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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5417-5421, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type II diabetes agents have anticancer effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway represents a putative target. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We interrogated an Affymetrix HNSCC dataset for MTOR-related gene expression. RESULTS: MTOR expression itself was unchanged, but various related genes demonstrated differential expression. Pathway promoters ras homolog (RHEB), MTOR-associated protein (MLST8), and ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 (RPS6KB1) were up-regulated. Expression of growth suppressors tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), and BCL2 apoptosis regulator-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) were reduced in HNSCC. Upstream, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were up-regulated in cancer. CONCLUSION: Several MTOR pathway promoters and tumor suppressors were found to be differentially expressed, favoring MTOR pathway up-regulation in HNSCC. Genomic databases can be interrogated to identify intervention targets and endpoints in HNSCC trials.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/classificação , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteína Enriquecida em Homólogo de Ras do Encéfalo/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/genética , Homólogo LST8 da Proteína Associada a mTOR/genética
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5621-5630, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are subject to extensive research. Different mutations of genes belonging to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have been detected in HNSCC. In this study, we examined the expression of FGF1 and FGF2 after treatment with small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and an inhibitor of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in vitro using human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative SCC lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells of two human HPV-negative cell lines (UMSCC-11A/-14C) and one HPV-positive cell line (CERV196) were incubated with 20 µmol/l of erlotinib, gefitinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, or everolimus for 24-96 h. Cell proliferation was assessed by proliferation assay and the protein concentrations of FGF1 and FGF2 by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For statistical analysis, the results were compared with those for untreated HPV-negative SCC cells. RESULTS: FGF1 and FGF2 were detected in all three tested cell lines. The tested TKIs significantly (p<0.05 reduced) FGF1 expression in the UMSCC-11A cell line within the first 24 h. At later time points, the tested TKIs and everolimus significantly (p<0.05) increased FGF1 and FGF2 expression in HPV-negative and -positive cancer cell lines. The effect was stronger in the HPV-positive cell line. CONCLUSION: Alterations in FGF signalling are considered to be relevant drivers of tumourigenesis in some HNSCCs. Our results show that the expression of FGF1 and -2 can be influenced effectively by small-molecule TKIs and everolimus. Based on our data, future research should include combinations of specific FGF inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and other TKIs in the treatment of HNSCC and research on FGF-mediated drug escape mechanisms.


Assuntos
Everolimo/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21882, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846846

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most well-known endocrine neoplasia as well as a common malignant tumor in the head and neck. Our study was designed to assess the prognostic meaningful of TNFRSF12A expression in TC dependent on data acquired from TCGA and so as to increase further knowledge into the biological pathways involved in TC pathogenesis related TNFRSF12A.Information on gene expression and comparing clinical data were identified and downloaded from TCGA. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) created an arranged list of all genes indicated by their connection with TNFRSF12A expression.Our study cohort included 370 (73.1%) female and 136 (26.9%) male patients. The scatter plot and paired plot showed the difference of TNFRSF12A expression between normal and tumor samples (P < .01). The univariate analysis suggested that TNFRSF12A-low associated essentially with age (HR: 1.15; 95%CI: 1.08-1.22; P < .01), stage (HR: 2.79; 95%CI: 1.43-5.46; I vs IV; P = .003) and tumor stage (HR: 2.39; 95%CI: 1.08-5.30; P = .031). The GSEA results show that type II diabetes mellitus, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, adipocytokine signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, are enriched in TNFRSF12A low expression phenotype.TNFRSF12A expression may be a potential useful prognostic molecular biomarker of bad survival in thyroid cancer, in addition, PPAR signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway may be the key pathway controlled by TNFRSF12A in thyroid cancer. Further experimental ought to be performed to demonstrate the biologic effect of TNFRSF12A.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Receptor de TWEAK/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adipocinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the role of selected serum inflammatory cytokines and berberine in the insulin signaling pathway among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Selected serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in the particle cells, which were interfered by berberine, from 78 infertile women who were to be treated with In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) /Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection-Embryo Transfer (icsi-et). Among them, 49 patients had PCOS infertility, and 29 were non-PCOS patients whose infertility resulted from fallopian tube and male factors. The elisa method was used to detect the changes in the expression levels of inflammatory factors in the cells. The correlations between the serum inflammatory cytokine expression levels and the corresponding clinical hormones were analyzed. The changes in the expression (mRNA and protein) levels of the serum inflammatory cytokines were studied by real-time quantitative PCR and protein printing. Fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry were used to detect the glucose uptake capacity of ovarian granulosa cells in PCOS patients under the action of insulin after berberine. RESULTS: In the PCOS group, IL-17a (P = 0.001), IL-1Ra (P<0.0001), and IL-6 (P = 0.035) were significantly higher than those in the non-PCOS group. In the non-PCOS group, AMH level was negatively correlated with inflammatory cytokines IL-17a (r = -0.819;P = 0.004), IL-1a (r = -0.716;P = 0.0.02), IL-1b (r = -0.678;P = 0.031), IL-2 (r = -0.765;P = 0.01), and IL-8 (r = -0.705;P = 0.023). However, in the PCOS group, AMH levels were not significantly correlated with the levels of the examined inflammatory cytokines. Berberine significantly reduced the expression level of mTOR mRNA (P = 0.001), and increased the expression level of IRS-1 mRNA (P = 0.009) in the PCOS granule cells. CONCLUSION: In this study, we find that the elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors IL-17a, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 cause women to be in a subclinical inflammatory state for a long time. Abnormal changes in inflammatory factors alter their original negative correlations with AMH levels, thereby weakening the metabolism of glycolipids, promoting insulin resistance, destroying the normal ovulation and fertilization system of women, leading to polycystic ovary syndrome characterized by menstrual thinning and abnormal ovulation. Berberine can improve the sensitivity of insulin by regulating the signal pathway of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in PCOS patients and achieve a therapeutic effect of treating PCOS.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17195-17203, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606248

RESUMO

The vast majority of intracellular protein targets are refractory toward small-molecule therapeutic engagement, and additional therapeutic modalities are needed to overcome this deficiency. Here, the identification and characterization of a natural product, WDB002, reveals a therapeutic modality that dramatically expands the currently accepted limits of druggability. WDB002, in complex with the FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), potently and selectively binds the human centrosomal protein 250 (CEP250), resulting in disruption of CEP250 function in cells. The recognition mode is unprecedented in that the targeted domain of CEP250 is a coiled coil and is topologically featureless, embodying both a structural motif and surface topology previously considered on the extreme limits of "undruggability" for an intracellular target. Structural studies reveal extensive protein-WDB002 and protein-protein contacts, with the latter being distinct from those seen in FKBP12 ternary complexes formed by FK506 and rapamycin. Outward-facing structural changes in a bound small molecule can thus reprogram FKBP12 to engage diverse, otherwise "undruggable" targets. The flat-targeting modality demonstrated here has the potential to expand the druggable target range of small-molecule therapeutics. As CEP250 was recently found to be an interaction partner with the Nsp13 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease, it is possible that WDB002 or an analog may exert useful antiviral activity through its ability to form high-affinity ternary complexes containing CEP250 and FKBP12.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/química , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Calcineurina/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência , Sirolimo/química , Sirolimo/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Gene ; 757: 144943, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652105

RESUMO

The growth of animal skeletal muscle is mainly determined by the synthesis processes of total proteins in skeletal muscle cells, which has a significant impact on the postnatal growth of young animals. An increasing number of studies are focusing on the functions of Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) during the process of cell protein synthesis and growth. However, it is still unclear the effect of whether and how TSC2 on goat myoblasts proliferation and differentiation. Here, we found that TSC2 gene has opposite expression patterns in proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. An expression vector containing goat TSC2 cDNA sequences linked with pcDNA3.1 plasmid was constructed. Myoblasts proliferation activity was significantly inhibited and cell cycle transition slowed down after the transfection of pcDNA3.1-TSC2 plasmid into goat primary myoblasts by EdU staining, CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Mechanically, we further confirmed that the overexpression TSC2 was able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K) and some cell cycle related genes. In addition, the expression of myogenic genes and myotube formation were attenuated. Collectively, all our results of the experiment demonstrate that TSC2 could regulate myoblasts cells proliferation and differentiation via the activation of the mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cabras , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008610, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603377

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, can activate PKR/eIF2α signaling cascade to shutoff host and facilitate viral mRNA translation during infection, however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that NDV infection up-regulated host cap-dependent translation machinery by activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p38 MAPK/Mnk1 pathways. In addition, NDV infection induced p38 MAPK/Mnk1 signaling participated 4E-BP1 hyperphosphorylation for efficient viral protein synthesis when mTOR signaling is inhibited. Furthermore, NDV NP protein was found to be important for selective cap-dependent translation of viral mRNAs through binding to eIF4E during NDV infection. Taken together, NDV infection activated multiple signaling pathways for selective viral protein synthesis in infected cells, via interaction between viral NP protein and host translation machinery. Our results may help to design novel targets for therapeutic intervention against NDV infection and to understand the NDV anti-oncolytic mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Nucleoproteínas , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/metabolismo , Nucleoproteínas/biossíntese , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Nucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16500-16508, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601199

RESUMO

Despite the implementation of multiple HER2-targeted therapies, patients with advanced HER2+ breast cancer ultimately develop drug resistance. Stromal fibroblasts represent an abundant cell type in the tumor microenvironment and have been linked to poor outcomes and drug resistance. Here, we show that fibroblasts counteract the cytotoxic effects of HER2 kinase-targeted therapy in a subset of HER2+ breast cancer cell lines and allow cancer cells to proliferate in the presence of the HER2 kinase inhibitor lapatinib. Fibroblasts from primary breast tumors, normal breast tissue, and lung tissue have similar protective effects on tumor cells via paracrine factors. This fibroblast-mediated reduction in drug sensitivity involves increased expression of antiapoptotic proteins and sustained activation of the PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway, despite inhibition of the HER2 and the RAS-ERK pathways in tumor cells. HER2 therapy sensitivity is restored in the fibroblast cocultures by combination treatment with inhibitors of MTOR or the antiapoptotic proteins BCL-XL and MCL-1. Expression of activated AKT in tumor cells recapitulates the effects of fibroblasts resulting in sustained MTOR signaling and poor lapatinib response. Lapatinib sensitivity was not altered by fibroblasts in tumor cells that exhibited sustained MTOR signaling due to a strong gain-of-function PI3KCA mutation. These findings indicate that in addition to tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms that cause constitutive PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway activation, secreted factors from fibroblasts can maintain this pathway in the context of HER2 inhibition. Our integrated proteomic-phenotypic approach presents a strategy for the discovery of protective mechanisms in fibroblast-rich tumors and the design of rational combination therapies to restore drug sensitivity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Humanos , Lapatinib/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1748-1760, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691695

RESUMO

How severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections engage cellular host pathways and innate immunity in infected cells remains largely elusive. We performed an integrative proteo-transcriptomics analysis in SARS-CoV-2 infected Huh7 cells to map the cellular response to the invading virus over time. We identified four pathways, ErbB, HIF-1, mTOR and TNF signaling, among others that were markedly modulated during the course of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Western blot validation of the downstream effector molecules of these pathways revealed a dose-dependent activation of Akt, mTOR, S6K1 and 4E-BP1 at 24 hours post infection (hpi). However, we found a significant inhibition of HIF-1α through 24hpi and 48hpi of the infection, suggesting a crosstalk between the SARS-CoV-2 and the Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 signaling pathways. Inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway using Akt inhibitor MK-2206 showed a significant reduction in virus production. Further investigations are required to better understand the molecular sequelae in order to guide potential therapy in the management of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Science ; 368(6495): 1127-1131, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499442

RESUMO

In microorganisms, evolutionarily conserved mechanisms facilitate adaptation to harsh conditions through stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM). Analogous processes may underpin progression and therapeutic failure in human cancer. We describe SIM in multiple in vitro and in vivo models of human cancers under nongenotoxic drug selection, paradoxically enhancing adaptation at a competing intrinsic fitness cost. A genome-wide approach identified the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) as a stress-sensing rheostat mediating SIM across multiple cancer types and conditions. These observations are consistent with a two-phase model for drug resistance, in which an initially rapid expansion of genetic diversity is counterbalanced by an intrinsic fitness penalty, subsequently normalizing to complete adaptation under the new conditions. This model suggests synthetic lethal strategies to minimize resistance to anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Mutagênese , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reparo do DNA/genética , Aptidão Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
12.
Pol J Microbiol ; 69(2): 223-229, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548987

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Mycolic acid (MA) is the main lipid component of the cell membrane of MTB. It is non-enzymatically reduced by NAD(P)H and further produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative stress in human cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a synthetic precursor of glutathione (GSH) and exhibits anti-ROS activity. However, the underlying mechanisms of its protective properties remain uncertain. Herein, after pre-incubation of RAW264.7 cells with NAC, the factors associated with apoptosis and autophagy were measured. Mechanistically, NAC could reduce MA-induced expression of pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagy proteins. At the mRNA level, NAC can inhibit AMPK and activate mTOR expression. The results indicate that NAC might regulate autophagy in RAW264.7 cells through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. To further prove the effect of NAC on MA, ICR mice were used to evaluate the lung injury. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed on the lung. The results show that NAC could reduce cell injury induced by MA. In conclusion, our research showed that NAC attenuates apoptosis and autophagy in response to incubation with mycolic acid.Bovine tuberculosis is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Mycolic acid (MA) is the main lipid component of the cell membrane of MTB. It is non-enzymatically reduced by NAD(P)H and further produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative stress in human cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a synthetic precursor of glutathione (GSH) and exhibits anti-ROS activity. However, the underlying mechanisms of its protective properties remain uncertain. Herein, after pre-incubation of RAW264.7 cells with NAC, the factors associated with apoptosis and autophagy were measured. Mechanistically, NAC could reduce MA-induced expression of pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagy proteins. At the mRNA level, NAC can inhibit AMPK and activate mTOR expression. The results indicate that NAC might regulate autophagy in RAW264.7 cells through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. To further prove the effect of NAC on MA, ICR mice were used to evaluate the lung injury. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed on the lung. The results show that NAC could reduce cell injury induced by MA. In conclusion, our research showed that NAC attenuates apoptosis and autophagy in response to incubation with mycolic acid.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/microbiologia , Camundongos , Ácidos Micólicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2246, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382059

RESUMO

Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is the main complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here we report studies of a patient with chronic GvHD (cGvHD) carrying persistent CD4+ T cell clonal expansion harboring somatic mTOR, NFKB2, and TLR2 mutations. In the screening cohort (n = 134), we detect the mTOR P2229R kinase domain mutation in two additional cGvHD patients, but not in healthy or HSCT patients without cGvHD. Functional analyses of the mTOR mutation indicate a gain-of-function alteration and activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling pathways, leading to increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Single-cell RNA sequencing and real-time impedance measurements support increased cytotoxicity of mutated CD4+ T cells. High throughput drug-sensitivity testing suggests that mutations induce resistance to mTOR inhibitors, but increase sensitivity for HSP90 inhibitors. Our findings imply that somatic mutations may contribute to aberrant T cell proliferations and persistent immune activation in cGvHD, thereby paving the way for targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/genética , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Imunoprecipitação , Mutação/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia
14.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 43-53.e4, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464093

RESUMO

The physiological role of immune cells in the regulation of postprandial glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated. We have found that adipose tissue macrophages produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) upon feeding, which suppresses hepatic glucose production in cooperation with insulin. Both elevated insulin and gut-microbiome-derived lipopolysaccharide in response to feeding are required for IL-10 production via the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Indeed, myeloid-specific knockout of the insulin receptor or bone marrow transplantation of mutant TLR4 marrow cells results in increased expression of gluconeogenic genes and impaired glucose tolerance. Furthermore, myeloid-specific Akt1 and Akt2 knockout results in similar phenotypes that are rescued by additional knockout of TSC2, an inhibitor of mTOR. In obesity, IL-10 production is impaired due to insulin resistance in macrophages, whereas adenovirus-mediated expression of IL-10 ameliorates postprandial hyperglycemia. Thus, the orchestrated response of the endogenous hormone and gut environment to feeding is a key regulator of postprandial glycemia.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Gluconeogênese/genética , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Knockout , Período Pós-Prandial , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/fisiologia
15.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 909-918, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472114

RESUMO

PD-1 blockade has transformed the management of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but the drivers and resistors of the PD-1 response remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we analyzed 592 tumors from patients with advanced ccRCC enrolled in prospective clinical trials of treatment with PD-1 blockade by whole-exome and RNA sequencing, integrated with immunofluorescence analysis, to uncover the immunogenomic determinants of the therapeutic response. Although conventional genomic markers (such as tumor mutation burden and neoantigen load) and the degree of CD8+ T cell infiltration were not associated with clinical response, we discovered numerous chromosomal alterations associated with response or resistance to PD-1 blockade. These advanced ccRCC tumors were highly CD8+ T cell infiltrated, with only 27% having a non-infiltrated phenotype. Our analysis revealed that infiltrated tumors are depleted of favorable PBRM1 mutations and enriched for unfavorable chromosomal losses of 9p21.3, as compared with non-infiltrated tumors, demonstrating how the potential interplay of immunophenotypes with somatic alterations impacts therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Deleção de Genes , Genômica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Prognóstico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1307-1315, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been increasingly exploited in human malignancies. The regulation of microRNA-455-5p (miR-455-5p) has been shown in several cancers, except for cervical carcinoma. Therefore, the role of miR-455-5p was exploited in cervical carcinoma. METHODS: The qRT-PCR experiment was used to assess miR-455-5p and S1PR1 expression levels. We explored the function of miR-455-5p through MTT and Transwell assays. The mTOR pathway and cell apoptosis were detected by Western blot assays. The relationship between miR-455-5p and S1PR1 was testified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: MiR-455-5p expression was decreased in cervical carcinoma, which was related to poor clinical outcome in cervical carcinoma patients. MiR-455-5p inhibited cell viability and metastasis in cervical carcinoma. Further, S1PR1 is a direct target of miR-455-5p. S1PR1 recovered the inhibition of cell viability and metastasis induced by miR-455-5p in cervical carcinoma. In addition, miR-455-5p induced cell apoptosis and inactivated the mTOR pathway in cervical carcinoma. CONCLUSION: MiR-455-5p exerts inhibitory effect in cervical carcinoma through targeting S1PR1 and blocking the mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Transfecção , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1987, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332823

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, is among the most common diseases affecting aging men, but the underlying molecular features remain poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited. Here we employ a comprehensive molecular investigation of BPH, including genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling. We find no evidence of neoplastic features in BPH: no evidence of driver genomic alterations, including low coding mutation rates, mutational signatures consistent with aging tissues, minimal copy number alterations, and no genomic rearrangements. At the epigenetic level, global hypermethylation is the dominant process. Integrating transcriptional and methylation signatures identifies two BPH subgroups with distinct clinical features and signaling pathways, validated in two independent cohorts. Finally, mTOR inhibitors emerge as a potential subtype-specific therapeutic option, and men exposed to mTOR inhibitors show a significant decrease in prostate size. We conclude that BPH consists of distinct molecular subgroups, with potential for subtype-specific precision therapy.


Assuntos
Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores/análise , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Agentes Urológicos/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
J Med Life ; 13(1): 50-55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341701

RESUMO

The mammalian target of rapamycin is not only a central regulator of lipid metabolism that controls the processes of adipogenesis and lipolysis but also a regulator of the immunometabolism of immune cells that infiltrate adipose tissue. In turn, the level of progression of diabetes is significantly influenced by the Treg subpopulation, the complexity and heterogeneity of which is confirmed by the detection of numerous tissue-specific Tregs, including the so-called VAT Tregs (visceral adipose tissue CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the mRNA expression levels of mTOR, Foxp3, IL1ß, and IL17A genes in rat parapancreatic adipose tissue with experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus, with or without metformin administration. The experiments were performed on male Wistar rats with induced diabetes as a result of streptozotocin administration. Molecular genetic studies were performed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The development of diabetes caused transcriptional activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin protein kinase gene, as well as increased mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1ß and IL17A, but did not affect Foxp3 mRNA expression. The intervention with metformin in diabetic rats inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin mRNA expression and caused an increase in the transcriptional activity of the Foxp3 gene in parapancreatic adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Metformina/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 329: 38-46, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320774

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent organic pollutant prevalent in the environment and implicated in damage to the liver leading to a fatty liver phenotype called hepatocellular steatosis. Our goal is to provide a basis for PFOA-induced hepatocellular steatosis in relation to epigenetic alterations and mRNA splicing. Young adult female mice exposed to different concentrations of PFOA showed an increase in liver weight with decreased global DNA methylation (5-mC). At higher concentrations, the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3A (Dnmt3a) was significantly reduced and the expression of tet methycytosine dioxygenase 1 (Tet1) was significantly increased. There was no significant change in the other Dnmts and Tets. PFOA exposure significantly increased the expression of cell cycle regulators and anti-apoptotic genes. The expression of multiple genes involved in mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway were altered significantly with reduction in Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog, primary inhibitor of mTOR pathway) expression. Multiple splicing factors whose protein but not mRNA levels affected by PFOA exposure were identified. The changes in protein abundance of the splicing factors was also reflected in altered splicing pattern of their target genes, which provided new insights on the previously unexplored mechanisms of PFOA-mediated hepatotoxicity and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Camundongos , Isoformas de Proteínas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1168, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127537

RESUMO

Telomerase deficiency leads to age-related diseases and shorter lifespans. Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) delays aging and age-related pathologies. Here, we show that telomerase deficient mice with short telomeres (G2-Terc-/-) have an hyper-activated mTOR pathway with increased levels of phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein in liver, skeletal muscle and heart, a target of mTORC1. Transcriptional profiling confirms mTOR activation in G2-Terc-/- livers. Treatment of G2-Terc-/- mice with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, decreases survival, in contrast to lifespan extension in wild-type controls. Deletion of mTORC1 downstream S6 kinase 1 in G3-Terc-/- mice also decreases longevity, in contrast to lifespan extension in single S6K1-/- female mice. These findings demonstrate that mTOR is important for survival in the context of short telomeres, and that its inhibition is deleterious in this setting. These results are of clinical interest in the case of human syndromes characterized by critically short telomeres.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , RNA/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/genética , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/metabolismo
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