Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.837
Filtrar
1.
Toxicon ; 191: 54-68, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417946

RESUMO

The immune system can amplify or decrease the strength of its response when it is stimulated by chemical or biological substances that act as immunostimulators, immunosuppressants, or immunoadjuvants. Immunomodulation is a progressive approach to treat a diversity of pathologies with promising results, including autoimmune disorders and cancer. Animal venoms are a mixture of chemical compounds that include proteins, peptides, amines, salts, polypeptides, enzymes, among others, which produce the toxic effect. Since the discovery of captopril in the early 1980s, other components from snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine animal venoms have been demonstrated to be useful for treating several human diseases. The valuable progress in fields such as venomics, molecular biology, biotechnology, immunology, and others has been crucial to understanding the interaction of toxins with the immune system and its application on immune pathologies. More in-depth knowledge of venoms' components and multi-disciplinary studies could facilitate their transformation into effective novel immunotherapies. This review addresses advances and research of molecules from venoms that have immunomodulatory properties.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Peçonhas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeos , Proteínas , Escorpiões , Serpentes , Aranhas
2.
Oecologia ; 195(2): 479-488, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386462

RESUMO

A home range is the area animals use to carry out routine activities such as mating, foraging, and caring for young. Thus, the area of a home range is an important indicator of an animal's behavioural and energetic requirements. While several studies have identified the factors that influence home range area (HRA), none of them has investigated global patterns of HRA among and within snake species. Here, we used a phylogenetic mixed model to determine which factors influence HRA in 51 snake species. We analysed 200 HRA estimates to test the influence of body mass, sex, age, diet, precipitation, latitude, winter and summer temperature, while controlling for the duration of the study and sample size. We found that males had larger HRA than females, that adults had larger HRA than juveniles, and that snake species with fish-based diets had smaller HRA than snake species with terrestrial vertebrate-based and invertebrate-based diets. We also found that HRA tended to increase as mean winter temperature decreases and tended to decrease with precipitation. After accounting for these factors, the phylogenetic heritability of HRA in snakes was low (0.21 ± 0.14). Determining the factors that dictate macroecological patterns of space use has important management implications in an era of rapid climate change.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Serpentes , Animais , Mudança Climática , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1941): 20202737, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352069

RESUMO

Body growth is typically thought to be indeterminate in ectothermic vertebrates. Indeed, until recently, this growth pattern was considered to be ubiquitous in ectotherms. Our recent observations of a complete growth plate cartilage (GPC) resorption, a reliable indicator of arrested skeletal growth, in many species of lizards clearly reject the ubiquity of indeterminate growth in reptiles and raise the question about the ancestral state of the growth pattern. Using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT), here we examined GPCs of long bones in three basally branching clades of squamate reptiles, namely in Gekkota, Scincoidea and Lacertoidea. A complete loss of GPC, indicating skeletal growth arrest, was the predominant finding. Using a dataset of 164 species representing all major clades of lizards and the tuataras, we traced the evolution of determinate growth on the phylogenetic tree of Lepidosauria. The reconstruction of character states suggests that determinate growth is ancestral for the squamate reptiles (Squamata) and remains common in the majority of lizard lineages, while extended (potentially indeterminate) adult growth evolved several times within squamates. Although traditionally associated with endotherms, determinate growth is coupled with ectothermy in this lineage. These findings combined with existing literature suggest that determinate growth predominates in both extant and extinct amniotes.


Assuntos
Répteis/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Lagartos , Filogenia , Répteis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Serpentes , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008911, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382715

RESUMO

The lack of public awareness surrounding the dangers of snakebite envenomation (SBE) is one of the most critical factors contributing to SBE-induced complications, and subsequently exacerbating the number of deaths and disabilities resulting from SBE. In this study, we deployed a multifaceted community education programme to educate students, healthcare professionals and members of the public in rural areas of Tamil Nadu, India about the dangers of SBE, appropriate first aid measures and the 'do's and don'ts' following a snakebite. An assessment of prior knowledge within these communities identified several misconceptions concerning snakes and SBE. Using a combination of direct engagement (estimated to reach over 200,000 people), information leaflets (200,000 distributed), posters, video documentaries, media and social media (>2.8 million engagements), over the course of one year (January to December 2019) we reached over 3 million people in rural Tamil Nadu (around 8% of population). Evaluation of community-based assemblies indicated that at least 90% of attendees were able to recall the key messages at the end of the events, and at least 85% were able to recall the key messages even after 12 months. Due to high demand, a one-day symposium was organised to provide clinical knowledge and training on SBE to 250 healthcare professionals in rural Tamil Nadu. Notably, an assessment of patient data (291 victims) collected from a snakebite referral hospital over the same 12-month period (2019) indicated that arrival time at hospital following a snakebite was significantly faster and the effective first aid measures were administered to patients who were aware of our activities compared to those that were not. Overall, our approach provides a framework on how to educate rural communities about the dangers of SBE and thereby, mitigate delayed SBE treatment leading to an overall reduction in SBE-induced mortality, morbidity, treatment costs and other socio-economic ramifications.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , População Rural , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Venenos de Serpentes/toxicidade , Serpentes/fisiologia , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243991, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of snakebite remains poorly characterised because of the paucity of population-based data. Further, factors determining the vulnerability of individuals within rural communities to snakebite have been rarely investigated. We undertook a population-based study to determine the prevalence, vulnerability and epidemiological characteristics of snakebite in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 8707 current residents in the district of Ampara, representing typical rural Sri Lanka. The sample was recruited using multi-stage cluster sampling with probability proportionate-to-size. Snakebite victims were identified using the WHO criteria. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Each household had on average 3.8 persons; mean age 28.3 years (SD = 18.2); 51.3% males. The one-year point prevalence of snakebites was 17.6 per 1000 residents (95% CI: 15-20.6) and 6.12 per 100 households (95% CI: 5.25-7.13), while the lifetime prevalence was 9.4 per 100 residents (95% CI: 8.8-10.0) and 30.5 per 100 households (95% CI: 28.6-32.2) with a case fatality ratio of 0.033. Venomous snakebites accounted for 28.1%; snakes were unidentified among 30.1%. Compared to the non-snakebite victims, being single, males, of Sinhala ethnicity, aged >19 years, low education and socioeconomic status, engaging in farming or unskilled outdoor occupations denoted vulnerability to snakebites. Outdoor bites (77.8%) were more common among males; during daytime; mostly while walking; within the rural terrains and home gardens; on lower limbs; mostly by hump-nosed and Russell viper. Indoor bites were more common among females; during night-time; while sleeping and barefooted; on lower limbs; mostly by hump-nosed vipers, kraits and non-venomous snakes. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of snakebite is considerably high among rural populations. The concept of vulnerability can be useful in healthcare decision-making and resource allocation.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/classificação , Serpentes/classificação , Sri Lanka
6.
Zootaxa ; 4877(1): zootaxa.4877.1.8, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311331

RESUMO

We describe a new snake of the genus Achalinus based on an adult female specimen from Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. Achalinus tranganensis sp. nov. is differentiated from its congeners genetically and by a unique combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 29; 2) suture between the internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) loreal distinctly wider than high, extending from the nasal to the eye; 4) dorsal scales in 25-23-23 rows, keeled; 5) two pairs of prefrontals; 6) supralabials six; 7) infralabials six; 8) temporals 2+3, the two anterior temporals in contact with eye; 9) ventrals 171; 10) subcaudals 73+, unpaired; 11) cloacal plate entire; 12) dorsum in preservative reddish to greyish brown above; 13) the lower part of head side and chin region somewhat paler than the dorsum; 14) venter greyish cream, with the anterior region of each ventral and subcaudal somewhat darker. Based on molecular comparisons using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), the new species differs from other members of the genus by at least 11.8%. This discovery increases the number of Achalinus species known from Vietnam to seven.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Serpentes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Feminino , Filogenia , Vietnã
7.
Zootaxa ; 4881(1): zootaxa.4881.1.1, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311126

RESUMO

A new species of the uropeltid (shieldtail snake) genus Rhinophis is described based on a type series of seven specimens from the Wayanad region of the Western Ghats of peninsular India. The holotype was collected before 1880 but had been misidentified as the phenotypically similar and parapatric (possibly partly sympatric) R. sanguineus. Rhinophis karinthandani sp. nov. is diagnosed by a combination of 15 dorsal scale rows at midbody, 4-8 pairs of subcaudal scales, colour pattern (uniformly dark above, whitish below with extensive dark mottling), and by its distinct mitochondrial DNA sequences (e.g. 7.6% uncorrected p-distance for nd4). Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data indicates that the new species is most closely related to R. sanguineus among currently recognised species, with this pair most closely related to the partly sympatric R. melanoleucus. The new species description brings the number of currently recognised species in the genus to 24, six of which are endemic to India and 18 endemic to Sri Lanka. A new key to the identification of Indian species of Rhinophis is provided.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Cor , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4878(2): zootaxa.4878.2.9, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311160

RESUMO

A new nematode species of the Diplotriaenidae is described from the Neotropical region. The species was found infecting the body cavity of the snake Xenodon merremii (Wagler in Spix) collected in the municipality of Barbalha, Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil. Hastospiculum nordestinum n. sp. differs from the congeners by combining the following characters: caudal end ornamented with lateral alae not surrounding the tail end and not connected, supported by eight pairs of pedunculated papillae (three precloacal, one paracloacal, and four postcloacal pairs) and three adcloacal sessile papillae, and left spicule length 719.6-902.4 µm. Besides the description of Hastospiculum nordestinum n. sp., a species list and a dichotomous key to Hastospiculum are provided.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Espirurídios , Animais , Brasil , Serpentes
9.
Zootaxa ; 4881(2): zootaxa.4881.2.4, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311315

RESUMO

The enigmatic snake genus Micrelaps has uncertain phylogenetic affinities. The type species of the genus, Micrelaps muelleri, inhabits the Southern Levant. Snakes inhabiting the Jordan River Valley just south of the Sea of Galilee have been described as a new species, Micrelaps tchernovi, based on their distinct colour patterns, despite M. muelleri being well known to be variable in colour-pattern traits. Here we use morphological and molecular data to examine the taxonomic status and phylogenetic affinity of Levantine Micrelaps. We show that all scalation, colour, and pattern-related traits are extremely variable across the range of these snakes. Some morphological features show clinal variation related to temperature and precipitation, and snakes with a 'tchernovi' morph are merely at one end of a continuum of morphological variation. Both 'classical muelleri' and 'tchernovi' morphs occur in syntopy in the Jordan Valley and elsewhere in Israel. Against this background of high morphological variation, neutral genetic markers show almost no differentiation between snakes, no genetic structure is evident across populations, and no differences are to be found between the two putative species. We conclude that Levantine Micrelaps belongs to a single, morphologically variable, and genetically uniform species, Micrelaps muelleri, of which M. tchernovi is a junior synonym.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Israel , Filogenia
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20191428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146262

RESUMO

We describe a new dipsadine snake species, of the genus Oxyrhopus Wagler, 1830, from the highlands of Bolivia. Oxyrhopus emberti sp. n. is diagnosed from its congeners based on external and hemipenial morphology. The new species inhabits the humid forests of Yungas and Tucumano-Bolivian Forest highlands, between 1.200 - 1.800 meters above sea level, and is likely to be a Bolivian endemic. We also discuss the relationships of the new species with Andean congeners and provide a key to the identification of the Oxyrhopus species from the Central Andes of Bolivia and Peru.


Assuntos
Florestas , Serpentes , Animais , Bolívia , Peru
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20181383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053069

RESUMO

We analyzed reproductive biology of Erythrolamprus jaegeri coralliventris, a snake from the Brazilian Pampa. Females presented larger snout-vent length than males, while no significant differences were found in tail length/snout-vent length ratios between sexes. Females attain sexual maturity in larger sizes than males. The reproductive cycle of females presented a seasonal pattern, with advanced vitellogenesis occurring from middle winter to middle spring and oviductal eggs occurring from middle winter to middle summer. The real fecundity ranged from two to eigth eggs and the expected fecundity varied from one to 12 secondary follicles. No significant correlation was found between females body size and the following parameters: real fecundity, length of the largest egg and potential fecundity. Therefore, E. j. coralliventris presents a seasonal reproductive pattern, which seems to follow the rainfall profile observed for the studied region. This may represent a strategy of energy gain associated to the reproductive cycle, considering that the food resources most explored by this species are anurans that present higher activity during rainy periods.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Serpentes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino
12.
Zootaxa ; 4860(1): zootaxa.4860.1.6, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056175

RESUMO

A new species of the xenodermatid snake genus Achalinus Peters, 1869 is described from Yunnan Province, Southwest China, based on a single male specimen. The new species is assigned to the genus Achalinus on the basis of absence of preocular and postocular, subcaudals arranged in single row, and results of phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA CO1 sequence data. Achalinus pingbianensis sp. nov. differs from its congeners by the combination of following morphological characters: absence of a loreal, internasals subequal to that between prefrontals and dorsal scales strongly keeled, 23 rows throughout. Currently, 13 species are in the genus Achalinus, further taxonomical and phylogenetic studies based on more extensive samples and more markers will help understand the cryptic diversity and clarify their interspecific relationships.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Masculino , Filogenia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4858(3): zootaxa.4858.3.11, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056227

RESUMO

The two following notes concern two species of small skinks, genus Ablepharus: Lindberg's Twin-striped Skink (Ablepharus lindbergi) and the Snake-eyed Skink (Ablepharus kitaibelii). Both species are small fossorial/semi-fossorial skinks with fused eyelids and a hidden lifestyle. A. kitaibelii is distributed disjunctly in several subspecies in Central and Southeastern Europe as well as in Western Turkey, A. lindbergi is distributed in Western Afghanistan (Uetz et al. 2020).


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Filogenia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4851(3): zootaxa.4851.3.5, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056720

RESUMO

Cylindrophis is a genus of secretive, semi-fossorial, non-venomous snakes comprising 14 species, characterized by a generally cylindrical body, uniform scales (with barely enlarged ventrals), and vestiges of pelvic and limb bones, the latter terminating in a claw lateral to the vent. We reconstructed a concatenated molecular phylogeny of seven taxa of Cylindrophis taxa based on one nuclear (R35) and two mitochondrial (16S, ND2) genes. Analyses recovered the Sri Lankan endemic C. maculatus as sister to all other sampled Cylindrophis. The mainland Southeast Asian species C. burmanus and C. jodiae form successive sister lineages to a monophyletic Wallacean island group containing C. boulengeri, C. isolepis, and C. yamdena. We also describe a new species of Cylindrophis, morphologically similar to C. burmanus, from Kachin State in northern Myanmar. Cylindrophis slowinskii sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, 216-220 ventrals, eight subcaudals, a dark venter with > 60 very narrow diffuse pale blotches, and a pale bar running along the posterior border of the prefrontals. In our phylogeny, the new species is strongly supported as the sister species of C. burmanus. It is the 15th currently recognised species in the genus, and the fourth from mainland Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Mianmar , Filogenia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002087

RESUMO

The fitness of a predator depends upon its ability to locate and capture prey; and thus, increasing dietary specialization should favor the evolution of species-specific foraging tactics tuned to taxon-specific habitats and cues. Within marine environments, prey detectability (e.g., via visual or chemical cues) is affected by environmental conditions (e.g., water clarity and tidal flow), such that specialist predators would be expected to synchronize their foraging activity with cyclic variation in such conditions. In the present study, we combined behavioral-ecology experiments on captive sea snakes and their prey (catfish) with acoustic tracking of free-ranging sea snakes, to explore the use of waterborne chemical cues in this predator-prey interaction. In coral-reef ecosystems of New Caledonia, the greater sea snake (Hydrophis major) feeds only upon striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus). Captive snakes became more active after exposure to waterborne chemical cues from catfish, whereas catfish did not avoid chemical cues from snakes. Movement patterns of tracked snakes showed that individuals were most active on a rapidly falling tide, which is the time when chemical cues from hidden catfish are likely to be most readily available to a foraging predator. By synchronizing foraging effort with the tidal cycle, greater sea snakes may be able to exploit the availability of chemical cues during a rapidly falling tide to maximize efficiency in locating and capturing prey.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Serpentes/fisiologia , Ondas de Maré , Animais , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Natação
16.
Zootaxa ; 4810(3): zootaxa.4810.3.6, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055734

RESUMO

A new species of the uropeltid snake genus Rhinophis Hemprich, 1820 is described from near Balangoda, southwestern Sri Lanka. Rhinophis mendisi sp. nov. superficially resembles R. homolepis (Hemprich, 1820) in colour pattern and in its prominent, conical tail shield, but differs from that species in having far fewer ventrals (159-177, n = 13 versus > 195 in the types of R. homolepis and its subjective junior synonym R. gerrardi). The five type specimens and one of the referred specimens of the new species were collected probably between 1894 and 1925, and the only known additional, referred specimens (n = 8) were collected from within ca. 30 km of the type locality in 1972. A lectotype is designated for Mitylia gerrardi Gray, 1858, a subjective junior synonym of R. homolepis.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Sri Lanka
17.
Zootaxa ; 4779(2): zootaxa.4779.2.2, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055786

RESUMO

A recent molecular phylogenetic revision of the snake-eyed skinks (genus Panaspis Cope, 1868) uncovered extensive cryptic diversity, including several new species from throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we describe one of these from Ethiopia as Panaspis annettesabinae sp. nov. This description is based on a previous molecular phylogeny and morphological, scalation, and coloration data collected from the type specimen. Phylogenetic analyses place the species alone in what we term the P. annettesabinae species group from Ethiopia. This group forms the sister lineage to a large southern African radiation and suggests a potential northern origin for much of the extant diversity of Panaspis. Many new taxa have recently been discovered in the genus and region, and there are several historical records of Panaspis from elsewhere in Ethiopia. Thus, we suggest that the range of this new species (known only from a single specimen at present) may be much larger, and that additional undescribed species may exist in northern sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Serpentes , Animais , Etiópia , Filogenia
18.
Zootaxa ; 4779(2): zootaxa.4779.2.3, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055787

RESUMO

I describe a new skink of the genus Lobulia from Mt. Simpson in southeasternmost New Guinea. This species differs from all other members of the genus in having only three pairs of enlarged chin shields and only the first pair in medial contact. It is most similar in scalation to L. elegans but is readily distinguished from that species by its color pattern, body size and shape, and numbers of lamellae. Morphological data on L. elegans have not been reported since the description of the holotype in 1897, so I provide a redescription of that species based on six specimens-including the holotype-of certain conspecificity and from within approximately 100 km of the type locality at Mt. Victoria. I also elevate Lygosoma elegantoides lobulus from synonymy with Lobulia elegans, from which it is readily distinguished on the basis of scalational and color-pattern features. The resurrected L. lobulus and the new species from Mt. Simpson represent the seventh and eighth recognized species of Lobulia, and the Mt. Simpson species is the fifth member of the Papuan herpetofauna that is apparently endemic to Mt. Simpson. Mt. Simpson appears to be a moderate center of local endemism within southeastern New Guinea.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Serpentes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Papua Nova Guiné
19.
Zootaxa ; 4778(2): zootaxa.4778.2.5, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055823

RESUMO

A new species of the shieldtail snake genus Rhinophis is described based on a type series of seven recently collected specimens from the Wayanad region of the Western Ghats of peninsular India. Rhinophis melanoleucus sp. nov. is diagnosed based on a combination of 15 dorsal scale rows at (or just behind) midbody, more than 215 ventral scales and a long rostral. The new species also has a distinctive (mostly black and white) colouration. A new key to the identification of Indian species of Rhinophis is provided.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Cor , Ecossistema , Índia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4810(1): zootaxa.4810.1.3, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055910

RESUMO

A new species of uropeltid snake is described from the Knuckles Conservation Forest, Matale District, Sri Lanka. Rhinophis gunasekarai sp. nov. is superficially most similar to Rhinophis phillipsi in having yellow lines on the dorsum, blotches on the lateral body, and a relatively small tail shield, but it differs from that species in having substantially fewer ventrals, and a unique number and disposition of the dorsal yellow lines and lateral blotches. The new description brings the uropeltid fauna of Sri Lanka to 17 currently recognized species, all Rhinophis.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Cor , Florestas , Sri Lanka
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA