaeological sites were analyzed regarding geographical distribution, dating, burial features, body position, age-at-death and sex. We applied descriptive statistics accompanied by multiple correspondence analysis in order to highlight possible multivariate patterns in the dataset. Prone burials occur in funerary and non-funerary contexts, with a predominance of single churchyard burials, followed by favored and exterior location and settlements. In terms of grave features, the majority of churchyard burials do not differ from regular graves. Multivariate patterns appear to reflect diachronic changes in normative burial practices. We found a significant correlation between burial location and dating, due to a higher frequency of high medieval males in favored locations. In these cases, prone position is interpreted as a sign of humility, while similar evidences from late and post-medieval times are seen as an expression of deviancy. Apparent lack of care during burial reveals disrespect and possible social exclusion, with inhumations outside consecrated ground being the ultimate punishment. In some regions, apotropaic practices suggest that corpses should be prevented from returning, as attested in contemporaneous sources and folk beliefs. We hypothesize that the increase of prone burials towards the late and post-medieval period is linked to such practices triggered by epidemic diseases. The multiplicity of meanings that prone position might have in different contexts demands for careful interpretations within the same regional and chronological frame.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arqueologia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(3): 109-118, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192312

RESUMO

El brote por el Coronavirus/COVID-19, declarado Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional el 30 de enero de 2020 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, ha sobrepasado en numerosos países la capacidad de respuesta del sistema sanitario por su alta contagiosidad, y la de gestión de las personas fallecidas por su elevado riesgo de letalidad. Se revisan las principales guías y protocolos promovidos por las instituciones y las principales sociedades científicas, orientados a la contención de la pandemia mediante la adopción de medidas de protección de los profesionales y a la adecuada gestión del alto número de cadáveres. Se analizan los centros especiales de recogida de cadáveres en situación de epidemias y las clasificaciones de los cadáveres en función del riesgo infecto-contagioso. Específicamente se resumen las resoluciones dictadas por las autoridades sanitarias y se describen los protocolos de actuación ante fallecidos durante la pandemia COVID-19, incluyendo las autopsias forenses


The Coronavirus/COVID-19 outbreak, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Importance on January 30, 2020 by the World Health Organization, has in many countries exceeded the capacity of health systems to respond, due to its high contagiousness and the capacity to manage the deceased, due to its high fatality risk. A review is necessary of the principal guidelines and protocols promoted by the institutions and the main scientific societies, aimed at containing the pandemic by adopting professional protection measures and appropriately managing the high number of cadavers. The temporary mortuaries in an epidemic crisis and the classification of bodies according to infectious risk are analysed. In particular the resolutions issued by the health authorities are summarised and the protocols for dealing with deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic are described, including forensic autopsies


Assuntos
Humanos , Cadáver , Sepultamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Precauções Universais/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785221

RESUMO

Renewed excavations at the Neolithic site of Beisamoun (Upper Jordan Valley, Israel) has resulted in the discovery of the earliest occurrence of an intentional cremation in the Near East directly dated to 7031-6700 cal BC (Pre-Pottery Neolithic C, also known as Final PPNB, which spans ca. 7100-6400 cal BC). The funerary treatment involved in situ cremation within a pyre-pit of a young adult individual who previously survived from a flint projectile injury. In this study we have used a multidisciplinary approach that integrates archaeothanatology, spatial analysis, bioanthropology, zooarchaeology, soil micromorphological analysis, and phytolith identification in order to reconstruct the different stages and techniques involved in this ritual: cremation pit construction, selection of fuel, possible initial position of the corpse, potential associated items and funerary containers, fire management, post-cremation gesture and structure abandonment. The origins and development of cremation practices in the region are explored as well as their significance in terms of Northern-Southern Levantine connections during the transition between the 8th and 7th millennia BC.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Cremação/história , História Antiga , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797087

RESUMO

The Late Mesolithic in Southern Europe is dated to the 7th and the first part of the 6th millennia BCE and is marked by profound changes which are mostly evident in the technical know-how and tool-kit of the last hunter-fisher-gatherer societies. The significance of this phase also relates to the fact that it precedes the Early Neolithic, another period of major transformations of human societies. Nonetheless, the Late Mesolithic still remains a poorly known age in this area. A burial discovered at Mondeval de Sora (Northern Italy) in 1987, represents a unique window into this period. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of more than 50 lithic and osseous artifacts associated with this burial. We highlight important contextual data regarding the techno-economic dimension and the notion of personal burial possessions. Based on the association and location of some items, we propose a new interpretation of the social status of this individual and the possible impact of technological innovation on the social organization and symbolic sphere of Late Mesolithic groups.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Lítio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos
12.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 313-331, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749444

RESUMO

The Djehuty Project (Dra Abu el-Naga; Luxor, Egypt) contains a reused burial chamber, UE165. The human remains include 6 disarticulated, mummified human digits, of which five have very well-conserved prints. The most plausible dating is the Twenty-Second Dynasty (945-715 BCE). High resolution photographs were taken of these and studied in order to identify the main pattern, delta types and minutiae, ridge density and ridge breadth. First, however, a contemporary mummified body was studied in order to calculate the percentage of contraction that can occur in mummified digit tissue. The remains consisted of 4 fingers (a thumb, two index fingers and a middle finger) and a hallux toe, all from the right side, indicating that they came from at least two different people. As regards sex, all the fingers presented values typical of females. Estimated age ranged from 10.62 (middle finger) to 16.25 (thumb) years old, within the sub-adult category. The individual's height was estimated for all the fingers, obtaining values between 135.87 cm for the middle finger and 162.60 cm for the thumb. With regard to the possible ancestral origins of the remains, the type of delta o triradius identified presents high frequencies in contemporary Nigerian and Romanian populations. These results demonstrate that it is possible to work with fingerprints as much as 3,000 years old. It has been possible to identify the main patterns and the minutiae with a precision that exceeds the numeric standard -12 minutiae- currently applied in many countries for forensic identification.


Assuntos
Múmias , Adolescente , Adulto , Sepultamento , Criança , Dermatoglifia , Egito , Feminino , Dedos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237850, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853240

RESUMO

Individual geographic mobility is a key social dynamic of early Viking-Age urbanization in Scandinavia. We present the first comprehensive geographic mobility study of Scandinavia's earliest emporium, Ribe, which emerged around AD 700 in the North Sea region of Denmark. This article presents the results of strontium isotope analyses of 21 individuals buried at Ribe, combined with an in-depth study of the varied cultural affinities reflected by the burial practices. In order to investigate geographic mobility in early life/childhood, we sampled multiple teeth and/or petrous bone of individuals, which yielded a total of 43 strontium isotope analyses. Most individuals yielded strontium isotope values that fell within a relatively narrow range, between 87Sr/86Sr = 0.709 to 0.711. Only two individuals yielded values >87Sr/86Sr = 0.711. This suggests that most of these individuals had local origins but some had cultural affinities beyond present-day Denmark. Our results raise new questions concerning our understanding of the social and cultural dynamics behind the urbanization of Scandinavia.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Geografia , Marcação por Isótopo , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Alemanha , Humanos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667937

RESUMO

A foreign dynasty, known as the Hyksos, ruled parts of Egypt between c. 1638-1530 BCE. Their origins are thought to be rooted in the Near East, which is supported by architectural features and grave accoutrements of Tell el-Dabca. In this former Hyksos capital in the Eastern Nile Delta, burial culture is characterized by a blend of Egyptian and Near Eastern elements. However, investigations are still ongoing as to where the Hyksos came from and how they rose to power. The aim of this study is to elucidate the question of possible provenience. We present the results of strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) ratios of human tooth enamel (n = 75) from Tell el-Dabca, focusing on comparing pre- and during Hyksos rule and sex-based differences. An influx of non-locals can be observed in the pre-Hyksos period (12th and 13th Dynasties, c. 1991-1649 BCE) during the constitution of this important harbor town, while the number of individuals already born in the Delta is larger during the Hyksos period. This is consistent with the supposition that, while the ruling class had Near Eastern origins, the Hyksos' rise to power was not the result of an invasion, as popularly theorized, but an internal dominance and takeover of foreign elite. There is a preponderance of non-local females suggesting patrilocal residence. We discuss our findings against the current evidence of material culture and historiography, but more investigation in Near Eastern comparative sites has to be conducted to narrow our future search for the actual origins of the Hyksos.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/química , Sepultamento/história , Esmalte Dentário/química , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Humanos , Isótopos de Estrôncio/química
15.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(3): 131-137, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660190

RESUMO

The prevailing sandstorm environment of Lop Nur is a high-risk factor which can induce respiratory diseases. Ephedra can cure the patients or relieve the symptom. These may make ancient Lop Nur peoples worship ephedra. Therefore, viewed it as burial objects. From the point of view of some eastern and western religions, ephedra was the elixir of life. Since ephedrine ephedra contains can excite the sympathetic nerves of human body, it makes people have an illusion.Ephedra can restore their youth. Ancient people of Lop Nur viewed ephedra as a holy item. Both the functions of therapy and "youth restoration" from exciting the nerves, meant guarantee for life. For ancient Lop Nur peoples, ephedra has the value of both medicine and religion.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Religião , China , Humanos
16.
Nature ; 582(7812): 384-388, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555485

RESUMO

The nature and distribution of political power in Europe during the Neolithic era remains poorly understood1. During this period, many societies began to invest heavily in building monuments, which suggests an increase in social organization. The scale and sophistication of megalithic architecture along the Atlantic seaboard, culminating in the great passage tomb complexes, is particularly impressive2. Although co-operative ideology has often been emphasised as a driver of megalith construction1, the human expenditure required to erect the largest monuments has led some researchers to emphasize hierarchy3-of which the most extreme case is a small elite marshalling the labour of the masses. Here we present evidence that a social stratum of this type was established during the Neolithic period in Ireland. We sampled 44 whole genomes, among which we identify the adult son of a first-degree incestuous union from remains that were discovered within the most elaborate recess of the Newgrange passage tomb. Socially sanctioned matings of this nature are very rare, and are documented almost exclusively among politico-religious elites4-specifically within polygynous and patrilineal royal families that are headed by god-kings5,6. We identify relatives of this individual within two other major complexes of passage tombs 150 km to the west of Newgrange, as well as dietary differences and fine-scale haplotypic structure (which is unprecedented in resolution for a prehistoric population) between passage tomb samples and the larger dataset, which together imply hierarchy. This elite emerged against a backdrop of rapid maritime colonization that displaced a unique Mesolithic isolate population, although we also detected rare Irish hunter-gatherer introgression within the Neolithic population.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Hierarquia Social/história , Incesto/história , Sociedades/história , Adulto , Sepultamento/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Família/história , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14851-14856, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541036

RESUMO

The Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) karstic Grotte de Cussac (France) contains two areas of human remains in the context of abundant (and spectacular) parietal engravings. The first area (loci 1 and 2) includes the skeleton of a young adult male in a bear nest, rearranged by postdecomposition inundation, and the variably fragmentary remains of at least two individuals distributed across two bear nests, sorted anatomically and with most of the elements constrained to one side of one nest. The second area (locus 3) retains remains of two adults and an adolescent, in upper hollows and variably distributed down the slope, largely segregated into upper versus lower body groups. The only decoration associated with the human remains is red pigment on some of the bones or underlying sediment. The human remains indicate variable nonnatural deposition and manipulation of human bodies, body portions, and skeletal elements of at least six individuals. Moreover, Cussac is unusual in the association of these remains with exceptional parietal art. The complex Cussac mortuary pattern joins growing evidence from other Gravettian sites of variable treatment of individuals after death, within and across sites, in terms of formal deposition of the body versus postmortem manipulation versus surface abandonment. It provides a window onto the social diversity and the complex interactions of the living and the dead among these successful Late Pleistocene foragers.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Adulto , Animais , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Cavernas , França , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(3): 463-470, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519316

RESUMO

The emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans, is affecting all countries of the world and has become a global health concern. Since the virus was first identified in December 2019, the number of deaths have been propagating exponentially, causing countries across the world, including Malaysia, to increase emergency measures to combat the virus. Due to the fact that the COVID-19 pandemic does not discriminate its victims, it is of paramount importance to construct a plan for management of the dead for all suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases, including the unidentified deceased, as an essential portion of the humanitarian forensic action approach. This document provides an overview on ways to maximize the local collective capacity from various government agencies to manage the dead based on the prevailing regulations and legislation in the country, in preparation for possible large scale deaths from this pandemic. The National Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia has improvised procedures and guidelines for management of the dead within the existing regulations in order to achieve a balance between medicolegal requirements and the safety of personnel managing the bodies of the deceased with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection; at the site of death, during transport, during postmortem procedures, storage and preparation before and during burial or cremation as well as environmental cleaning and disinfection, involving various agencies in the country. A form of temporary controlled burial is as an option to allow the reinvestigation of a decedent to help formally identify victims of the pandemic such as undocumented migrants or refugees who were previously not identified. Due to the different legal requirements and mortality rates between countries, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to the management of the dead. Whenever possible, every opportunity and assistance must be given to families to mourn their loved ones, even in times of crisis or an outbreak, in order to sustain an appropriate level of dignity and respect.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Ciências Forenses/organização & administração , Rituais Fúnebres , Práticas Mortuárias/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Sepultamento , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cremação , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298287

RESUMO

Over several decades, human skeletal remains from at least twelve individuals (males, females, children and infants) were recovered from a small area (ca. 10 x 10 m) on the eastern shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, near the mouth of the Diep River where it empties into the sea. Two groups, each comprising four individuals, appear to have been buried in single graves. Unusually for this region, several skeletons were interred with large numbers of ostrich eggshell (OES) beads. In some cases, careful excavation enabled recovery of segments of beadwork. One collective burial held items including an ostrich egg-shell flask, a tortoise carapace bowl, a fragmentary bone point or linkshaft and various lithic artefacts. This group appears to have died together and been buried expediently. A mid-adult woman from this group sustained perimortem blunt-force trauma to her skull, very likely the cause of her death. This case adds to the developing picture of interpersonal violence associated with a period of subsistence intensification among late Holocene foragers. Radiocarbon dates obtained for nine skeletons may overlap but given the uncertainties associated with marine carbon input, we cannot constrain the date range more tightly than 1900-1340 calBP (at 2 sigma). The locale appears to have been used by a community as a burial ground, perhaps regularly for several generations, or on a single catastrophic occasion, or some combination thereof. The evidence documents regional and temporal variation in burial practices among late Holocene foragers of the south-western Cape.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Práticas Mortuárias/história , Datação Radiométrica , Adulto , Arqueologia/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul
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