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2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 142, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently rare in children and they seem to have a milder disease course and better prognosis than adults. However, SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has indirectly caused problems in pediatric medical assistance. In view of this we wanted to draw a picture of what happened during health emergency and analyze future prospects for restarting. METHODS: We involved the Italian pediatric scientific societies institutionally collected in the Italian Federation of Associations and Scientific Societies of the Pediatric Area (FIARPED); We sent a questionnaire to all scientific societies about the pediatric care activity during the COVID-19 emergency and future perspectives for the phase of post-containment. RESULTS: The analysis of the questionnaires showed significant decrease of:admission, outpatient visits and specialist consultancy activities during the COVID-19 emergency, primarily linked to the fear of infection. Instead it was increased the serious degree of diseases admitted. Most of scientific societies maintained the relationship with chronic patients through some form of telemedicine, reporting a strong positive opinion about this modality. Finally showed the need to give life a new approach for hospitalizations and outpatient visits through a greater use of telemedicine, educational programs on families and a more decisive role of family pediatricians. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted many aspects that can be improved in pediatric care. We think that It will be necessary a new shared strategy to improve the management and continuity of care for pediatric patients, primarily developing a network of collaboration between families, family pediatrician and hospitals and by enhancing the use of new methods of telecommunications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pediatria/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas
3.
Ann Emerg Med ; 76(4): 442-453, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012378

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to create a predictive, interpretable model of early hospital respiratory failure among emergency department (ED) patients admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, cohort study from a 9-ED health system of admitted adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) and an oxygen requirement less than or equal to 6 L/min. We sought to predict respiratory failure within 24 hours of admission as defined by oxygen requirement of greater than 10 L/min by low-flow device, high-flow device, noninvasive or invasive ventilation, or death. Predictive models were compared with the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment, and the CURB-65 pneumonia severity score. RESULTS: During the study period, from March 1 to April 27, 2020, 1,792 patients were admitted with COVID-19, 620 (35%) of whom had respiratory failure in the ED. Of the remaining 1,172 admitted patients, 144 (12.3%) met the composite endpoint within the first 24 hours of hospitalization. On the independent test cohort, both a novel bedside scoring system, the quick COVID-19 Severity Index (area under receiver operating characteristic curve mean 0.81 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.73 to 0.89]), and a machine-learning model, the COVID-19 Severity Index (mean 0.76 [95% CI 0.65 to 0.86]), outperformed the Elixhauser mortality index (mean 0.61 [95% CI 0.51 to 0.70]), CURB-65 (0.50 [95% CI 0.40 to 0.60]), and quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (0.59 [95% CI 0.50 to 0.68]). A low quick COVID-19 Severity Index score was associated with a less than 5% risk of respiratory decompensation in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of admitted COVID-19 patients progress to respiratory failure within 24 hours of admission. These events are accurately predicted with bedside respiratory examination findings within a simple scoring system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 320-331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Alocação de Recursos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/organização & administração
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2099-2109, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study whether combining vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis can improve early prognostication. METHODS: This study analyzed 1258 adults with coronavirus disease 2019 who were seen at three hospitals in New York in March and April 2020. Electrocardiograms at presentation to the emergency department were systematically read by electrophysiologists. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation or death 48 hours from diagnosis. The prognostic value of ECG abnormalities was assessed in a model adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and vital signs. RESULTS: At 48 hours, 73 of 1258 patients (5.8%) had died and 174 of 1258 (13.8%) were alive but receiving mechanical ventilation with 277 of 1258 (22.0%) patients dying by 30 days. Early development of respiratory failure was common, with 53% of all intubations occurring within 48 hours of presentation. In a multivariable logistic regression, atrial fibrillation/flutter (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.2), right ventricular strain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.1), and ST segment abnormalities (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.8) were associated with death or mechanical ventilation at 48 hours. In 108 patients without these ECG abnormalities and with normal respiratory vitals (rate <20 breaths/min and saturation >95%), only 5 (4.6%) died or required mechanical ventilation by 48 hours versus 68 of 216 patients (31.5%) having both ECG and respiratory vital sign abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The combination of abnormal respiratory vital signs and ECG findings of atrial fibrillation/flutter, right ventricular strain, or ST segment abnormalities accurately prognosticates early deterioration in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and may assist with patient triage.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prognóstico
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1270-1276, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the treatment of wheezing and exacerbation of asthma in a pediatric emergency unit (ED), comparing it to that recommended by the guidelines for this purpose. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study through medical records survey of children and adolescents (0-15 years of age) who received medication for wheezing or asthma exacerbation from January to April 2015 in the ED. The selected treatment was compared to that recommended by the guidelines, being analyzed the variables related to the medication (number and dose of short-acting ß2 agonist, associated or not with anticholinergic, oral or parenteral corticosteroid) and the length of stay in ED (≤1 h, ≥8 h and hospital admission). RESULTS: One-thousand eleven patients were selected with 56.7% between 3 and 15 years and 56% male. Although the selected drugs were in accordance with what was recommended, errors were observed in relation to dose, drug of choice, and method and time of use with the most frequent finding being incorrect dose (short-acting ß2 agonist: 66% and ipratropium bromide: 95.2%). CONCLUSION: The level of use of the measures recommended by the guidelines was low but compatible with other studies, leading to an increased risk of treatment failure and higher costs. Despite wide dissemination, the established concepts have not been sufficiently incorporated into clinical practice, suggesting the need for more effective educational actions for this process to occur.


Assuntos
Asma , Sons Respiratórios , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ipratrópio , Masculino
7.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 649-652, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030840

RESUMO

Transfusion plays a major role in the management of hemorrhagic shock where every minute counts. A pre-hospital transfusion protocol is established in the medical vehicle within the emergency department of CHR hospital Liège. It is based on predefined clinical and biological severity criteria which allow us to start a massive transfusion protocol as early as possible and thus to optimize its effect during traumatic hemorrhagic shock.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Choque Hemorrágico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hemorragia , Humanos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002074

RESUMO

Since the end of 2019, an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originating in the Chinese city of Wuhan has spread rapidly worldwide causing thousands of deaths. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is supported by SARS-CoV-2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Italy has been the first European country recording an elevated number of infected forcing the Italian Government to call for total lockdown. The lockdown had the aim to limit the spread of infection through social distancing. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the pandemic has affected the patient's accesses to the Ophthalmological Emergency Department of a tertiary referral center in central-northern Italy, during the lockdown period. The charts of all patients that came to the Emergency Department during the lockdown period (March 10 -May 4, 2020) have been retrospectively collected and compared with those in the same period of 2019 and the period from 15 January- 9 March 2020. A significant reduction of visits during the lockdown has been observed, compared with those of pre-lockdown period (reduction of 65.4%) and with those of the same period of 2019 (reduction of 74.3%). Particularly, during the lockdown, minor and not urgency visits decreased whereas the undeferrable urgency ones increased. These pieces of evidence could be explained by the fear of patients to be infected; but also revealed patients misuse of emergency services.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 348, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has engendered difficulties for health systems globally; however, the effect of the pandemic on emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs is unknown. The pandemic has caused reduced volumes of emergency department (ED) patients, except for those with COVID-19 infections, and this may reduce the case exposure of EM residents. The primary objective of this study was to compare the clinical exposure of EM residents between the prepandemic and pandemic periods. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of EM resident physicians' training in a tertiary teaching hospital with two branch regional hospitals in Taiwan. We retrieved data regarding patients seen by EM residents in the ED between September 1, 2019, and April 30, 2020. The first confirmed COVID-19 case in Taiwan was reported on January 11, so the pandemic period in our study was defined as spanning from February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. The number and characteristics of patients seen by residents were recorded. We compared the data between the prepandemic and pandemic periods. RESULTS: The mean number of patients per hour (PPH) seen by EM residents in the adult ED decreased in all three hospitals during the pandemic. The average PPH of critical area of medical ED was 1.68 in the pre-epidemic period and decreased to 1.33 in the epidemic period (p value < 0.001). The average number of patients managed by residents decreased from 1.24 to 0.82 in the trauma ED (p value = 0.01) and 1.56 to 0.51 in the pediatric ED (p value = 0.003) during the pandemic, respectively. The severity of patient illness did not change significantly between the periods. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic engendered a reduced ED volume and decreased EM residents' clinical exposure. All portion of EM residency training were affected by the pandemic, with pediatric EM being the most affected. The patient volume reduction may persist and in turn reduce patients' case exposure until the pandemic subsides. Adjustment of the training programs may be necessary and ancillary methods of learning should be used to ensure adequate EM residency training.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Internato e Residência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
11.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1439-1450, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048152

RESUMO

Importance: The evidence for palliative care exists predominantly for patients with cancer. The effect of palliative care on important end-of-life outcomes in patients with noncancer illness is unclear. Objective: To measure the association between palliative care and acute health care use, quality of life (QOL), and symptom burden in adults with chronic noncancer illnesses. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed from inception to April 18, 2020. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials of palliative care interventions in adults with chronic noncancer illness. Studies involving at least 50% of patients with cancer were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently screened, selected, and extracted data from studies. Narrative synthesis was conducted for all trials. All outcomes were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Acute health care use (hospitalizations and emergency department use), disease-generic and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), and symptoms, with estimates of QOL translated to units of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care scale (range, 0 [worst] to 184 [best]; minimal clinically important difference, 9 points) and symptoms translated to units of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale global distress score (range, 0 [best] to 90 [worst]; minimal clinically important difference, 5.7 points). Results: Twenty-eight trials provided data on 13 664 patients (mean age, 74 years; 46% were women). Ten trials were of heart failure (n = 4068 patients), 11 of mixed disease (n = 8119), 4 of dementia (n = 1036), and 3 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 441). Palliative care, compared with usual care, was statistically significantly associated with less emergency department use (9 trials [n = 2712]; 20% vs 24%; odds ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-1.00]; I2 = 3%), less hospitalization (14 trials [n = 3706]; 38% vs 42%; odds ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.65-0.99]; I2 = 41%), and modestly lower symptom burden (11 trials [n = 2598]; pooled standardized mean difference (SMD), -0.12; [95% CI, -0.20 to -0.03]; I2 = 0%; Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale score mean difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.6 to -0.4]). Palliative care was not significantly associated with disease-generic QOL (6 trials [n = 1334]; SMD, 0.18 [95% CI, -0.24 to 0.61]; I2 = 87%; Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care score mean difference, 4.7 [95% CI, -6.3 to 15.9]) or disease-specific measures of QOL (11 trials [n = 2204]; SMD, 0.07 [95% CI, -0.09 to 0.23]; I2 = 68%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of patients with primarily noncancer illness, palliative care, compared with usual care, was statistically significantly associated with less acute health care use and modestly lower symptom burden, but there was no significant difference in quality of life. Analyses for some outcomes were based predominantly on studies of patients with heart failure, which may limit generalizability to other chronic illnesses.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Viés , Doença Crônica , Demência/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Brain Nerve ; 72(10): 1067-1072, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051394

RESUMO

The global pandemic due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed tremendous strain on healthcare services. This review provides guidance to neurologists on the appropriate management of neurological and neurocritical conditions and diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic in the emergency room and the intensive care unit. The guidance is based on official recommendations and manuals that were urgently produced by the international and domestic societies with the contributions of an expert panel including this author.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019514

RESUMO

Background and objectives: the emergency department (ED) is frequently identified by patients as a possible solution for all healthcare problems, leading to a high rate of misuse of the ED, possibly causing overcrowding. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started in China; it then spread throughout Italy, with the first cases confirmed in Lombardy, Italy, in February 2020. This has totally changed the type of patients referred to EDs. The aim of this study was to analyze the reduction of ED admissions at a Second level urban teaching (Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: in this retrospective observational cross-sectional study, we reviewed and compared clinical records of all the patients consecutively admitted to our ED over a 40-day period (21 February -31 March) in the last three years (2018-2019-2020). Mean age, sex, triage urgency level, day/night admission, main presentation symptom, and final diagnosis, according to different medical specialties, hospitalization, and discharge rate, were analyzed. Results: we analyzed 16,281 patient clinical records. The overall reduction in ED admissions in 2020 was 37.6% compared to 2019. In 2020, we observed an increase in triage urgency levels for ED admissions (the main presentation symptom was a fever). We noticed a significant drop in admissions for cardio-thoracic, gastroenterological, urological, otolaryngologic/ophthalmologic, and traumatological diseases. Acute neurological conditions registered only a slight, but significant, reduction. Oncology admissions were stable. Admissions for infectious diseases were 30% in 2020, compared to 5% and 6% in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In 2020, the hospitalization rate increased to 42.9% compared to 27.7%, and 26.4% in previous years. Conclusions: the drastic reduction of ED admissions during the pandemic may be associated with fear of the virus, suggesting that patients with serious illnesses did not go to the emergency room. Moreover, there was possible misuse of the ED in the previous year. In particular, worrisome data emerged regarding a drop in cardiology and neurology admissions. Those patients postponed medical attention, possibly with fatal consequences, just for fear of exposure to COVID-19, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Otorrinolaringopatias/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Torácicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urológicas/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053586

RESUMO

An extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) is considered as a therapy option for cardiovascular failure that is refractory to therapy. It can significantly improve the survival rate with favourable neurological results in highly selected patients. The initially defibrillatable heart rhythm and the short low-flow time < 60 minutes are of particular prognostic value. An essential prerequisite for deciding on eCPR is the existence of a reversible cause for cardiac arrest. Whether an eCPR directly at the emergency site (out-of-hospital variant) or in the clinic, e.g. in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (in-hospital variant) can be recommended must be clarified in further randomized-controlled, multicentre studies. Both variants have advantages and disadvantages. With the out-of-hospital eCPR, the "collapse-to-start-eCPR-time" can be significantly reduced under certain conditions. With the in-hospital eCPR external negative influences can be greatly minimized.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Discov Med ; 29(158): 201-209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007195

RESUMO

Sepsis is an important disorder in intensive care medicine, and the emphasis is not on infections but the imbalance in body reactions and life-threatening organ dysfunction. The infection, the imbalance in the body's reaction, and the deadly organ dysfunction are three aspects of sepsis. Currently, there is still a debate on suitable criteria for the diagnosis of patients with sepsis with continuing changes in the guidelines on sepsis management. Here we summarize recent advances on the definitions, diagnosis, and treatment in the clinical practice of sepsis management in the emergency department. We also highlight future research directions on sepsis. In particular, given the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we briefly describe the relationship between COVID-19 and sepsis. How to manage sepsis caused by emerging pathogens such as COVID-19 is a new challenge for care professionals in the emergency department.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sepse/terapia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2768-2771, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018580

RESUMO

Septic Shock is a critical pathological state that affects patients entering the intensive care unit (ICU). Many studies have been directed to characterize and predict the onset of the septic shock, both in ICU and in the Emergency Department employing data extracted from the Electronic Health Records. Recently, machine learning algorithms have been successfully employed to help characterize septic shock in a more objective and automatic fashion. Only a few of these studies employ information contained in the continuously recorded vital signs such as electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure. In particular, we have devised a novel feature estimation procedure able to consider instantaneous dynamics related to cardiovascular control. This work aims at developing a short-term prediction algorithm for identifying patients experiencing septic shock among a population of 100 septic patients extracted from the MIMIC-III clinical and waveform database. Among all the results obtained from several trained machine learning models, the best performance reached an AUC on the test set equal to 0.93 (Accuracy=0.85, Sensitivity=0.89 and Specificity=0.82).


Assuntos
Choque Séptico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aprendizado de Máquina , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2772-2775, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018581

RESUMO

Usual care regarding vasopressor (VP) initiation is ill-defined. We aimed to further validate a quantitative model for usual care in the Emergency Department (ED) regarding the timing of VP initiation in sepsis. We retrospectively studied a cohort of adult critically-ill ED patients who also received antibiotics in the ED. We applied a multivariable model previously developed from another patient cohort which distinguishes between time points at which patients were or were not subsequently started on a continuous VP infusion. The model has six independently significant predictors (respiratory rate, Glasgow Coma Scale score, systolic blood pressure, SpO2, administered intravenous fluids, and elapsed time). The outcome was initiation of VP infusion, either within the ED or within 6 hours after leaving the ED. We applied the model to all time points, beginning when all model input parameters were first available for a given patient, and ending when either VP were first started, or the patient left the ED. Out of 55,963 adult ED patients during the two-year study interval, we identified 1,629 who met our inclusion criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81 for all patients, and 0.72 for the subset with at least one hypotensive blood pressure measurement. At a model threshold with sensitivity and specificity 0.74 and 0.74, respectively, the median advance detection time was 170.5 minutes (IQR 53 - 363).


Assuntos
Sepse , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the performance of the rapid triage conducted by nurses at the emergency entrance and of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) in identifying the priority level of care for patients with spontaneous demand and predicting variables related to hospitalization. METHOD: a cross-sectional study carried out in an Emergency Department (ED) of a university hospital in São Paulo. The priority levels established in the rapid triage performed by nurses were high priority (patients of spontaneous demand directed to the emergency room) or low priority (those referred to the institution's usual flow). Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated to assess the performance of the indexes. RESULTS: of the 173 patients (52.0% female, with mean age of 60.4 ± 21.2 years old) evaluated, it was observed that rapid triage was more inclusive for high priority and had better sensitivity and worse specificity than the MTS. The probability of non-severe patients being admitted to the emergency observation unit was lower due to the rapid triage. For the prediction of the other variables, the systems presented unsatisfactory results. CONCLUSION: the nurses overestimated the classification of patients as high priority, and rapid triage performed better than MTS in predicting admission to the emergency observation unit.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Triagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Emergências , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926886, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and has led to an ongoing pandemic. COVID-19 typically affects the respiratory tract and mucous membranes, leading to pathological involvement of various organ systems. Although patients usually present with fever, cough, and fatigue, less common manifestations have been reported including symptoms arising from thrombosis and thromboembolism. A spectrum of dermatologic changes is becoming recognized in patients with COVID-19 who initially present with respiratory symptoms. The mechanism behind these manifestations remains unclear. This report presents the case of a 47-year-old Hispanic man who developed cutaneous vasculitic lesions and gangrene of the toes following admission to hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE REPORT COVID-19 has been associated with cardiovascular disease entities including stroke, acute coronary syndrome, venous thromboembolism, and peripheral vascular disease. We present a case in which a 47-year-old Hispanic man arrived at the Emergency Department with COVID-19 and was admitted for respiratory failure. Despite anticoagulation initiated on admission in the presence of an elevated D-dimer, the patient developed gangrene of all his toes, which required bilateral transmetatarsal amputation. CONCLUSIONS This case shows that dermatologic manifestations may develop in patients who initially present with COVID-19 pneumonia. These symptoms may be due to venous thrombosis following SARS-CoV-2 vasculitis, leading to challenging decisions regarding anticoagulation therapy. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of anticoagulation, to choose appropriate anticoagulants and dosing, and to assess bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Gangrena/etiologia , Gangrena/cirurgia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Dedos do Pé/cirurgia , Vasculite/etiologia , Amputação/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Seguimentos , Gangrena/fisiopatologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etnologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Dedos do Pé/irrigação sanguínea , Dedos do Pé/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasculite/fisiopatologia
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