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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407143

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 requires serine protease, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and cysteine proteases, cathepsins B, L (CTSB/L) for entry into host cells. These host proteases activate the spike protein and enable SARS-CoV-2 entry. We herein performed genomic-guided gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to identify upstream regulatory elements altering the expression of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L. Further, medicinal compounds were identified based on their effects on gene expression signatures of the modulators of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L genes. Using this strategy, estradiol and retinoic acid have been identified as putative SARS-CoV-2 alleviation agents. Next, we analyzed drug-gene and gene-gene interaction networks using 809 human targets of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The network results indicate that estradiol interacts with 370 (45%) and retinoic acid interacts with 251 (31%) human proteins. Interestingly, a combination of estradiol and retinoic acid interacts with 461 (56%) of human proteins, indicating the therapeutic benefits of drug combination therapy. Finally, molecular docking analysis suggests that both the drugs bind to TMPRSS2 and CTSL with the nanomolar to low micromolar affinity. The results suggest that these drugs can simultaneously target both the entry pathways of SARS-CoV-2 and thus can be considered as a potential treatment option for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Catepsina B/genética , Catepsina L/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Genômica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Catepsina B/química , Catepsina L/química , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 358, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, which has brought a huge negative impact on the world since the end of 2019, is reported to invade cells using the spike (S) protein to bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptors on human cells while the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is the key protease that activates the S protein, which greatly facilitates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into target cells. In our previous study, it was observed that the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids in saliva was higher in male and the elderly COVID-19 patients, suggesting that the susceptibility of oral tissues to SARS-CoV-2 may be related to gender and age. This research aimed to further investigate the SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in oral tissues and influencing factors from the perspective of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, which were two proteins closely associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Immunofluorescence was used to find the localization of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in oral mucosal tissues. Transcriptomic sequencing data of several datasets were then collected to analysis the relationship between the expressions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with the age and gender of patients. Furthermore, oral tissues from patients with different ages and genders were collected. Immunohistochemistry staining, qRT-PCR and western blot were performed to explore the relationship between expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and patient age as well as gender. RESULTS: The results showed that the two proteins were able to be co-expressed in the epithelial cells of oral tissues, and their expression levels were higher in the relatively elderly group than those in relatively younger group. Male oral epithelial cells exhibited higher level of TMPRSS2. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings comprehensively confirmed the existence of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in oral tissues and clarify the relationship between the expression levels with human age and gender for the first time, providing evidence for possible entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 and the influencing factors of SARS-CoV-2 colonization in oral cavity. Thus, the oral mucosa might be at potential risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2, especially in male or elderly patients. Using saliva to detect the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 may be more accurate for elder male COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Internalização do Vírus
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How cigarette smoke (CS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and severity is controversial. We investigated the effects of COPD and CS on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 in vivo in COPD patients and controls and in CS-exposed mice, and the effects of CS on SARS-CoV-2 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: We quantified: (1) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA, and both ACE2 and/or TMPRSS2 mRNA levels by RT-qPCR in two independent human cohorts; and (2) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA in C57BL/6 WT mice exposed to air or CS for up to 6 months. The effects of CS exposure on SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated after in vitro infection of Calu-3 cells and differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), respectively. RESULTS: ACE2 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in peripheral airways from COPD patients versus controls but similar in central airways. Mice exposed to CS had decreased ACE2 protein levels in their bronchial and alveolar epithelia versus air-exposed mice. CS treatment decreased viral replication in Calu-3 cells, as determined by immunofluorescence staining for replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and western blot for viral N protein. Acute CS exposure decreased in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication in HBECs, as determined by plaque assay and RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2 levels were decreased in both bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells from COPD patients versus controls, and from CS-exposed versus air-exposed mice. CS-pre-exposure potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. These findings urge to investigate further the controversial effects of CS and COPD on SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/enzimologia , Fumar Cigarros/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enzimologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fumaça , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Brônquios , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Alvéolos Pulmonares , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Tabaco , Replicação Viral
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445373

RESUMO

Human ACE2 and the serine protease TMPRSS2 of novel SARS-CoV-2 are primary entry receptors in host cells. Expression of these genes at the transcriptional level has not been much discussed in detail. The ISRE elements of the ACE2 promoter are a binding site for the ISGF3 complex of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. TMPRSS2, including IFNß, STAT1, and STAT2, has the PARP1 binding site near to TSS either up or downstream promoter region. It is well documented that PARP1 regulates gene expression at the transcription level. Therefore, to curb virus infection, both promoting type I IFN signaling to boost innate immunity and prevention of virus entry by inhibiting PARP1, ACE2 or TMPRSS2 are safe options. Most importantly, our aim is to attract the attention of the global scientific community towards the codon 72 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of p53 and its underneath role in the innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we discuss codon 72 SNP of human p53's role in the different innate immune response to restrict virus-mediated mortality rate only in specific parts of the world. In addition, we discuss potential targets and emerging therapies using bioengineered bacteriophage, anti-sense, or CRISPR strategies.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/imunologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/imunologia , Vacinação , Internalização do Vírus
5.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 159-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420994

RESUMO

The human TMPRSS2 gene is pathogenetically implicated in both coronaviral lung infection and prostate cancer, suggesting its potential as a drug target in both contexts. SARS-COV-2 spike polypeptides are primed by the host transmembrane TMPRSS2 protease, triggering virus fusion with epithelial cell membranes followed by an endocytotic internalisation process that bypasses normal endosomal activation of cathepsin-mediated innate immunity; viral co-opting of TMPRSS2 thus favors microbial survivability by attenuating host inflammatory responses. In contrast, most early hormone-dependent prostate cancers express TMPRSS2:ERG fusion genes arising from deletions that eliminate the TMPRSS2 coding region while juxtaposing its androgen-inducible promoter and the open reading frame of ERG, upregulating pro-inflammatory ERG while functionally disabling TMPRSS2. Moreover, inflammatory oxidative DNA damage selects for TMPRSS2:ERG-fused cancers, whereas patients treated with antiinflammatory drugs develop fewer of these fusion-dependent tumors. These findings imply that TMPRSS2 protects the prostate by enabling endosomal bypass of pathogens which could otherwise trigger inflammation-induced DNA damage that predisposes to TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. Hence, the high oncogenic selectability of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions may reflect a unique pro-inflammatory synergy between androgenic ERG gain-of-function and fusogenic TMPRSS2 loss-of-function, cautioning against the use of TMPRSS2-inhibitory drugs to prevent or treat early prostate cancer.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Fertilidade , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356057

RESUMO

The virus responsible for the COVID-19 global health crisis, SARS-CoV-2, has been shown to utilize the ACE2 protein as an entry point to its target cells. The virus has been shown to rely on the actions of TMPRSS2 (a serine protease), as well as FURIN (a peptidase), for the critical priming of its spike protein. It has been postulated that variations in the sequence and expression of SARS-CoV-2's receptor (ACE2) and the two priming proteases (TMPRSS2 and FURIN) may be critical in contributing to SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. This study aims to examine the different expression levels of FURIN in various tissues and age ranges in light of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels using the LungMAP database. Furthermore, we retrieved expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of the three genes and their annotation. We analyzed the frequency of the retrieved variants in data from various populations and compared it to the Egyptian population. We highlight FURIN's potential interplay with the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and showcase a myriad of variants of the three genes that are differentially expressed across populations. Our findings provide insights into potential genetic factors that impact SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in different populations and shed light on the varying expression patterns of FURIN.


Assuntos
Alelos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Furina , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/biossíntese , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Furina/biossíntese , Furina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 309, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many different genetic variants of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) are related to the serum levels of cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). The rs615563 variant of PCSK9 (a gain-of-function mutation) is associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol levels, but its association with the incidence of diabetes is not well defined. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the PCSK9 rs615563 variant with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The data reported in this study are based on subsamples from a 5-year (2009-2014) cohort study of the adult population (590 subjects) aged 20 years and older. The rs615563 polymorphism was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. RESULTS: The distribution of PCSK9 rs615563 genotypes was not significantly different between the diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The incidence of diabetes after five-years of follow-up was not different between the genotypes. Our findings also showed no significant relationship between this polymorphism and serum lipid parameters. The data extracted from our cohort study do not support the findings that the gain-of-function mutations of PCSK9 predispose to the incidence of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Lipídeos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertases , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361079

RESUMO

The liver has a most indispensable role in glucose and lipid metabolism where we see some of the most serious worldwide health problems. The serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) cleaves toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity under PRSS8 knockout condition. However, liver substrate proteins of PRSS8 other than TLR4 and the effect to glucose and lipid metabolism remain unclarified with hepatic elevation of PRSS8 expression. Here we show that high-fat-diet-fed liver-specific PRSS8 transgenic mice improved glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis independent of body weight. PRSS8 amplified extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation associated with matrix metalloproteinase 14 activation in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, in humans, serum PRSS8 levels reduced more in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients than healthy controls and were lower in T2DM patients with increased maximum carotid artery intima media thickness (>1.1 mm). These results identify the regulatory mechanisms of PRSS8 overexpression over glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as excessive hepatic fat storage.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339474

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a major global threat that sparked global research efforts. Pre-clinical and biochemical SARS-CoV-2 studies firstly rely on cell culture experiments where the importance of choosing an appropriate cell culture model is often underestimated. We here present a bottom-up approach to identify suitable permissive cancer cell lines for drug screening and virus research. Human cancer cell lines were screened for the SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 based on RNA-seq data of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). However, experimentally testing permissiveness towards SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found limited correlation between receptor expression and permissiveness. This underlines that permissiveness of cells towards viral infection is determined not only by the presence of entry receptors but is defined by the availability of cellular resources, intrinsic immunity, and apoptosis. Aside from established cell culture infection models CACO-2 and CALU-3, three highly permissive human cell lines, colon cancer cell lines CL-14 and CL-40 and the breast cancer cell line CAL-51 and several low permissive cell lines were identified. Cell lines were characterised in more detail offering a broader choice of non-overexpression in vitro infection models to the scientific community. For some cell lines a truncated ACE2 mRNA and missense variants in TMPRSS2 might hint at disturbed host susceptibility towards viral entry.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Receptores Virais , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299127

RESUMO

Reelin is a secretory protein involved in a variety of processes in forebrain development and function, including neuronal migration, dendrite growth, spine formation, and synaptic plasticity. Most of the function of Reelin is focused on excitatory neurons; however, little is known about its effects on inhibitory neurons and inhibitory synapses. In this study, we investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway of Reelin in primary cortical and hippocampal neurons. Individual neurons were visualized using immunofluorescence to distinguish inhibitory neurons from excitatory neurons. Reelin-rich protein supplementation significantly induced the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 protein in excitatory neurons, but not in most inhibitory neurons. In somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons, one of major subtypes of inhibitory neurons, Reelin-rich protein supplementation induced the phosphorylation of S6. Subsequently, we investigated whether or not Reelin-rich protein supplementation affected dendrite development in cultured inhibitory neurons. Reelin-rich protein supplementation did not change the total length of dendrites in inhibitory neurons in vitro. Finally, we examined the development of inhibitory synapses in primary hippocampal neurons and found that Reelin-rich protein supplementation significantly reduced the density of gephyrin-VGAT-positive clusters in the dendritic regions without changing the expression levels of several inhibitory synapse-related proteins. These findings indicate a new role for Reelin in specific groups of inhibitory neurons and the development of inhibitory synapses, which may contribute to the underlying cellular mechanisms of RELN-associated neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Dendritos/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibição Neural , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299289

RESUMO

A large body of evidence shows the harmful effects of cigarette smoke to oral and systemic health. More recently, a link between smoking and susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was proposed. COVID-19 is due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which uses the receptor ACE2 and the protease TMPRSS2 for entry into host cells, thereby infecting cells of the respiratory tract and the oral cavity. Here, we examined the effects of cigarette smoke on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors and infection in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). We found that cigarette smoke condensates (CSC) upregulated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in GECs, and that CSC activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling in the oral cells. ACE2 was known to mediate SARS-CoV-2 internalization, and we demonstrate that CSC treatment potentiated the internalization of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in GECs in an AhR-dependent manner. AhR depletion using small interference RNA decreased SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus internalization in CSC-treated GECs compared with control GECs. Our study reveals that cigarette smoke upregulates SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression and infection in oral cells. Understanding the mechanisms involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells of the oral cavity may suggest therapeutic interventions for preventing viral infection and transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Gengiva/metabolismo , Gengiva/virologia , Humanos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fumar/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4068, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210968

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 attacks various organs, most destructively the lung, and cellular entry requires two host cell surface proteins: ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Downregulation of one or both of these is thus a potential therapeutic approach for COVID-19. TMPRSS2 is a known target of the androgen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor; androgen receptor activation increases TMPRSS2 levels in various tissues, most notably prostate. We show here that treatment with the antiandrogen enzalutamide-a well-tolerated drug widely used in advanced prostate cancer-reduces TMPRSS2 levels in human lung cells and in mouse lung. Importantly, antiandrogens significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in lung cells. In support of this experimental data, analysis of existing datasets shows striking co-expression of AR and TMPRSS2, including in specific lung cell types targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Together, the data presented provides strong evidence to support clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antiandrogens as a treatment option for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/síntese química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 346: 109583, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284028

RESUMO

The transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is a key molecule for SARS-CoV-2 invading human host cells. To provide insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection of various human tissues and understand the potential mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we investigated TMPRSS2 expression in various normal human tissues and SARS-CoV-2-infected human tissues. Using publicly available datasets, we performed computational analyses of TMPRSS2 expression levels in 30 normal human tissues, and compared them between males and females and between younger (ages ≤ 49 years) and older (ages > 49 years) populations in these tissues. We found that TMPRSS2 expression levels were the highest in the prostate, stomach, pancreas, lungs, small intestine, and salivary gland. The TMPRSS2 protein had relatively high expression levels in the parathyroid gland, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, kidneys, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate. However, TMPRSS2 expression levels were not significantly different between females and males or between younger and older populations in these tissues. The pathways enriched in TMPRSS2-upregulated pan-tissue were mainly involved in immune, metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, stromal signatures, and cancer and other diseases. Many cytokine genes displayed positive expression correlations with TMPRSS2 in pan-tissue, including TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, IFN-α, MCP-1, G-CSF, and IP-10. We further analyzed TMPRSS2 expression levels in nasopharyngeal swabs from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. TMPRSS2 expression levels showed no significant difference between males and females or between younger and older patients. However, they were significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2-infected than in healthy individuals and patients with other viral acute respiratory illnesses. Interestingly, TMPRSS2 expression levels were positively correlated with the enrichment levels of four immune signatures (B cells, CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and interferon response) in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients but likely to be negatively correlated with them in the normal lung tissue. Our data may provide insights into the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Adulto , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 841, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230602

RESUMO

Characterizing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is an effective method to help explore protein function. Here, through integrating a newly identified split human Rhinovirus 3 C (HRV 3 C) protease, super-folder GFP (sfGFP), and ClpXP-SsrA protein degradation machinery, we developed a fluorescence-assisted single-cell methodology (split protease-E. coli ClpXP (SPEC)) to explore protein-protein interactions for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic species in E. coli cells. We firstly identified a highly efficient split HRV 3 C protease with high re-assembly ability and then incorporated it into the SPEC method. The SPEC method could convert the cellular protein-protein interaction to quantitative fluorescence signals through a split HRV 3 C protease-mediated proteolytic reaction with high efficiency and broad temperature adaptability. Using SPEC method, we explored the interactions among effectors of representative type I-E and I-F CRISPR/Cas complexes, which combining with subsequent studies of Cas3 mutations conferred further understanding of the functions and structures of CRISPR/Cas complexes.


Assuntos
Endopeptidase Clp/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Endopeptidase Clp/genética , Enterovirus/enzimologia , Enterovirus/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Histidina Quinase/genética , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteólise , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4147, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230470

RESUMO

The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is the most frequent alteration observed in human prostate cancer. However, its role in disease progression is still unclear. In this study, we uncover an important mechanism promoting ERG oncogenic activity. We show that ERG is methylated by Enhancer of zest homolog 2 (EZH2) at a specific lysine residue (K362) located within the internal auto-inhibitory domain. Mechanistically, K362 methylation modifies intra-domain interactions, favors DNA binding and enhances ERG transcriptional activity. In a genetically engineered mouse model of ERG fusion-positive prostate cancer (Pb-Cre4 Pten flox/flox Rosa26-ERG, ERG/PTEN), ERG K362 methylation is associated with PTEN loss and progression to invasive adenocarcinomas. In both ERG positive VCaP cells and ERG/PTEN mice, PTEN loss results in AKT activation and EZH2 phosphorylation at serine 21 that favors ERG methylation. We find that ERG and EZH2 interact and co-occupy several sites in the genome forming trans-activating complexes. Consistently, ERG/EZH2 co-regulated target genes are deregulated preferentially in tumors with concomitant ERG gain and PTEN loss and in castration-resistant prostate cancers. Collectively, these findings identify ERG methylation as a post-translational modification sustaining disease progression in ERG-positive prostate cancers.


Assuntos
Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Animais , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Conformação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Alinhamento de Sequência , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
16.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 612969, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257580

RESUMO

The epidemic of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the world pose a global health emergency. Cancer has been identified as a risk factor for the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection for mediating viral entry into the host cell. However, a systematic analysis of aberrant expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was not yet reported in multiple human cancers. Here, we analyzed gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 across 31 types of tumors. Notably, overexpression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been observed in colorectal cancer including colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), and rectum adenocarcinoma (READ). In addition, the colorectal tumors with upregulated gene expressing presented with decreased DNA methylation levels. DNA methylation might be one of the reasons for abnormal expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Conclusively, colorectal cancer was the only cancer with the upregulated expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. More care of colorectal cancer patients is needed in multiple cancers affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , Serina Endopeptidases , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/análise , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/análise , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 347, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important horticultural crops, with a marked preference for nitrate as an inorganic nitrogen source. The molecular mechanisms of nitrate uptake and assimilation are poorly understood in tomato. NIN-like proteins (NLPs) are conserved, plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in nitrate signaling. RESULTS: In this study, genome-wide analysis identified six NLP members in tomato genome. These members were clustered into three clades in a phylogenetic tree. Comparative genomic analysis showed that SlNLP genes exhibited collinear relationships to NLPs in Arabidopsis, canola, maize and rice, and that the expansion of the SlNLP family mainly resulted from segmental duplications in the tomato genome. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that one of the close homologs of AtNLP6/7, SlNLP3, was strongly expressed in roots during both the seedling and flowering stages, that SlNLP4 and SlNLP6 exhibited preferential expression in stems and leaves and that SlNLP6 was expressed at high levels in fruits. Furthermore, the nitrate uptake in tomato roots and the expression patterns of SlNLP genes were measured under nitrogen deficiency and nitrate resupply conditions. Four SlNLPs, SlNLP1, SlNLP2, SlNLP4 and SlNLP6, were upregulated after nitrogen starvation. And SlNLP1 and SlNLP5 were induced rapidly and temporally by nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide significant insights into the potential diverse functions of SlNLPs to regulate nitrate uptake.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 2836-2850, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227905

RESUMO

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), type II transmembrane serine protease 2 and 4 (TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4) are important receptors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, the full-length tree shrewACE2 gene was cloned and sequenced, and its biological information was analyzed. The expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 in various tissues or organs of the tree shrew were detected. The results showed that the full-length ACE2 gene in tree shrews was 2,786 bp, and its CDS was 2,418 bp, encoding 805 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis based on the CDS of ACE2 revealed that tree shrews were more similar to rabbits (85.93%) and humans (85.47%) but far from mice (82.81%) and rats (82.58%). In silico analysis according to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor of different species predicted that tree shrews had potential SARS-CoV-2 infection possibility, which was similar to that of rabbits, cats and dogs but significantly higher than that of mice and rats. In addition, various tissues or organs of tree shrews expressed ACE2, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4. Among them, the kidney most highly expressed ACE2, followed by the lung and liver. The esophagus, lung, liver, intestine and kidney had relatively high expression levels of TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4. In general, we reported for the first time the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 in various tissues or organs in tree shrews. Our results revealed that tree shrews could be used as a potential animal model to study the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/etiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Tupaiidae/genética , Tupaiidae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Bioengenharia , COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/genética , Biologia Computacional , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Distribuição Tecidual , Tupaiidae/virologia
19.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206406

RESUMO

Spanish flu, polio epidemics, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic are the most profound examples of severe widespread diseases caused by RNA viruses. The coronavirus pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands affordable and reliable assays for testing antivirals. To test inhibitors of viral proteases, we have developed an inexpensive high-throughput assay based on fluorescent energy transfer (FRET). We assayed an array of inhibitors for papain-like protease from SARS-CoV-2 and validated it on protease from the tick-borne encephalitis virus to emphasize its versatility. The reaction progress is monitored as loss of FRET signal of the substrate. This robust and reproducible assay can be used for testing the inhibitors in 96- or 384-well plates.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Vírus de RNA/enzimologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/genética , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/enzimologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , RNA Helicases/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Helicases/química , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
20.
Nature ; 596(7870): 103-108, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153975

RESUMO

Rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants jeopardize antibody-based countermeasures. Although cell culture experiments have demonstrated a loss of potency of several anti-spike neutralizing antibodies against variant strains of SARS-CoV-21-3, the in vivo importance of these results remains uncertain. Here we report the in vitro and in vivo activity of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which correspond to many in advanced clinical development by Vir Biotechnology, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Regeneron and Lilly, against SARS-CoV-2 variant viruses. Although some individual mAbs showed reduced or abrogated neutralizing activity in cell culture against B.1.351, B.1.1.28, B.1.617.1 and B.1.526 viruses with mutations at residue E484 of the spike protein, low prophylactic doses of mAb combinations protected against infection by many variants in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, 129S2 immunocompetent mice and hamsters, without the emergence of resistance. Exceptions were LY-CoV555 monotherapy and LY-CoV555 and LY-CoV016 combination therapy, both of which lost all protective activity, and the combination of AbbVie 2B04 and 47D11, which showed a partial loss of activity. When administered after infection, higher doses of several mAb cocktails protected in vivo against viruses with a B.1.351 spike gene. Therefore, many-but not all-of the antibody products with Emergency Use Authorization should retain substantial efficacy against the prevailing variant strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesocricetus/imunologia , Mesocricetus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero
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