Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.348
Filtrar
1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5621-5630, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are subject to extensive research. Different mutations of genes belonging to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have been detected in HNSCC. In this study, we examined the expression of FGF1 and FGF2 after treatment with small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and an inhibitor of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in vitro using human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative SCC lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells of two human HPV-negative cell lines (UMSCC-11A/-14C) and one HPV-positive cell line (CERV196) were incubated with 20 µmol/l of erlotinib, gefitinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, or everolimus for 24-96 h. Cell proliferation was assessed by proliferation assay and the protein concentrations of FGF1 and FGF2 by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For statistical analysis, the results were compared with those for untreated HPV-negative SCC cells. RESULTS: FGF1 and FGF2 were detected in all three tested cell lines. The tested TKIs significantly (p<0.05 reduced) FGF1 expression in the UMSCC-11A cell line within the first 24 h. At later time points, the tested TKIs and everolimus significantly (p<0.05) increased FGF1 and FGF2 expression in HPV-negative and -positive cancer cell lines. The effect was stronger in the HPV-positive cell line. CONCLUSION: Alterations in FGF signalling are considered to be relevant drivers of tumourigenesis in some HNSCCs. Our results show that the expression of FGF1 and -2 can be influenced effectively by small-molecule TKIs and everolimus. Based on our data, future research should include combinations of specific FGF inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and other TKIs in the treatment of HNSCC and research on FGF-mediated drug escape mechanisms.


Assuntos
Everolimo/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0234396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early conversion to a CNI-free immunosuppression with SRL was associated with an improved 1- and 3- yr renal function as compared with a CsA-based regimen in the SMART-Trial. Mixed results were reported on the occurrence of donor specific antibodies under mTOR-Is. Here, we present long-term results of the SMART-Trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS: N = 71 from 6 centers (n = 38 SRL and n = 33 CsA) of the original SMART-Trial (ITT n = 140) were enrolled in this observational, non-interventional extension study to collect retrospectively and prospectively follow-up data for the interval since baseline. Primary objective was the development of dnDSA. Blood samples were collected on average 8.7 years after transplantation. RESULTS: Development of dnDSA was not different (SRL 5/38, 13.2% vs. CsA 9/33, 27.3%; P = 0.097). GFR remained improved under SRL with 64.37 ml/min/1.73m2 vs. 53.19 ml/min/1.73m2 (p = 0.044). Patient survival did not differ between groups at 10 years. There was a trend towards a reduced graft failure rate (11.6% SRL vs. 23.9% CsA, p = 0.064) and less tumors under SRL (2.6% SRL vs. 15.2% CsA, p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: An early conversion to SRL did not result in an increased incidence of dnDSA nor increased long-term risk for the recipient. Transplant function remains improved with benefits for the graft survival.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Rim , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Tempo , Doadores de Tecidos
3.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(3): 359-370, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600537

RESUMO

The role for cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has evolved with advancements in systemic therapy. During the cytokine-based immunotherapy era, CN provided a clear survival benefit and was considered standard of care in management of mRCC. The development of targeted systemic therapy directed at the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway altered the treatment paradigm and accentuated the importance of risk stratification in treatment selection. This article reviews the literature evaluating the benefit of CN during the evolution of systemic therapy and provides clinical recommendations for current utilization of CN in patients with mRCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Nefrectomia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Risco , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(7): 587-596, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608202

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current study aimed to investigate the synergistic antitumor effect of combined treatment with 17-DMAG (HSP90 inhibitor) and NVP-BEZ235 (PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor) on cisplatin-resistant human bladder cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human bladder cancer cells exhibiting cisplatin resistance (T24R2) were exposed to escalating doses of 17-DMAG (2.5-20 nM) with or without NVP-BEZ236 (0.5-4 µM) in combination with cisplatin. Antitumor effects were assessed by CCK-8 analysis. Based on the dose-response study, synergistic interactions between the two regimens were evaluated using clonogenic assay and combination index values. Flow cytometry and Western blot were conducted to analyze mechanisms of synergism. RESULTS: Dose- and time-dependent antitumor effects for 17-DMAG were observed in both cisplatin-sensitive (T24) and cisplatin-resistant cells (T24R2). The antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235, however, was found to be self-limiting. The combination of 17-DMAG and NVP-BEZ235 in a 1:200 fixed ratio showed a significant antitumor effect in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells over a wide dose range, and clonogenic assay showed compatible results with synergy tests. Three-dimensional analysis revealed strong synergy between the two drugs with a synergy volume of 201.84 µM/mL²%. The combination therapy resulted in G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis confirmed by the Western blot. CONCLUSION: HSP90 inhibitor monotherapy and in combination with the PI3K/mTOR survival pathway inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 shows a synergistic antitumor effect in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancers, eliciting cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
5.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(8): 457-463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646657

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection has produced a pandemic with serious consequences for our health care system. Although liver transplant patients represent only a minority of the population, the hepatologists who follow these patients have tried to coordinate efforts to produce a protocol the management of immunosuppression during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although there are no solid studies to support general recommendations, experiences with other viral infections (hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus) suggest that management of immunosuppression without mycophenolate mofetil or m-Tor inhibitors (drugs that are also associated with leukopenia and lymphopenia) may be beneficial. It is also important to pay attention to possible drug interactions, especially in the case of tacrolimus, with some of the treatments with antiviral effect given in the context of COVID 19 (lopinavir/ritonavir, azithromycin). Finally, the immunosuppressive effect of immunomodulating drugs (tocilizumab and similar) administered to patients with severe lung disease should be taken into account. The mechanisms of action of the different immunosuppressive drugs are reviewed in this article, as well as their potential effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection, and suggests guidelines for the management of immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/farmacologia , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 558-564, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098287

RESUMO

Chronic hepatotoxicity is a debilitating and frequently life-threatening disease resulting in progressive liver failure. The toxic chemical, thioacetamide (TAA) is used to evaluate hepatoprotective agents, and the polyphenolic compound, resveratrol was proposed as a novel treatment for diseases with hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling pathway. This analysis sought to investigate the potential protective effect of resveratrol against liver injury induced by TAA via the inhibition of hepatic mTOR. Model group rats received several injections of TAA (200 mg/kg; twice a week for 8 weeks) before being sacrificed at week 10 and the protective group was pretreated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg) daily for two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both agents until the end of the experiment. Harvested liver tissues were examined using light microscopy and liver homogenates were assayed for biomarkers of inflammation and assessed the levels of mTOR protein in all animal groups. In addition, blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury enzyme. TAA substantially damaged the hepatic tissue of the model group such as infiltration of inflammatory cells, vacuolated cytoplasm, dark pyknotic nuclei, and dilated congested blood vessel that were effectively protected by resveratrol. Resveratrol also significantly (p<0.05) inhibited TAA-induced mTOR, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in harvested liver homogenates and blood samples. Thus, we conclude that resveratrol effectively protects against TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, possibly due to the inhibition of mTOR and inflammation.


La hepatotoxicidad crónica es una enfermedad debilitante y potencialmente mortal que produce insuficiencia hepática progresiva. La toxicidad del químico de la tioacetamida (TAA) se utiliza para evaluar los agentes hepatoprotectores y el compuesto polifenólico, resveratrol, se propuso como un nuevo tratamiento para enfermedades con hiperactivación de la vía de señalización celular mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin). Aquí buscamos investigar el posible efecto protector del resveratrol contra la lesión hepática inducida por TAA a través de la inhibición de la vía de señalización mTOR en hepatocitos. Las ratas del grupo modelo recibieron varias inyecciones de TAA (200 mg / kg; dos veces por semana durante 8 semanas) antes de ser sacrificadas en la semana 10 y el grupo protector se trató previamente con resveratrol (20 mg / kg) diariamente durante dos semanas antes de las inyecciones de TAA y continuó recibiendo ambos agentes hasta el final del experimento. Se examinaron los tejidos hepáticos recolectados usando microscopía óptica y se analizaron los homogeneizados hepáticos para detectar biomarcadores de inflamación y se evaluaron los niveles de proteína mTOR en todos los grupos de animales. Además, se analizaron muestras de sangre para detectar biomarcadores de la enzima de lesión hepática. TAA dañó sustancialmente el tejido hepático del grupo modelo, con infiltración de células inflamatorias, citoplasma vacuolado, núcleos picnóticos oscuros y vasos sanguíneos congestionados dilatados que estaban efectivamente protegidos por el resveratrol. El resveratrol también inhibió significativamente (p <0.05) mTOR, proteína C-reactiva (hs-CRP), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), interleucina-6 (IL-6), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT ) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) en las muestras de sangre y de hígados recolectados. En conclusión, el resveratrol protege eficazmente contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por TAA en ratas, posiblemente debido a la inhibición de mTOR y de la inflamación.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492043

RESUMO

Increased cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) and elevated AKT/mTOR signaling are characteristics of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent lipid mitogen generated via autotaxin (elevated in ccRCC), can modulate tumor progression but its role in altering chemotherapeutic sensitivity to mTOR inhibitors is unclear and thus is the focus of the studies presented herein. Using malignant (A-498, 769-P and 786-O) and normal immortalized kidney (HK-2) cell lines, we investigated their cellular responsiveness to Temsirolimus (TEMS, mTOR inhibitor) in the absence or presence of LPA by monitoring alterations in AKT/mTOR pathway mediators (via western blotting), LDs (using LipidTOX and real-time PCR to assess transcript changes in modulators of LD biogenesis/turnover), mitochondrial networks (via immunofluorescence staining for TOM20 and TOM70), as well as cellular viability. We identified that TEMS reduced cellular viability in all renal cell lines, with increased sensitivity in the presence of an autophagy inhibitor. TEMS also altered activation of AKT/mTOR pathway mediators, abundance of LDs, and fragmentation of mitochondrial networks. We observed that these effects were antagonized by LPA. In HK-2 cells, LPA markedly increased LD size and abundance, coinciding with phospho-MAPK and phospho-S6 activation, increased diacylglycerol O-acetyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) mRNA (which produces triacylglycerides), and survival. Inhibiting MAPK partially antagonized LPA-induced LD changes. Collectively, we have identified that LPA can reverse the effects of TEMS by increasing LDs in a MAPK-dependent manner; these results suggest that LPA may contribute to the pathogenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance of ccRCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Gotículas Lipídicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115090, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512069

RESUMO

Copper dyshomeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia play a major role in the proteolytic clearance of oligomeric ß-amyloid (Aßo). Here, we investigated whether Cu(II) affects microglial Aßo clearance and whether this effect involves autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and p62 protein levels and autophagic flux in Cu(II)-treated microglia were detected. Aßo clearance was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence. In vivo, Cu(II) and Aßo were injected into mouse hippocampus to evaluate Aß clearance. The results showed that Cu(II) inhibited phagocytic uptake and intracellular degradation of Aßo in microglial cultures. Additionally, Cu(II) elevated LC3-II and p62 protein levels and impaired autophagic flux. It also inhibited transcription factor EB (TFEB) expression and lysosomal biogenesis. Moreover, Cu(II) activated mammalian target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR), an upstream signaling of TFEB. The mTOR inhibitor PP242 ameliorated Cu(II)-impaired TFEB expression, lysosomal biogenesis, autophagic flux, and Aßo clearance in microglia. In vivo, Cu(II) inhibited microglial Aßo clearance in mouse hippocampus, an effect accompanied with activation of mTOR and impairment of TFEB expression and lysosomal biogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that Cu(II) reduces microglial Aßo clearance through disrupting lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic flux. This effect could involve modulation of mTOR-TFEB axis and was prevented by pharmacological antagonism of mTOR. This study reveals a novel mechanism for Cu(II) involvement in AD. Our results implicate that rescue of Cu(II)-impaired autophagy-mediated lysosomal degradation may provide a new strategy to benefit multiple neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115109, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544403

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BCa) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide due to its aggressiveness and resistance against therapies. Intricate interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) are essential for both disease progression and regression. Thus, interrupting molecular communications within the TME could potentially provide improved therapeutic efficacies. M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (M2 TAMs) were shown to contribute to BCa progression and drug resistance. We attempted to provide evidence for ovatodiolide (OV) as a potential therapeutic agent that targets both TME and BCa cells. First, tumor-suppressing functions of OV were determined by cell viability, colony, and tumor-sphere formation assays using a coculture system composed of M2 TAMs/BCa cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from M2 TAMs containing oncomiR-21 and mRNAs, including Akt, STAT3, mTOR, and ß-catenin, promoted cisplatin (CDDP) resistance, migration, and tumor-sphere generation in BCa cells, through increasing CDK6, mTOR, STAT3, and ß-catenin expression. OV treatment also prevented M2 polarization and reduced EV cargos from M2 TAMs. Finally, in vivo data demonstrated that OV treatment overcame CDDP resistance. OV only and the OV + CDDP combination both resulted in significant reductions in mTOR, ß-catenin, CDK6, and miR-21 expression in tumor samples and EVs isolated from serum. Collectively, we demonstrated that M2 TAMs induced malignant properties in BCa cells, in part via oncogenic EVs. OV treatment prevented M2 TAM polarization, reduced EV cargos derived from M2 TAMs, and suppressed ß-catenin/mTOR/CDK6 signaling. These findings provide preclinical evidence for OV as a single or adjuvant agent for treating drug-resistant BCa.


Assuntos
Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Plantas Medicinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Thorax ; 75(8): 679-688, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multisystem disease almost exclusively affecting women which causes loss of lung function, lymphatic abnormalities and angiomyolipomas. LAM occurs sporadically and in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Loss of TSC gene function leads to dysregulated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. As mTOR is a regulator of lipid and nucleotide synthesis, we hypothesised that the serum metabolome would be altered in LAM and related to disease severity and activity. METHODS: Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy was used to examine the serum metabolome of 79 closely phenotyped women with LAM, including 29 receiving treatment with an mTOR inhibitor and 43 healthy control women. RESULTS: Sphingolipid, fatty acid and phospholipid metabolites were associated with FEV1 in women with LAM (eg, behenoyl sphingomyelin adjusted (adj.) p=8.10 × 10-3). Those with higher disease-burden scores had abnormalities in fatty acid, phospholipid and lysolipids. Rate of loss of FEV1 was associated with differences in acyl-carnitine, acyl-glycines, acyl-glutamine, fatty acids, endocanbinoids and sphingolipids (eg, myristoleoylcarnitine adj. p=0.07). In TSC-LAM, rapamycin affected modules of interrelated metabolites which comprised linoleic acid, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, cysteine, methionine, arginine and proline metabolism. Metabolomic pathway analysis within modules reiterated the importance of glycerophospholipid metabolites (adj. p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Women with LAM have altered lipid metabolism. The associations between these metabolites, multiple markers of disease activity and their potential biological roles in cell survival and signalling, suggest that lipid species may be both disease-relevant biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for LAM.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Linfangioleiomiomatose/sangue , Linfangioleiomiomatose/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico
11.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421011

RESUMO

Formation of the eIF4F complex has been shown to be the key downstream node for the convergence of signalling pathways that often undergo oncogenic activation in humans. eIF4F is a cap-binding complex involved in the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation. In many cellular and pre-clinical model of cancers, the deregulation of eIF4F leads to increased translation of specific mRNA subsets that are involved in cancer proliferation and survival. eIF4F is a hetero-trimeric complex built from the cap-binding subunit eIF4E, the helicase eIF4A and the scaffolding subunit eIF4G. Critical for the assembly of active eIF4F complexes is the protein-protein interaction between eIF4E and eIF4G proteins. In this article, we describe a protocol to measure eIF4F assembly that monitors the status of eIF4E-eIF4G interaction in live cells. The eIF4e:4G cell-based protein-protein interaction assay also allows drug induced changes in eIF4F complex integrity to be accurately and reliably assessed. We envision that this method can be applied for verifying the activity of commercially available compounds or for further screening of novel compounds or modalities that efficiently disrupt formation of eIF4F complex.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4F em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4G em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Sci ; 111(5): 1607-1618, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232883

RESUMO

Sunitinib, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor including vascular endothelial growth factor, has been widely used as a first-line treatment against metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, mRCC often acquires resistance to sunitinib, rendering it difficult to treat with this agent. Recently, Rapalink-1, a drug that links rapamycin and the mTOR kinase inhibitor MLN0128, has been developed with excellent therapeutic effects against breast cancer cells carrying mTOR resistance mutations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of Rapalink-1 against renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compared to temsirolimus, which is commonly used as a small molecule inhibitor of mTOR and is a derivative of rapamycin. In comparison with temsirolimus, Rapalink-1 showed significantly greater effects against proliferation, migration, invasion and cFolony formation in sunitinib-naïve RCC cells. Inhibition was achieved through suppression of the phosphorylation of substrates in the mTOR signal pathway, such as p70S6K, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) and AKT. In addition, Rapalink-1 had greater tumor suppressive effects than temsirolimus against the sunitinib-resistant 786-o cell line (SU-R 786-o), which we had previously established, as well as 3 additional SU-R cell lines established here. RNA sequencing showed that Rapalink-1 suppressed not only the mTOR signaling pathway but also a part of the MAPK signaling pathway, the ErbB signaling pathway and ABC transporters that were associated with resistance to several drugs. Our study suggests the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with RCC that is either sunitinib-sensitive or sunitinib-resistant.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1987, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332823

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, is among the most common diseases affecting aging men, but the underlying molecular features remain poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited. Here we employ a comprehensive molecular investigation of BPH, including genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling. We find no evidence of neoplastic features in BPH: no evidence of driver genomic alterations, including low coding mutation rates, mutational signatures consistent with aging tissues, minimal copy number alterations, and no genomic rearrangements. At the epigenetic level, global hypermethylation is the dominant process. Integrating transcriptional and methylation signatures identifies two BPH subgroups with distinct clinical features and signaling pathways, validated in two independent cohorts. Finally, mTOR inhibitors emerge as a potential subtype-specific therapeutic option, and men exposed to mTOR inhibitors show a significant decrease in prostate size. We conclude that BPH consists of distinct molecular subgroups, with potential for subtype-specific precision therapy.


Assuntos
Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores/análise , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Agentes Urológicos/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 17(3): 332-337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334502

RESUMO

Multiple viral pathogens can pose a significant health risk to individuals. As a recent example, the ß-coronavirus family virion, SARS-CoV-2, has quickly evolved as a pandemic leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been declared by the World Health Organization as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To date, no definitive treatment or vaccine application exists for COVID-19. Although new investigations seek to repurpose existing antiviral treatments for COVID-19, innovative treatment strategies not normally considered to have antiviral capabilities may be critical to address this global concern. One such avenue that may prove to be exceedingly fruitful and offer exciting potential as new antiviral therapy involves the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its associated pathways of mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1), mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2), and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Recent work has shown that mTOR pathways in conjunction with AMPK may offer valuable targets to control cell injury, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the onset of hyperinflammation, a significant disability associated with COVID-19. Furthermore, pathways that can activate mTOR may be necessary for anti-hepatitis C activity, reduction of influenza A virus replication, and vital for type-1 interferon responses with influenza vaccination. Yet, important considerations for the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy with mTOR pathways exist. Under some conditions, mTOR can act as a double edge sword and participate in virion replication and virion release from cells. Future work with mTOR as a potential antiviral target is highly warranted and with a greater understanding of this novel pathway, new treatments against several viral pathogens may successfully emerge.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(11): 1329-1336, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338549

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Subependymal ependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) occur almost exclusively in the setting of tuberous sclerosis (TSC). They are low-grade gliomas which typically produce clinical symptoms through either mass effect or hydrocephalus. As do other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis, these lesions result from mutations in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 gene. These mutations cause hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). In view of their tendency to grow slowly, clinical symptoms usually only occur when the tumors reach a considerable size. Therapy can involve surgical resection, cerebrospinal fluid diversion, or medical therapy with an mTOR inhibitor. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors discuss the diagnosis, symptoms, and practical management of SEGAs as well as providing their expert opinion. EXPERT OPINION: mTOR inhibitors have largely replaced surgery as the primary modality for the management of SEGAs. Surgical treatment is largely limited to tumors that present with acute hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure. Patients with TSC should undergo periodic screening with CT or preferably MRI scans of the brain from childhood to approximately age 25 to identify SEGAs which require treatment. In addition to avoiding potential morbidity associated with surgical resection, mTOR inhibitors have the potential to improve the clinical status of tuberous sclerosis patients generally.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Astrocitoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Esclerose Tuberosa/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Astrocitoma/etiologia , Astrocitoma/metabolismo , Astrocitoma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Humanos , Mutação , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Esclerose Tuberosa/patologia , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(3): 1405-1417, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Niclosamide is an antihe-minthic drug that has shown cytotoxic effects on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the anti-tumour activity of niclosamide in NSCLC cancer cells remains to be defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of niclosamide in human A549 and CL1-5 non-small cell lung cancer cells using in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of niclosamide on cell viability, apoptosis, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; Δϕm), and autophagy and apoptosis-related protein expression in human A549 and CL1-5 non-small cell lung cancer cells. RESULTS: Niclosamide induced mainly caspase-independent apoptosis through apoptosis-inducible factor (AIF) translocation to the nucleus upon mitochondria damage. Moreover, niclosamide-induced autophagy may act as adaptive response against apoptosis. AMPK/AKT/mTOR pathway were involved in niclosamide-induced cell death and autophagy in response to ATP depletion. Furthermore, niclosamide efficiently suppressed tumor growth and induce autophagy in vivo. CONCLUSION: Niclosamide induced apoptosis by activating the intrinsic and caspase-independent pathway in human A549 and CL1-5 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Therefore, niclosamide is a potential candidate for anti-NSCLC therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Células A549 , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(8): 879-887, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190974

RESUMO

Betulin is a lupane type pentacyclic triterpenoid, and commonly found in the bark of birch trees. It displays various pharmacological properties, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammation, antitumor, and antiviral. In this report, we attempted to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of betulin on osteosarcoma cell lines. Our results revealed that betulin significantly decreased cell viability and colony formation in osteosarcoma cell lines. Dose-dependent induction of Annexin V positive cells, activated caspase 8, activated caspase 9, activated caspase 3, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were observed after the treatment with betulin, indicating betulin induces apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines. mTOR has been identified as a key modulator of autophagy in response to different stresses. In this study, we found that the treatment with betulin suppressed the activation of mTOR, and increased the level of LC 3-II, the autophagy marker, in osteosarcoma cell lines. Co-administration of the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine significantly rescued the cell viability and the clonogenic activity in betulin-treated osteosarcoma cell lines. Our data showed that betulin induced autophagy, and the up-regulated autophagy positively contributed to the apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggested that betulin may serve as a promising anti-proliferative agent for treating osteosarcoma.


Assuntos
Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Caspase 3 , Caspases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Osteossarcoma , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1325-1339, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elastin gene deletion or mutation leads to arterial stenoses due to vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived SMCs can model the elastin insufficiency phenotype in vitro but show only partial rescue with rapamycin. Our objective was to identify drug candidates with superior efficacy in rescuing the SMC phenotype in elastin insufficiency patients. Approach and Results: SMCs generated from induced pluripotent stem cells from 5 elastin insufficiency patients with severe recurrent vascular stenoses (3 Williams syndrome and 2 elastin mutations) were phenotypically immature, hyperproliferative, poorly responsive to endothelin, and exerted reduced tension in 3-dimensional smooth muscle biowires. Elastin mRNA and protein were reduced in SMCs from patients compared to healthy control SMCs. Fourteen drug candidates were tested on patient SMCs. Of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors studied, everolimus restored differentiation, rescued proliferation, and improved endothelin-induced calcium flux in all patient SMCs except one Williams syndrome. Of the calcium channel blockers, verapamil increased SMC differentiation and reduced proliferation in Williams syndrome patient cells but not in elastin mutation patients and had no effect on endothelin response. Combination treatment with everolimus and verapamil was not superior to everolimus alone. Other drug candidates had limited efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus caused the most consistent improvement in SMC differentiation, proliferation and in SMC function in patients with both syndromic and nonsyndromic elastin insufficiency, and offers the best candidate for drug repurposing for treatment of elastin insufficiency associated vasculopathy.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Elastina/deficiência , Everolimo/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Síndrome de Williams/metabolismo , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/genética , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/metabolismo , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Constrição Patológica , Elastina/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Lactente , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Síndrome de Williams/complicações , Síndrome de Williams/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1559, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214088

RESUMO

Microglia are highly motile cells that continuously monitor the brain environment and respond to damage-associated cues. While glucose is the main energy substrate used by neurons in the brain, the nutrients metabolized by microglia to support surveillance of the parenchyma remain unexplored. Here, we use fluorescence lifetime imaging of intracellular NAD(P)H and time-lapse two-photon imaging of microglial dynamics in vivo and in situ, to show unique aspects of the microglial metabolic signature in the brain. Microglia are metabolically flexible and can rapidly adapt to consume glutamine as an alternative metabolic fuel in the absence of glucose. During insulin-induced hypoglycemia in vivo or in aglycemia in acute brain slices, glutaminolysis supports the maintenance of microglial process motility and damage-sensing functions. This metabolic shift sustains mitochondrial metabolism and requires mTOR-dependent signaling. This remarkable plasticity allows microglia to maintain their critical surveillance and phagocytic roles, even after brain neuroenergetic homeostasis is compromised.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/genética , Movimento Celular , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucose/deficiência , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Vigilância Imunológica , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/imunologia , NAD/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0224776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078630

RESUMO

The Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway is known to regulate growth in response to nutrient availability and stress in eukaryotic cells. In the present study, we have investigated the TOR pathway in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Inhibition of TOR activity by rapamycin affects conidia germination and hyphal growth highlighting the conserved mechanism of susceptibility to rapamycin. Interestingly, the secreted protein content is also affected by the rapamycin treatment. Finally, homologs of the components of TOR pathway can be identified in P. chrysosporium. Altogether, those results indicate that the TOR pathway of P. chrysosporium plays a central role in this fungus.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Phanerochaete/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phanerochaete/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteoma , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA