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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5539, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139747

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a ubiquitous chromatin feature, present in 25% of cytosines in the maize genome, but variation and evolution of the methylation landscape during maize domestication remain largely unknown. Here, we leverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data on populations of modern maize, landrace, and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) to estimate epimutation rates and selection coefficients. We find weak evidence for direct selection on DNA methylation in any context, but thousands of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are identified population-wide that are correlated with recent selection. For two trait-associated DMRs, vgt1-DMR and tb1-DMR, HiChIP data indicate that the interactive loops between DMRs and respective downstream genes are present in B73, a modern maize line, but absent in teosinte. Our results enable a better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on patterns of DNA methylation and suggest a role of methylation variation in adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Grão Comestível/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Epigênese Genética , Genoma de Planta , México , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4928, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004791

RESUMO

High-altitude adaptation of Tibetans represents a remarkable case of natural selection during recent human evolution. Previous genome-wide scans found many non-coding variants under selection, suggesting a pressing need to understand the functional role of non-coding regulatory elements (REs). Here, we generate time courses of paired ATAC-seq and RNA-seq data on cultured HUVECs under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. We further develop a variant interpretation methodology (vPECA) to identify active selected REs (ASREs) and associated regulatory network. We discover three causal SNPs of EPAS1, the key adaptive gene for Tibetans. These SNPs decrease the accessibility of ASREs with weakened binding strength of relevant TFs, and cooperatively down-regulate EPAS1 expression. We further construct the downstream network of EPAS1, elucidating its roles in hypoxic response and angiogenesis. Collectively, we provide a systematic approach to interpret phenotype-associated noncoding variants in proper cell types and relevant dynamic conditions, to model their impact on gene regulation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Genéticos , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/etnologia , Doença da Altitude/genética , Doença da Altitude/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Resistência à Doença/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA-Seq , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , Seleção Genética , Tibet/etnologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5089, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037196

RESUMO

The transcription regulatory network inside a eukaryotic cell is defined by the combinatorial actions of transcription factors (TFs). However, TF binding studies in plants are too few in number to produce a general picture of this complex network. In this study, we use large-scale ChIP-seq to reconstruct it in the maize leaf, and train machine-learning models to predict TF binding and co-localization. The resulting network covers 77% of the expressed genes, and shows a scale-free topology and functional modularity like a real-world network. TF binding sequence preferences are conserved within family, while co-binding could be key for their binding specificity. Cross-species comparison shows that core network nodes at the top of the transmission of information being more conserved than those at the bottom. This study reveals the complex and redundant nature of the plant transcription regulatory network, and sheds light on its architecture, organizing principle and evolutionary trajectory.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Folhas de Planta/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Zea mays/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009010, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956375

RESUMO

Essential tremor (ET) is the most common adult-onset movement disorder. In the present study, we performed whole exome sequencing of a large ET-affected family (10 affected and 6 un-affected family members) and identified a TUB p.V431I variant (rs75594955) segregating in a manner consistent with autosomal-dominant inheritance. Subsequent targeted re-sequencing of TUB in 820 unrelated individuals with sporadic ET and 630 controls revealed significant enrichment of rare nonsynonymous TUB variants (e.g. rs75594955: p.V431I, rs1241709665: p.Ile20Phe, rs55648406: p.Arg49Gln) in the ET cohort (SKAT-O test p-value = 6.20e-08). TUB encodes a transcription factor predominantly expressed in neuronal cells and has been previously implicated in obesity. ChIP-seq analyses of the TUB transcription factor across different regions of the mouse brain revealed that TUB regulates the pathways responsible for neurotransmitter production as well thyroid hormone signaling. Together, these results support the association of rare variants in TUB with ET.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Tremor Essencial/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
5.
J Vis Exp ; (162)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865524

RESUMO

Identification of specific protein-DNA interactions on the genome is important for understanding gene regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is widely used to identify genome-wide binding locations of DNA-binding proteins. However, the ChIP-seq method is limited by its heterogeneity in length of sonicated DNA fragments and non-specific background DNA, resulting in low mapping resolution and uncertainty in DNA-binding sites. To overcome these limitations, the combination of ChIP with exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) utilizes 5' to 3' exonuclease digestion to trim the heterogeneously sized immunoprecipitated DNA to the protein-DNA crosslinking site. Exonuclease treatment also eliminates non-specific background DNA. The library-prepared and exonuclease-digested DNA can be sent for high-throughput sequencing. The ChIP-exo method allows for near base-pair mapping resolution with greater detection sensitivity and reduced background signal. An optimized ChIP-exo protocol for mammalian cells and next-generation sequencing is described below.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Pareamento de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 417, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strand cross-correlation profiles are used for both peak calling pre-analysis and quality control (QC) in chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis. Despite its potential for robust and accurate assessments of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) because of its peak calling independence, it remains unclear what aspects of quality such strand cross-correlation profiles actually measure. RESULTS: We introduced a simple model to simulate the mapped read-density of ChIP-seq and then derived the theoretical maximum and minimum of cross-correlation coefficients between strands. The results suggest that the maximum coefficient of typical ChIP-seq samples is directly proportional to the number of total mapped reads and the square of the ratio of signal reads, and inversely proportional to the number of peaks and the length of read-enriched regions. Simulation analysis supported our results and evaluation using 790 ChIP-seq data obtained from the public database demonstrated high consistency between calculated cross-correlation coefficients and estimated coefficients based on the theoretical relations and peak calling results. In addition, we found that the mappability-bias-correction improved sensitivity, enabling differentiation of maximum coefficients from the noise level. Based on these insights, we proposed virtual S/N (VSN), a novel peak call-free metric for S/N assessment. We also developed PyMaSC, a tool to calculate strand cross-correlation and VSN efficiently. VSN achieved most consistent S/N estimation for various ChIP targets and sequencing read depths. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a combination of VSN and pre-existing peak calling results enable the estimation of the numbers of detectable peaks for posterior experiments and assess peak calling results. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first theoretical insights into the strand cross-correlation, and the results reveal the potential and the limitations of strand cross-correlation analysis. Our quality assessment framework using VSN provides peak call-independent QC and will help in the evaluation of peak call analysis in ChIP-seq experiments.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Controle de Qualidade , Humanos
7.
J Vis Exp ; (162)2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865528

RESUMO

Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a powerful and widely used approach to profile chromatin DNA associated with specific histone modifications, such as H3K27ac, to help identify cis-regulatory DNA elements. The manual process to complete a ChIP-Seq is labor intensive, technically challenging, and often requires large-cell numbers (>100,000 cells). The method described here helps to overcome those challenges. A complete semiautomated, microscaled H3K27ac ChIP-Seq procedure including cell fixation, chromatin shearing, immunoprecipitation, and sequencing library preparation, for batch of 48 samples for cell number inputs less than 100,000 cells is described in detail. The semiautonomous platform reduces technical variability, improves signal-to-noise ratios, and drastically reduces labor. The system can thereby reduce costs by allowing for reduced reaction volumes, limiting the number of expensive reagents such as enzymes, magnetic beads, antibodies, and hands-on time required. These improvements to the ChIP-Seq method suit perfectly for large-scale epigenetic studies of clinical samples with limited cell numbers in a highly reproducible manner.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Epigenômica/métodos , Cromatina/genética , Epigênese Genética , Código das Histonas , Humanos
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4544, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917861

RESUMO

Stratification of enhancers by signal strength in ChIP-seq assays has resulted in the establishment of super-enhancers as a widespread and useful tool for identifying cell type-specific, highly expressed genes and associated pathways. We examine a distinct method of stratification that focuses on peak breadth, termed hyperacetylated chromatin domains (HCDs), which classifies broad regions exhibiting histone modifications associated with gene activation. We find that this analysis serves to identify genes that are both more highly expressed and more closely aligned to cell identity than super-enhancer analysis does using multiple data sets. Moreover, genetic manipulations of selected gene loci suggest that some enhancers located within HCDs work at least in part via a distinct mechanism involving the modulation of histone modifications across domains and that this activity can be imported into a heterologous gene locus. In addition, such genetic dissection reveals that the super-enhancer concept can obscure important functions of constituent elements.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Acetilação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Embrião de Mamíferos , Eritroblastos , Feminino , Feto , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq
9.
Nat Protoc ; 15(10): 3334-3360, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807906

RESUMO

Cell identity is determined by the selective activation or silencing of specific genes via transcription factor binding and epigenetic modifications on the genome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has been the standard technique for mapping the sites of transcription factor binding and histone modification. Recently, alternative methods to ChIP have been developed for addressing the increasing demands for low-input epigenomic profiling. Chromatin integration labeling (ChIL) followed by sequencing (ChIL-seq) has been demonstrated to be particularly useful for epigenomic profiling of low-input samples or even single cells because the technique amplifies the target genomic sequence before cell lysis. After labeling the target protein or modification in situ with an oligonucleotide-conjugated antibody (ChIL probe), the nearby genome sequence is amplified by Tn5 transposase-mediated transposition followed by T7 RNA polymerase-mediated transcription. ChIL-seq enables the detection of the antibody target localization under a fluorescence microscope and at the genomic level. Here we describe the detailed protocol of ChIL-seq with assessment methods for the key steps, including ChIL probe reaction, transposition, in situ transcription and sequencing library preparation. The protocol usually takes 3 d to prepare the sequencing library, including overnight incubations for the ChIL probe reaction and in situ transcription. The ChIL probe can be separately prepared and stored for several months, and its preparation and evaluation protocols are also documented in detail. An optional analysis for multiple targets (multitarget ChIL-seq) is also described. We anticipate that the protocol presented here will make the ChIL technique more widely accessible for analyzing precious samples and facilitate further applications.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transposases/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4267, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848148

RESUMO

While footprinting analysis of ATAC-seq data can theoretically enable investigation of transcription factor (TF) binding, the lack of a computational tool able to conduct different levels of footprinting analysis has so-far hindered the widespread application of this method. Here we present TOBIAS, a comprehensive, accurate, and fast footprinting framework enabling genome-wide investigation of TF binding dynamics for hundreds of TFs simultaneously. We validate TOBIAS using paired ATAC-seq and ChIP-seq data, and find that TOBIAS outperforms existing methods for bias correction and footprinting. As a proof-of-concept, we illustrate how TOBIAS can unveil complex TF dynamics during zygotic genome activation in both humans and mice, and propose how zygotic Dux activates cascades of TFs, binds to repeat elements and induces expression of novel genetic elements.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Zigoto/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ligação Proteica/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4136, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811816

RESUMO

During cellular reprogramming, the pioneer transcription factor GATA3 binds chromatin, and in a context-dependent manner directs local chromatin remodeling and enhancer formation. Here, we use high-resolution nucleosome mapping in human cells to explore the impact of the position of GATA motifs on the surface of nucleosomes on productive enhancer formation, finding productivity correlates with binding sites located near the nucleosomal dyad axis. Biochemical experiments with model nucleosomes demonstrate sufficiently stable transcription factor-nucleosome interaction to empower cryo-electron microscopy structure determination of the complex at 3.15 Å resolution. The GATA3 zinc fingers efficiently bind their target 5'-GAT-3' sequences in the nucleosome when they are located in solvent accessible, consecutive major grooves without significant changes in nucleosome structure. Analysis of genomic loci bound by GATA3 during reprogramming suggests a correlation of recognition motif sequence and spacing that may distinguish productivity of new enhancer formation.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/química , Nucleossomos/química , Nucleossomos/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/ultraestrutura , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/ultraestrutura , Ligação Proteica , Dedos de Zinco/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3951, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769987

RESUMO

Duplication of mammalian genomes requires replisomes to overcome numerous impediments during passage through open (eu) and condensed (hetero) chromatin. Typically, studies of replication stress characterize mixed populations of challenged and unchallenged replication forks, averaged across S phase, and model a single species of "stressed" replisome. Here, in cells containing potent obstacles to replication, we find two different lesion proximal replisomes. One is bound by the DONSON protein and is more frequent in early S phase, in regions marked by euchromatin. The other interacts with the FANCM DNA translocase, is more prominent in late S phase, and favors heterochromatin. The two forms can also be detected in unstressed cells. ChIP-seq of DNA associated with DONSON or FANCM confirms the bias of the former towards regions that replicate early and the skew of the latter towards regions that replicate late.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Período de Replicação do DNA , Eucromatina/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fase S
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3613, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680994

RESUMO

Common fragile sites (CFSs) are regions susceptible to replication stress and are hotspots for chromosomal instability in cancer. Several features were suggested to underlie CFS instability, however, these features are prevalent across the genome. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying CFS instability remain unclear. Here, we explore the transcriptional profile and DNA replication timing (RT) under mild replication stress in the context of the 3D genome organization. The results reveal a fragility signature, comprised of a TAD boundary overlapping a highly transcribed large gene with APH-induced RT-delay. This signature enables precise mapping of core fragility regions in known CFSs and identification of novel fragile sites. CFS stability may be compromised by incomplete DNA replication and repair in TAD boundaries core fragility regions leading to genomic instability. The identified fragility signature will allow for a more comprehensive mapping of CFSs and pave the way for investigating mechanisms promoting genomic instability in cancer.


Assuntos
Sítios Frágeis do Cromossomo/genética , Período de Replicação do DNA/genética , Genoma Humano , Instabilidade Genômica , Afidicolina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , DNA/química , Período de Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3675, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699215

RESUMO

Epigenetic landscapes can shape physiologic and disease phenotypes. We used integrative, high resolution multi-omics methods to delineate the methylome landscape and characterize the oncogenic drivers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We found 98% of CpGs are hypomethylated across the ESCC genome. Hypo-methylated regions are enriched in areas with heterochromatin binding markers (H3K9me3, H3K27me3), while hyper-methylated regions are enriched in polycomb repressive complex (EZH2/SUZ12) recognizing regions. Altered methylation in promoters, enhancers, and gene bodies, as well as in polycomb repressive complex occupancy and CTCF binding sites are associated with cancer-specific gene dysregulation. Epigenetic-mediated activation of non-canonical WNT/ß-catenin/MMP signaling and a YY1/lncRNA ESCCAL-1/ribosomal protein network are uncovered and validated as potential novel ESCC driver alterations. This study advances our understanding of how epigenetic landscapes shape cancer pathogenesis and provides a resource for biomarker and target discovery.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Epigênese Genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Esôfago/patologia , Esôfago/cirurgia , Feminino , Genômica , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteômica , RNA-Seq , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008865, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603360

RESUMO

Fpr1 (FK506-sensitive proline rotamase 1), a protein of the FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein 12 kDa) family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a primary target for the immunosuppressive agents FK506 and rapamycin. Fpr1 inhibits calcineurin and TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1) when bound to FK506 and rapamycin, respectively. Although Fpr1 is recognised to play a crucial role in the efficacy of these drugs, its physiological functions remain unclear. In a hmo1Δ (high mobility group family 1-deleted) yeast strain, deletion of FPR1 induced severe growth defects, which could be alleviated by increasing the copy number of RPL25 (ribosome protein of the large subunit 25), suggesting that RPL25 expression was affected in hmo1Δfpr1Δ cells. In the current study, extensive chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP-sequencing analyses revealed that Fpr1 associates specifically with the upstream activating sequences of nearly all RPG (ribosomal protein gene) promoters, presumably in a manner dependent on Rap1 (repressor/activator site binding protein 1). Intriguingly, Fpr1 promotes the binding of Fhl1/Ifh1 (forkhead-like 1/interacts with forkhead 1), two key regulators of RPG transcription, to certain RPG promoters independently of and/or cooperatively with Hmo1. Furthermore, mutation analyses of Fpr1 indicated that for transcriptional function on RPG promoters, Fpr1 requires its N-terminal domain and the binding surface for rapamycin, but not peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity. Notably, Fpr1 orthologues from other species also inhibit TORC1 when bound to rapamycin, but do not regulate transcription in yeast, which suggests that these two functions of Fpr1 are independent of each other.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
16.
Nat Protoc ; 15(8): 2503-2518, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591768

RESUMO

Fixed-tissue ChIP-seq for H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) profiling (FiTAc-seq) is an epigenetic method for profiling active enhancers and promoters in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. We previously developed a modified ChIP-seq protocol (FiT-seq) for chromatin profiling in FFPE. FiT-seq produces high-quality chromatin profiles particularly for methylated histone marks but is not optimized for H3K27ac profiling. FiTAc-seq is a modified protocol that replaces the proteinase K digestion applied in FiT-seq with extended heating at 65 °C in a higher concentration of detergent and a minimized sonication step, to produce robust genome-wide H3K27ac maps from clinical samples. FiTAc-seq generates high-quality enhancer landscapes and super-enhancer (SE) annotation in numerous archived FFPE samples from distinct tumor types. This approach will be of great interest for both basic and clinical researchers. The entire protocol from FFPE blocks to sequence-ready library can be accomplished within 4 d.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina , Fixação de Tecidos , Acetilação , Animais , Fígado/citologia , Camundongos
17.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 777-789, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572238

RESUMO

T follicular helper (TFH) cells are a distinct type of CD4+ T cells that are essential for most antibody and B lymphocyte responses. TFH cell regulation and dysregulation is involved in a range of diseases. Bcl-6 is the lineage-defining transcription factor of TFH cells and its activity is essential for TFH cell differentiation and function. However, how Bcl-6 controls TFH biology has largely remained unclear, at least in part due to the intrinsic challenges of connecting repressors to gene upregulation in complex cell types with multiple possible differentiation fates. Multiple competing models were tested here by a series of experimental approaches to determine that Bcl-6 exhibits negative autoregulation and controls pleiotropic attributes of TFH differentiation and function, including migration, costimulation, inhibitory receptors and cytokines, via multiple repressor-of-repressor gene circuits.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008905, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569318

RESUMO

Pch2 is an AAA+ protein that controls DNA break formation, recombination and checkpoint signaling during meiotic G2/prophase. Chromosomal association of Pch2 is linked to these processes, and several factors influence the association of Pch2 to euchromatin and the specialized chromatin of the ribosomal (r)DNA array of budding yeast. Here, we describe a comprehensive mapping of Pch2 localization across the budding yeast genome during meiotic G2/prophase. Within non-rDNA chromatin, Pch2 associates with a subset of actively RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII)-dependent transcribed genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)- and microscopy-based analysis reveals that active transcription is required for chromosomal recruitment of Pch2. Similar to what was previously established for association of Pch2 with rDNA chromatin, we find that Orc1, a component of the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), is required for the association of Pch2 to these euchromatic, transcribed regions, revealing a broad connection between chromosomal association of Pch2 and Orc1/ORC function. Ectopic mitotic expression is insufficient to drive recruitment of Pch2, despite the presence of active transcription and Orc1/ORC in mitotic cells. This suggests meiosis-specific 'licensing' of Pch2 recruitment to sites of transcription, and accordingly, we find that the synaptonemal complex (SC) component Zip1 is required for the recruitment of Pch2 to transcription-associated binding regions. Interestingly, Pch2 binding patterns are distinct from meiotic axis enrichment sites (as defined by Red1, Hop1, and Rec8). Inactivating RNAPII-dependent transcription/Orc1 does not lead to effects on the chromosomal abundance of Hop1, a known chromosomal client of Pch2, suggesting a complex relationship between SC formation, Pch2 recruitment and Hop1 chromosomal association. We thus report characteristics and dependencies for Pch2 recruitment to meiotic chromosomes, and reveal an unexpected link between Pch2, SC formation, chromatin and active transcription.


Assuntos
Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Complexo de Reconhecimento de Origem/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Cromossomos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fase G2/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Complexo de Reconhecimento de Origem/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3140, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561780

RESUMO

MeCP2 plays a multifaceted role in gene expression regulation and chromatin organization. Interaction between MeCP2 and methylated DNA in the regulation of gene expression is well established. However, the widespread distribution of MeCP2 suggests it has additional interactions with chromatin. Here we demonstrate, by both biochemical and genomic analyses, that MeCP2 directly interacts with nucleosomes and its genomic distribution correlates with that of H3K27me3. In particular, the methyl-CpG-binding domain of MeCP2 shows preferential interactions with H3K27me3. We further observe that the impact of MeCP2 on transcriptional changes correlates with histone post-translational modification patterns. Our findings indicate that MeCP2 interacts with genomic loci via binding to DNA as well as histones, and that interaction between MeCP2 and histone proteins plays a key role in gene expression regulation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Animais , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nucleossomos/genética , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2696, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483223

RESUMO

Conversion between cell types, e.g., by induced expression of master transcription factors, holds great promise for cellular therapy. Our ability to manipulate cell identity is constrained by incomplete information on cell identity genes (CIGs) and their expression regulation. Here, we develop CEFCIG, an artificial intelligent framework to uncover CIGs and further define their master regulators. On the basis of machine learning, CEFCIG reveals unique histone codes for transcriptional regulation of reported CIGs, and utilizes these codes to predict CIGs and their master regulators with high accuracy. Applying CEFCIG to 1,005 epigenetic profiles, our analysis uncovers the landscape of regulation network for identity genes in individual cell or tissue types. Together, this work provides insights into cell identity regulation, and delivers a powerful technique to facilitate regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Células/classificação , Células/metabolismo , Código das Histonas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Células/citologia , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Regenerativa , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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