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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 466, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668457

RESUMO

Clinical trials during public health emergencies of novel medical products such as therapeutics and vaccines in resource-limited settings are daunting due to the limited capacity for regulatory assessment. Regulating clinical trials during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone required expedited evaluation to identify medical products that could be promptly introduced to combat the epidemic in the absence of approved treatment or prevention. This article explored the decisions taken by the Pharmacy Board of Sierra Leone through its Expert Committee on Medicine Safety and Clinical Trials regarding clinical trials oversight during the Ebola epidemic and the lessons learned. This independent expert committee assessed and provided scientific opinions to the Pharmacy Board of Sierra Leone to inform approval of all clinical trials within 10-15 working days. We also requested for assisted review from the African Vaccine Regulatory Forum and support from the US Food and Drug Administration through a unilateral recognition and reliance memorandum of understanding. In addition, the Agency-ensured structures and systems were in place for reporting and reviewing adverse events and serious adverse events, management of biological samples, submission and review of progress reports, and good clinical practice inspections. Unfortunately, the Ebola epidemic revealed many weaknesses in the country's clinical trials regulatory structure and processes. Government and partners should further offer more resources to build the clinical trial structures and systems so that the Agency will be better poised to handle future public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Emergências , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010423, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lassa fever (LF) often presents clinically as undifferentiated febrile illness. Lassa Fever cases in Sierra Leone have been falling since the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic. Data from other LF endemic countries suggest that this is not a true reflection of local epidemiological decline, but rather a function of either health seeking behaviour or the health/referral system. In Sierra Leone, many other diseases present with a similar early clinical picture, including COVID-19 and Marburg Disease (which has recently emerged in neighbouring Guinea). This empirical study explores the implementation of health system processes associated with International Health Regulations (IHR) requirements for early detection and timely and effective responses to the spread of febrile disease, through the case study of LF in Sierra Leone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used a qualitative approach to analyse local policy and guidance documents, key informant interviews with policy and practice actors, and focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health care workers (HCWs) and community health workers (CHWs) in Kenema District to examine the ways in which undifferentiated fever surveillance and response policies and processes were implemented in the post-Ebola period. Multiple challenges were identified, including: issues with the LF case definition, approaches to differential diagnosis, specimen transport and the provision of results, and ownership of laboratory data. These issues lead to delays in diagnosis, and potentially worse outcomes for individual patients, as well as affecting the system's ability to respond to outbreak-prone disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of ways to improve the system requires balancing vertical disease surveillance programmes against other population health needs. Therefore, health system challenges to early identification of LF specifically have implications for the effectiveness of the wider Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system in Sierra Leone more generally. Sentinel surveillance or improved surveillance at maternity facilities would help improve viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) surveillance, as well as knowledge of LF epidemiology. Strengthening surveillance for vertical disease programmes, if correctly targeted, could have downstream benefits for COVID-19 surveillance and response as well as the wider health system-and therefore patient outcomes more generally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Febre Lassa , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Febre Lassa/diagnóstico , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010410, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594318

RESUMO

In Sierra Leone, nationally powered school-based surveys have documented significant progress in the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis. In order to assess the district-level prevalence and intensity of infection among key at-risk groups outside of school age children (SAC), we conducted a multi-stage, cluster-sample household survey in Bo and Kenema districts in May 2018. From both districts, we examined 1,282 pre-school age children (PSAC), 730 school age children (SAC), and 517 adults over 14 years (including 387 women of reproductive age, or WRA) for STH and Schistosoma mansoni infection using Kato Katz technique. In Bo, STH prevalence was 8.0% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 10.2%) in PSAC, 6.4% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 9.0%) in SAC, 14.1% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 17.4%) in all adults and 11.9% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 17.4%) in WRA. In Kenema, STH prevalence was 18.1% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 20.5%) in PSAC, 17.3% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 20.7%) in SAC, and 16.9% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 20.5%) in all adults and 16.9% (95% Upper Confidence Limit 22.6%) in WRA. Hookworm species were the most prevalent of STH in both districts overall. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was <10% in Bo and <20% in Kenema, and was similar across age groups. No moderate or heavy intensity STH infections or heavy intensity S. mansoni infections, as per World Health Organization (WHO) classification, were detected in either district. Sanitation variables, such as toilet access and quality, were independently associated with STH and S. mansoni infection. In Kenema, STH prevalence in SAC was within the WHO-defined range for annual treatment, whereas a previous nationally-powered survey estimated it to lie within the range of treatment once per two years. By utilizing community-based sampling, we were able to assess prevalence among WRA and make recommendations based on current guidance from WHO. To continue toward elimination of STH and S. mansoni as a public health problem, resources should be mobilized to increase access to and uptake of improved sanitation at community and household levels.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Schistosoma mansoni , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Fezes , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Solo
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 303: 114995, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Covid-19 has highlighted the need to understand the long-term impact of epidemics on health systems. There is extensive evidence that the Ebola epidemic of 2014-16 dramatically reduced coverage of key reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) indicators during the period of acute crisis in Sierra Leone. However, less is known about the longer lasting effects, and whether patients continue to be deterred from seeking care either through fear or cost some years after the end of the epidemic METHODS: We analysed nationally representative household surveys from before (2011) and after (2018) the Ebola epidemic to estimate the coverage of 11 indicators of access to RMNCAH, and affordability of care. We used a differences-in-differences analysis, exploiting the variation in epidemic intensity across chiefdoms, to identify the effect of epidemic intensity on access and affordability outcomes, with propensity score weighting to adjust for differences in underlying characteristics between chiefdoms. RESULTS: 13537 households were included across both datasets. Epidemic intensity was associated with a significant stalling in progress (-12.2 percentage points, 95% CI: 23.2 to -1.3, p = 0.029) in the proportion of births attended by a skilled provider. Epidemic intensity did not have a significant impact on any other indicator. CONCLUSION: While there is evidence that chiefdoms which experienced worse Ebola outbreaks had poorer coverage of attendance of skilled providers at birth than would have otherwise been expected, more broadly the intensity of the epidemic did not impact on most indicators. This suggests the measures to restore both staffing and trust were effective in supporting the health system to recover from Ebola.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Adolescente , Criança , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pontuação de Propensão , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627473

RESUMO

Implementing and monitoring infection prevention and control (IPC) measures at immigration points of entry (PoEs) is key to preventing infections, reducing excessive use of antimicrobials, and tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Sierra Leone has been implementing IPC measures at four PoEs (Queen Elizabeth II Quay port, Lungi International Airport, and the Jendema and Gbalamuya ground crossings) since the last Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015. We adapted the World Health Organization IPC Assessment Framework tool to assess these measures and identify any gaps in their components at each PoE through a cross-sectional study in May 2021. IPC measures were Inadequate (0-25%) at Queen Elizabeth II Quay port (21%; 11/53) and Jendema (25%; 13/53) and Basic (26-50%) at Lungi International Airport (40%; 21/53) and Gbalamuya (49%; 26/53). IPC components with the highest scores were: having a referral system (85%; 17/20), cleaning and sanitation (63%; 15/24), and having a screening station (59%; 19/32). The lowest scores (0% each) were reported for the availability of IPC guidelines and monitoring of IPC practices. This was the first study in Sierra Leone highlighting significant gaps in the implementation of IPC measures at PoEs. We call on the AMR multisectoral coordinating committee to enhance IPC measures at all PoEs.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 167, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease is on the rise globally. In sierra Leone, there has been no data on renal patients or admissions. This study intends to close this gap in knowledge and give preliminary data on the burden of renal disease in this country. METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of the case notes of patients admitted at Connaught Hospital, Freetown over a 2 year period. Data extraction was done using a well- structured proforma. RESULTS: A 2.7% renal admission burden was obtained; mean duration of hospital stay was 15.1 ± 14.7; mean age of patients was 47.2 ± 17.5 with a female preponderance. The common risk factors for chronic kidney disease were systemic hypertension (43%) and diabetes mellitus (24%). The common risk factors for acute kidney injury were sepsis (77%) and hypovolemia (15%). The in- hospital mortality rate was 47% and 73% were non-compliant with haemodialysis probably due to financial reasons. CONCLUSION: There is a significant burden of kidney disease in our environment, affecting mainly our young and middle-aged population. A rational approach is to embark on kidney disease prevention programs.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4150043, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602345

RESUMO

The role of human behaviour in the dynamics of infectious diseases cannot be underestimated. A clear understanding of how human behaviour influences the spread of infectious diseases is critical in establishing and designing control measures. To study the role that human behaviour plays in Ebola disease dynamics, in this paper, we design an Ebola virus disease model with disease transmission dynamics based on a new exponential nonlinear incidence function. This new incidence function that captures the reduction in disease transmission due to human behaviour innovatively considers the efficacy and the speed of behaviour change. The model's steady states are determined and suitable Lyapunov functions are built. The proofs of the global stability of equilibrium points are presented. To demonstrate the utility of the model, we fit the model to Ebola virus disease data from Liberia and Sierra Leone. The results which are comparable to existing findings from the outbreak of 2014 - 2016 show a better fit when the efficacy and the speed of behaviour change are higher. A rapid and efficacious behaviour change as a control measure to rapidly control an Ebola virus disease epidemic is advocated. Consequently, this model has implications for the management and control of future Ebola virus disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564669

RESUMO

Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures are critical to the reduction in healthcare-associated infections, especially during pandemics, such as that of COVID-19. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study in August 2021 at Connaught Hospital, Princess Christian Maternity Hospital and Ola During Children's Hospital located in Freetown, Sierra Leone. We used the World Health Organization's Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework Tool to assess the level of IPC compliance at these healthcare facilities. The overall IPC compliance score at Connaught Hospital was 323.5 of 800 points, 313.5 of 800 at Ola During Children's Hospital, 281 of 800 at Princess Christian Maternity Hospital, implying a 'Basic' IPC compliance grade. These facilities had an IPC program, IPC committees and dedicated IPC focal persons. However, there were several challenges, including access to safe and clean water and insufficient quantities of face masks, examination gloves and aprons. Furthermore, there was no dedicated budget or no healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance, and monitoring/audit of IPC practices were weak. These findings are of concern during the COVID-19 era, and there is an urgent need for both financial and technical support to address the gaps and challenges identified.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564689

RESUMO

In Sierra Leone, in 2020, a study by the Livestock and Veterinary Services Division (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry) on the surveillance system of animal diseases and antimicrobial use found poor reporting. Of the expected weekly districts reports, <1% were received and only three of the 15 districts had submitted reports occasionally between 2016 and 2019. Following this, staff-capacity-building on reporting was undertaken. In 2021, we reassessed the improvement in reporting and used the reports to describe livestock diseases and antimicrobials utilized in their treatment. Between March and October 2021, 88% of expected weekly reports from all 15 districts were received. There were minor deficiencies in completeness and consistency in the terminology used for reporting animal disease and antimicrobials. Available reports showed that 25% of the livestock had an infectious disease, and a quarter of the sick animals had received an antimicrobial drug. Most animals received antimicrobials belonging to World Organization for Animal Health's "veterinary critically important" category (77%) and World Health Organization's "critically" (17%) and "highly important" (60%) categories for human health. These indicate a significant improvement in the animal health surveillance system and highlight the need for enhanced antimicrobial stewardship to prevent misuse of antimicrobials that are significant in animal and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Gado , Animais , Antibacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Pesquisa Operacional , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564800

RESUMO

The transfer of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans is of concern in recent times. One potential source of such transfer is the untreated poultry excreta used as manure in farming. We aim to identify bacterial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli in poultry excreta in Sierra Leone. This was a cross-sectional study of fresh poultry excreta samples collected from four commercial poultry sites in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from June-September 2021. Bacterial isolates were tested against eight antibiotics using established standards. Of 100 samples, 93 showed Escherichia coli (93%): of those, eight isolates also had Salmonella (8%). E. coli was 100% resistant to all three 'Watch' drugs (erythromycin, cefoxitin and streptomycin) and tetracycline. E. coli was least resistant to ampicillin (12%), followed by chloramphenicol (35%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance was 95.6%. Multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged from 0.5-0.7 (optimal < 0.2), indicating high prior exposure to antibiotics in these poultries. Such high levels of resistance in E. coli isolated from poultry excreta could pose a serious threat to humans. We recommend (i) routine surveillance to monitor antibiotic resistance in poultry excreta, (ii) using poultry excreta as manure only after treatment and (iii) restricting the use of antibiotics as prophylactics and growth promoters in poultry feeds.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Fazendas , Esterco , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aves Domésticas , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Verduras
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1416-1424, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537043

RESUMO

Invasive Salmonella infection, which can cause typhoid/paratyphoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis, is a public health burden in Africa. Accurate diagnosis and etiological characterization are required to conduct prevalence and risk estimations for Salmonella infection; however, the utilization of optimal techniques and surveillance data are still insufficient. In this study, we performed a laboratory-based survey in Freetown, which is the biggest city in Sierra Leone with a high burden of typhoid fever, by using blood culture and molecular methods but not the Widal test, to estimate the prevalence and aetiology of invasive Salmonella infection among fever patients. We found a very low prevalence of typhoid fever in patients with fever during the investigation period, and this prevalence was clearly overestimated by the Widal test. Genome sequencing of the S. Typhi isolate from this work revealed that the strain carried multiple antibiotic resistance genes, and an epidemic clone that has existed in West Africa for years was also detected in Sierra Leone. By using metagenomic sequencing, one patient with invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis was identified as having bacterial co-infections. Our data highlight that Salmonella surveillance based on accurate laboratory diagnosis and genome sequencing needs to be strengthened to provide a better estimation of the real epidemics and enable potential risk assessment by etiological analysis in Africa. Even in a laboratory with only basic equipment, it is possible to conduct next-generation sequencing for pathogen discovery in bloodstream infections and to determine the etiological characteristics of pathogene without complex combinations of laboratory methods.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella , Febre Tifoide , Febre/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Patologia Molecular , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhi , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Good Infection prevention and control (IPC) is vital for tackling antimicrobial resistance and limiting health care-associated infections. We compared IPC performance before (2019) and during the COVID-19 (2021) era at the national IPC unit and all regional (4) and district hospitals (8) in Sierra Leone. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessments using standardized World Health Organizations IPC checklists. IPC performance scores were graded as inadequate = 0-25%, basic = 25.1-50%, intermediate = 50.1-75%, and advanced = 75.1-100%. RESULTS: Overall performance improved from 'basic' to 'intermediate' at the national IPC unit (41% in 2019 to 58% in 2021) and at regional hospitals (37% in 2019 to 54% in 2021) but remained 'basic' at district hospitals (37% in 2019 to 50% in 2021). Priority gaps at the national IPC unit included lack of: a dedicated IPC budget, monitoring the effectiveness of IPC trainings and health care-associated infection surveillance. Gaps at hospitals included no assessment of hospital staffing needs, inadequate infrastructure for IPC and lack of a well-defined monitoring plan with clear goals, targets and activities. CONCLUSION: Although there is encouraging progress in IPC performance, it is slower than desired in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is urgent need to mobilize political will, leadership and resources and make a quantum leap forward.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457659

RESUMO

There are no previous studies reporting the type and quantity of pesticides for farming from Sierra Leone and the impact of Ebola or COVID-19 on importation. This study reviewed imported farming pesticides by the Sierra Leone, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), between 2010-2021. It was a descriptive study using routinely collected importation data. We found the MAF imported pesticides for farming only during 2010, 2014 and 2021, in response to growing food insecurity and associated with Ebola and COVID-19 outbreaks. Results showed insecticide importation increased from 6230 L in 2010 to 51,150 L in 2021, and importation of antimicrobial pesticides (including fungicides) increased from 150 kg in 2010 to 23,560 kg in 2021. The hazard class risk classification of imported pesticides decreased over time. Increasing amounts of imported fungicides could increase the risk of future fungal resistance among humans. We found that in responding to escalating food insecurity, the government dramatically increased the amount of pesticide importation to improve crop production. Further support is necessary to decrease the risk of worsening food shortages and the possible threat of emerging antimicrobial resistance. We recommend continued monitoring and surveillance, with further studies on the most appropriate response to these multiple challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fungicidas Industriais , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Praguicidas , Antibacterianos , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 276, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascertaining the key determinants of maternal healthcare service utilization and their relative importance is critical to priority setting in policy development. Sierra Leone has one of the world's highest maternal death ratios in the context of a weak health system. The objectives of this study were to determine; the level of utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC), Skilled Delivery Attendants (SDA), Postnatal Care (PNC) services, and factors that influence the utilization of these services. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study involving 554 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who had at least one delivery in the last 3 years and lived in the Kailahun District, Sierra Leone from November 2019 to October 2020. Data were analysed using analysed using bivariate, multivariate and multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: The median age of respondents was 25 years (Q1 = 17 years, Q3 = 30 years). Eighty-nine percent (89%) had 4 or more ANC visits. Only 35.9% of women were delivered by SDA. Women residing in urban areas had over six-fold increased odds of utilizing SDA as compared to women residing in rural areas (AOR = 6.20, 95% CI = 3.61-10.63). Women whose husbands had a primary level of education had 2.38 times increased odds of utilizing SDA than women whose husbands had no education (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.30-4.35). Women that walked longer distances (30-60 min) to seek healthcare had 2.98 times increased odds of utilizing SBA than those that walked shorter distances (< 30 min) (AOR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.67-5.33). Women who had a secondary/vocational level of education had 2.35 times increased odds of utilizing the standard PNC category as compared to those with no education (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.19-4.63). CONCLUSION: The majority of women had 4 or more ANC visits yet the use of skilled birth attendants was low. Urban residence and education were significantly associated with the use of the standard PNC category. To improve the utilization of maternal health care services, national healthcare policies should target the advancement of education, train skilled Maternal Healthcare (MHC) attendants, rural infrastructure, and the empowerment of women.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vaccine ; 40(19): 2741-2748, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361502

RESUMO

Sierra Leone is highly endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and thus recommends three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB3) from 6 weeks of age but does not recommend a birth dose (HepB-BD) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). We evaluated impact of the existing HepB3 schedule and risk for MTCT of HBV. We conducted a community-based serosurvey among 4-30-month-olds, their mothers, and 5-9-year-olds in three districts in Sierra Leone. Participants had an HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) rapid test; all HBsAg-positive and one HBsAg-negative mother per cluster were tested for HBV markers. We collected children's HepB3 vaccination history. Among 1889 children aged 4-30 months, HepB3 coverage was 85% and 20 (1·3% [95% CI 0·8-2·0]) were HBsAg-positive, of whom 70% had received HepB3. Among 2025 children aged 5-9 years, HepB3 coverage was 77% and 32 (1·6% [1·1-2·3]) were HBsAg-positive, of whom 56% had received HepB3. Of 1776 mothers, 169 (9·8% [8·1-11·7]) were HBsAg-positive. HBsAg prevalence was 5·9% among children of HBsAg-positive mothers compared to 0·7% among children of HBsAg-negative mothers (adjusted OR = 10·6 [2·8-40·8]). HBsAg positivity in children was associated with maternal HBsAg (p = 0·026), HBV e antigen (p < 0·001), and HBV DNA levels ≥ 200 000 IU/mL (p < 0·001). HBsAg prevalence was lower among children than mothers, for whom HepB was not available, suggesting routine infant HepB vaccination has lowered HBV burden. Since HBsAg positivity in children was strongly associated with maternal HBV infection and most of the HBsAg-positive children in the survey received HepB3, HepB-BD may prevent MTCT and chronic HBV infection.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Mães , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Vacinação
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409471

RESUMO

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) result in millions of avoidable deaths or prolonged lengths of stay in hospitals and cause huge economic loss to health systems and communities. Primarily, HAIs spread through the hands of healthcare workers, so improving hand hygiene can reduce their spread. We evaluated hand hygiene practices and promotion across 13 public health hospitals (six secondary and seven tertiary hospitals) in the Western Area of Sierra Leone in a cross-sectional study using the WHO hand hygiene self-Assessment framework in May 2021. The mean score for all hospitals was 273 ± 46, indicating an intermediate level of hand hygiene. Nine hospitals achieved an intermediate level and four a basic level. More secondary hospitals 5 (83%) were at the intermediate level, compared to tertiary hospitals 4 (57%). Tertiary hospitals were poorly rated in the reminders in workplace and institutional safety climate domains but excelled in training and education. Lack of budgets to support hand hygiene implementation is a priority gap underlying this poor performance. These gaps hinder hand hygiene practice and promotion, contributing to the continued spread of HAIs. Enhancing the distribution of hand hygiene resources and encouraging an embedded culture of hand hygiene practice in hospitals will reduce HAIs.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Higiene das Mãos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Desinfecção das Mãos , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409687

RESUMO

Inappropriate use of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to increase the burden of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we report on the prevalence of antibiotic use and its associated factors among suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to 35 health facilities in Sierra Leone from March 2020-March 2021. This was a cross-sectional study using routinely collected patient data. Of 700 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 47% received antibiotics. The majority (73%) of the antibiotics belonged to the 'WATCH' group of antibiotics, which are highly toxic and prone to resistance. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were azithromycin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Antibiotic use was significantly higher in patients aged 25-34 years than in those with severe disease. Of 755 suspected COVID-19 patients, 61% received antibiotics, of which the majority (58%) belonged to the 'WATCH' category. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone, metronidazole, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxycillin. The prevalence of antibiotic use among suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone was high and not in line with national and WHO case management guidelines. Training of health care providers, strengthening of antimicrobial stewardship programs, and microbiological laboratory capacity are urgently needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ceftriaxona , Estudos Transversais , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Metronidazol , Pandemias , Políticas , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409731

RESUMO

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common postoperative complications. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) can prevent the occurrence of SSIs if administered appropriately. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to determine the incidence of SSIs and assess whether SAP were administered according to WHO guidelines for Caesarean section (CS) and herniorrhaphy patients in Bo regional government hospital from November 2019 to October 2020. The analysis included 681 patients (599 CSs and 82 herniorrhaphies). Overall, the SSI rate was 6.7% among all patients, and 7.5% and 1.2% among CS patients and herniorrhaphy patients, respectively. SAP was administered preoperatively in 85% of CS and 70% of herniorrhaphy patients. Postoperative antibiotics were prescribed to 85% of CS and 100% of herniorrhaphy patients. Ampicillin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were the most commonly used antibiotics. The relatively low rate of SSIs observed in this study is probably due to improved infection prevention and control (IPC) measures following the Ebola outbreak and the current COVID-19 pandemic. A good compliance rate with WHO guidelines for preoperative SAP was observed. However, there was a high use of postoperative antibiotics, which is not in line with WHO guidelines. Recommendations were made to ensure the appropriate administration of SAP and reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Herniorrafia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457729

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, there is limited information about the use of microbiology laboratory services in patients with suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs). This cross-sectional study assessed the requests for urine culture in patients with suspected UTI in two tertiary (maternal and paediatric) hospitals-Freetown and Sierra Leone, during May 2017-May 2021-and determined antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns among bacterial isolates. One laboratory served the two hospitals, with its electronic database used to extract information. Overall, there were 980 patients, of whom 168 (17%) had cultures requested and performed. Of these, 75 (45%) were culture positive. During 2017-2019, there were 930 patients, of whom 156 (17%) had cultures performed. During 2020-2021, when services were disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, there were 50 patients, of whom 12 (24%) had cultures performed. The four commonest isolates were Escherichia coli (36), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10), Staphylococcus aureus (9), and Pseudomonas spp. (6). There were high levels of AMR, especially for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (47%), nalidixic acid (44%), nitrofurantoin (32%) and cefotaxime (36%). Overall, 41 (55%) bacterial isolates showed multidrug resistance, especially E. coli (58%), Pseudomonas spp. (50%), and S. aureus (44%). These findings support the need for better utilization of clinical microbiology services to guide antibiotic stewardship and monitoring of trends in resistance patterns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Urinárias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Escherichia coli , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pandemias , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
20.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04006, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265325

RESUMO

Background: The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic disrupted childhood immunization in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea. After the epidemic, the Government of Sierra Leone prioritized community engagement to increase vaccination confidence and uptake. To support these efforts, we examined potential drivers of vaccination confidence and uptake in Sierra Leone. Methods: We conducted a population-based household survey with primary caregivers of children in a birth cohort of 12 to 23 months in four districts with low vaccination coverage in Sierra Leone in 2019. Modified Poisson regression modeling with robust variance estimation was used to examine if perceived community engagement in planning the immunization program in the community was associated with vaccination confidence and having a fully vaccinated child. Results: The sample comprised 621 age-eligible children and their caregivers (91% response rate). Half of the caregivers (52%) reported that it usually takes too long to get to the vaccination site, and 36% perceived that health workers expect money for vaccination services that are supposed to be given at no charge. When mothers were the decision-makers of the children's vaccination, 80% of the children were fully vaccinated versus 69% when fathers were the decision-makers and 56% when other relatives were the decision-makers. Caregivers with high confidence in vaccination were more likely to have fully vaccinated children compared to caregivers with low confidence (78% versus 53%). For example, caregivers who thought vaccines are 'very much' safe were more likely to have fully vaccinated children than those who thought vaccines are 'somewhat' safe (76% versus 48%). Overall, 53% of caregivers perceived high level of community engagement, 41% perceived medium level of engagement, and 6% perceived low level of engagement. Perceiving high community engagement was associated with expressing high vaccination confidence (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.67-4.04) and having a fully vaccinated child (aPR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.18-2.38). Conclusions: In these four low coverage districts in Sierra Leone, the perceived level of community engagement was strongly associated with vaccination confidence among caregivers and vaccination uptake among children. We have provided exploratory cross-sectional evidence to inform future longitudinal assessments to further investigate the potential causal effect of community engagement on vaccination confidence and uptake.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Vacinação , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
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