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1.
Acute Med ; 19(4): 183-191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215171

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pneumonia presented a unique problem for healthcare systems with the potential to overwhelm hospitals and lead to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Safe triage and follow up systems are required to manage this unprecedented demand. METHODS: We designed a pathway for the triage and assessment of patients based on their resting oxygen saturations and response to a 30 metre rapid walking test. We admitted patients to a 'Virtual Ward' for remote oximetry monitoring from the Emergency Department, step down from inpatient wards and from the local Primary Care 'Hot Hub'. This allowed the safe and managed readmission of those patients who deteriorated at home. RESULTS: During the first wave of COVID-19 we entered 273 onto the pathway for Virtual Ward follow up. Of these, 31 patients were readmitted to hospital, two were admitted to Intensive Care and one patient died. Median oxygen saturation at presentation was 97 % (IQR 96-98%) and following a 30 metre walk test 96% (IQR 94-97%). Median NEWS-2 score was 2 (IQR 1-3). On feedback 99.5% of patients were likely or extremely likely to recommend the service to their family and friends. There was a cost avoidance of £107,600 per month. CONCLUSION: It is safe, feasible and cost effective to set up a triage system with remote oximetry monitoring for patients with COVID-19 and overwhelmingly patients find it a positive experience.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Oximetria , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Consulta Remota , Triagem , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Readmissão do Paciente
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23204, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181702

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Steroid is known to cause generalized immunosuppression, thereby increasing the risk of new infection or recurrence of tuberculosis. However, corticosteroid as a culprit for exacerbation of miliary tuberculosis-from a cryptic to an overt form-has rarely been described in the literature. Moreover, miliary tuberculosis is hardly diagnosed in a living patient as a primary cause of ARDS even in TB-endemic regions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a steroid-induced progression of cryptic miliary tuberculosis to ARDS, provided with clear depiction of its radiologic evolution. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 36-year-old male was treated with corticosteroid under suspicion of adult onset still's disease for six-week history of fever. Within 2 weeks since the initiation of corticosteroid therapy, the patient experienced acute exacerbation of cryptic miliary tuberculosis, which evolved to an overt form, appearing as miliary nodules on both chest radiograph and HRCT. Then, his condition suddenly deteriorated to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in less than a day. DIAGNOSIS: The final diagnosis was miliary tuberculosis complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was placed on classic quadruple anti-TB treatment (isoniazide, ethambutol, rifampin, and pyrazinamide). OUTCOMES: His fever subsided in about 6 weeks and 3 consecutive sputum AFB smears collected on different days were confirmed negative. Diffuse infiltrates on his chest x-ray were completely resolved. LESSONS: The case described here draws a clinical and radiological picture of how an occult form of miliary TB evolved to an overt form with use of steroid, and then suddenly progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome in an immunocompetent young male. This raises awareness on the potential risk of using corticosteroid in patients with cryptic miliary TB. There is formidable challenge in the diagnosis of miliary TB, especially in the early stages. Atypical or even normal outcomes of clinical, microbiochemical, and radiologic evaluation should not be overlooked and dedicated diagnostic work-up should be performed. For equivocal cases, active surveillance with serial radiographs can be helpful.


Assuntos
Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Tuberculose Miliar/complicações , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/complicações , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tuberculose Miliar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Miliar/fisiopatologia
4.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e5, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054265

RESUMO

The COVID-19 global pandemic forced healthcare facilities to put special isolation measures in place to limit nosocomial transmission. Cohorting is such a measure and refers to placing infected patients (or under investigation) together in a designated area. This report describes the physical reorganisation of the emergency centre at Khayelitsha Hospital, a district level hospital in Cape Town, South Africa in preparation to the COVID-19 pandemic. The preparation included the identification of a person under investigation (PUI) room, converting short stay wards into COVID-19 isolation areas, and relocating the paediatric section to an area outside the emergency centre. Finally, we had to divide the emergency centre into a respiratory and non-respiratory side by utilising part of the hospital's main reception. We are positive that the preparation and reorganization of the emergency centre will limit nosocomial transmission during the expected COVID-19 surge. Our experience in adapting to COVID-19 may have useful implications for ECs throughout South Africa and in low-and-middle income countries that are preparing for this pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Instalações de Saúde , Hospitais de Distrito , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Emergências , Tratamento de Emergência , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , África do Sul
10.
BMC Emerg Med ; 20(1): 82, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency department personnel routinely bear witness to traumatic experiences and critical incidents that can affect their own well-being. Peer support through debriefing has demonstrated positive impacts on clinicians' well-being following critical incidents. This study explored community hospital emergency department staff's perceptions of critical incidents, assessed openness to debriefing and measured baseline well-being. Our analysis provides a baseline of provider well-being immediately prior to the local onset of COVID-19. The potential need for additional resources to support frontline providers during the pandemic can be evaluated. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study for 4-weeks prior to the first COVID-19 case in Connecticut using a survey offered to an interprofessional group of emergency department clinical staff. The main outcome measures were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale. Pearson's chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in perceptions of critical incidents and debriefings between professional categories. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to analyze significant differences in well-being between professional categories. RESULTS: Thirty-nine clinical personnel from St. Vincent's Emergency Department responded to the survey. Events frequently selected as critical incidents were caring for critically ill children (89.7%), mass casualty events (84.6%), and death of a patient (69.2%). Critical incidents were commonly reported (81.6%) as occurring once per week. Additionally, 76.2% of participants reported wanting to discuss a critical incident with their team. Across all respondents, 45.7% scored borderline or abnormal for anxiety, 55.9% scored moderate for burnout, and 55.8% scored moderate to high for secondary traumatic stress. CONCLUSIONS: At baseline, providers reported caring for critically ill children, mass casualty events, and death of a patient as critical incidents, which typically occurred once per week. Death of a patient occurs at increased frequency during the protracted mass casualty experience of COVID-19 and threatens provider well-being. Receptiveness to post-event debriefing is high but the method is still underutilized. With nearly half of staff scoring borderline or abnormal for anxiety, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress at baseline, peer support measures should be implemented to protect frontline providers' well-being during and after the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Retroalimentação , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Comunitários/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Percepção , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
11.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E435-E441, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the literature on emergency general surgery (EGS) has investigated appendiceal and biliary disease; however, EGS surgeons manage many other complex conditions. This study aimed to describe the operative burden of these conditions throughout Canada. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective cohort study evaluated EGS patients at 7 centres across Canada in 2014. Adult patients (aged ≥ 18 yr) undergoing nonelective operative interventions for nonbiliary, nonappendiceal diseases were included. Data collected included information on patients' demographic characteristics, diagnosis, procedure details, complications and hospital length of stay. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 2595 patients were included, with a median age of 60 years (interquartile range 46-73 yr). The most common principal diagnoses were small bowel obstruction (16%), hernia (15%), malignancy (11%) and perianal disease (9%). The most commonly performed procedures were bowel resection (30%), hernia repair (15%), adhesiolysis (11%) and débridement of skin and soft tissue infections (10%). A total of 47% of cases were completed overnight (between 5 pm and 8 am). The overall inhospital mortality rate was 8%. Thirty-three percent of patients had a complication, with independent predictors including increasing age (p = 0.001), increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists score (p = 0.02) and transfer from another centre (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study characterizes the epidemiology of nonbiliary, nonappendiceal EGS operative interventions across Canada. Canadian surgeons are performing a large volume of EGS, and conditions treated by EGS services are associated with a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality. Results of this study will be used to guide future research efforts and set benchmarks for quality improvement.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Benchmarking , Canadá , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E442-E448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of physician assistants (PAs) in surgical care in Canada is expanding. Similarly, the acute care surgery (ACS) model continues to evolve, and PAs are increasingly being considered as members of ACS teams. However, their exact impact and contribution has not been well studied. Our study describes the contribution of a PA who worked full time on weekdays on an ACS team in a Canadian academic tertiary hospital. METHODS: To quantify the PA's contributions, an ACS database was created in September 2016. Data on the number of ACS patient encounters, the number of ACS surgical consults, the number of ACS admissions, the PA's involvement in the operating room, the number of PA patient encounters and the number of multidisciplinary meetings were prospectively collected. We report data for 365 consecutive days from Dec. 30, 2016, to Dec. 29, 2017. RESULTS: The ACS team had 11 651 patient encounters during the year, with a mean of 31.92 per day. The mean number of surgical consults per day was 5.89, and a mean of 2.08 surgical procedures were performed per day. The PA was involved in 53.5% of all patient encounters, despite working only during daytime hours on weekdays. Multidisciplinary meetings were conducted by the PA 94.9% of the time. Alternate level of care patients were seen by the PA 96.2% of the time. The PA was directly involved in 2.0% of the operating room procedures during the study period. CONCLUSION: Integrating a PA on an ACS team adds value to patient care by providing consistency and efficient management of ward issues and patient care plans, including multidisciplinary discharge planning, timely emergency department consultations and effective organization of the ACS team members.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Assistentes Médicos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22910, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126347

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Using mobile phones for communication in emergency departments is a common practice; however, several studies have demonstrated that they may act as vectors for bacteria and viruses. This study evaluated the effectiveness of plastic wrapping in decreasing bacterial contamination on mobile phone surfaces. METHOD: We used culture dishes and a luminometer to detect bacterial colonies and contamination on the phone surfaces. RESULT: Our experiment showed that bacterial colonies exist on mobile phones before and after work. We found that wiping with 75% alcohol sanitizers effectively reduces the number of colonies on either a mobile phone or a temporary plastic covering. In addition, we found that bacterial colonies do not contaminate or adhere to plastic wrap any easier than to mobile phones. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated the effectiveness of plastic wrap for protecting mobile phone surfaces against bacterial colonization. In addition, applying a layer of plastic wrap protects the phone from potential damage due to the alcohol.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Telefone Celular , Infecção Hospitalar , Desinfecção/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares , Etanol/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/microbiologia , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/normas , Humanos , Administração de Materiais no Hospital/métodos , Plásticos , Equipamentos de Proteção/microbiologia
14.
Acta Med Port ; 33(11): 716-719, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026314

RESUMO

The possibility of a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic coexisting with a simultaneous epidemic of influenza and the co-circulation of other seasonal respiratory viruses sets the stage for a perfect storm. Preparing for the Autumn-Winter of 2020/2021 is complex, requiring centralized guidance but local and regional solutions, with strong leadership and a high level of coordination. It is essential to act upstream of hospitals in order to reduce demand on emergency departments, minimizing the risk of transmission that occurs there and the team overload, as well as downstream to ensure capacity for hospitalization and in the hospital itself to optimize resources and organization. The failure of this plan will create unbearable pressure on hospital care. The authors describe the challenges lying ahead for hospitals and the most important measures that should be included in this plan to prepare the Autumn-Winter of 2020/2021 in Portugal.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Hospitalar , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Portugal/epidemiologia
15.
Acta Biomed ; 91(11-S): e2020004, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004774

RESUMO

Italy is one of the most exposed countries worldwide to COVID-19, and Lombardy is the most affected region in Italy. In this context, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia, one of the largest University hospitals in the region, has been involved in the management of the outbreak since its inception. Immediately after the communication of the first Italian COVID-19+ patient, the Pediatric Unit has been completely reorganized to face the approaching outbreak. The optimization of the Pediatric Unit resources for COVID-19 emergency is reported as an example to safely preserve health activity during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
16.
Discov Med ; 29(158): 201-209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007195

RESUMO

Sepsis is an important disorder in intensive care medicine, and the emphasis is not on infections but the imbalance in body reactions and life-threatening organ dysfunction. The infection, the imbalance in the body's reaction, and the deadly organ dysfunction are three aspects of sepsis. Currently, there is still a debate on suitable criteria for the diagnosis of patients with sepsis with continuing changes in the guidelines on sepsis management. Here we summarize recent advances on the definitions, diagnosis, and treatment in the clinical practice of sepsis management in the emergency department. We also highlight future research directions on sepsis. In particular, given the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we briefly describe the relationship between COVID-19 and sepsis. How to manage sepsis caused by emerging pathogens such as COVID-19 is a new challenge for care professionals in the emergency department.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sepse/terapia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 320-331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Alocação de Recursos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/organização & administração
18.
Emerg Med J ; 37(11): 700-704, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912930

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 has been particularly severe in the New York City area, which has had one of the highest concentrations of cases in the USA. In March 2020, the EDs of New York-Presbyterian Hospital, a 10-hospital health system in the region, began to experience a rapid surge in patients with COVID-19 symptoms. Emergency physicians were faced with a disease that they knew little about that quickly overwhelmed resources. A significant amount of attention has been placed on the problem of limited supply of ventilators and intensive care beds for critically ill patients in the setting of the ongoing global pandemic. Relatively less has been given to the issue that precedes it: the demand on resources posed by patients who are not yet critically ill but are unwell enough to seek care in the ED. We describe here how at one institution, a cross-campus ED physician working group produced a care pathway to guide clinicians and ensure the fair and effective allocation of resources in the setting of the developing public health crisis. This 'crisis clinical pathway' focused on using clinical evaluation for medical decision making and maximising benefit to patients throughout the system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Procedimentos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Alocação de Recursos , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resilience engineering has been advocated as an alternative to the management of safety over the last decade in many domains. However, to facilitate metrics for measuring and helping analyze the resilience potential for emergency departments (EDs) remains a significant challenge. The study aims to redesign the Hollnagel's resilience assessment grid (RAG) into a custom-made RAG (ED-RAG) to support resilience management in EDs. METHODS: The study approach had three parts: 1) translation of Hollnagel's RAG into Chinese version, followed by generation of a tailored set of ED-RAG questions adapted to EDs; 2) testing and revising the tailored sets until to achieve satisfactory validity for application; 3) design of a new rating scale and scoring method. The test criteria of the ED-RAG questionnaire adopted the modified three-level scoring criteria proposed by Bloom and Fischer. The study setting of the field test is a private regional hospital. RESULTS: The fifth version of ED-RAG was acceptable after a field test. It has three sets of open structured questions for the potentials to respond, monitor, and anticipate, and a set of structured questions for the potential to learn. It contained 38 questions corresponding to 32 foci. A new 4-level rating scale along with a novel scaling method can improve the scores conversion validity and communication between team members and across investigations. This final version is set to complete an interview for around 2 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The ED-RAG represents a snapshot of EDs'resilience under specific conditions. It might be performed multiple times by a single hospital to monitor the directions and contents of improvement that can supplement conventional safety management toward resilience. Some considerations are required to be successful when hospitals use it. Future studies to overcome the potential methodological weaknesses of the ED-RAG are needed.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , China , Gestão de Recursos da Equipe de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Tradução , Carga de Trabalho
20.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(5): 741-747, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862832

RESUMO

Objective A pilot study to: (1) describe the ability of emergency physicians to provide primary consults at an Australian, major metropolitan, adult emergency department (ED) during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with historical performance; and (2) to identify the effect of system and process factors on productivity. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional description of shifts worked between 1 and 29 February 2020, while physicians were carrying out their usual supervision, flow and problem-solving duties, as well as undertaking additional COVID-19 preparation, was documented. Effect of supervisory load, years of Australian registration and departmental flow factors were evaluated. Descriptive statistical methods were used and regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 188 shifts were analysed. Productivity was 4.07 patients per 9.5-h shift (95% CI 3.56-4.58) or 0.43 patients per h, representing a 48.5% reduction from previously published data (P<0.0001). Working in a shift outside of the resuscitation area or working a day shift was associated with a reduction in individual patient load. There was a 2.2% (95% CI: 1.1-3.4, P<0.001) decrease in productivity with each year after obtaining Australian medical registration. There was a 10.6% (95% CI: 5.4-15.6, P<0.001) decrease in productivity for each junior physician supervised. Bed access had no statistically significant effect on productivity. Conclusions Emergency physicians undertake multiple duties. Their ability to manage their own patients varies depending on multiple ED operational factors, particularly their supervisory load. COVID-19 preparations reduced their ability to see their own patients by half. What is known about the topic? An understanding of emergency physician productivity is essential in planning clinical operations. Medical productivity, however, is challenging to define, and is controversial to measure. Although baseline data exist, few studies examine the effect of patient flow and supervision requirements on the emergency physician's ability to perform primary consults. No studies describe these metrics during COVID-19. What does this paper add? This pilot study provides a novel cross-sectional description of the effect of COVID-19 preparations on the ability of emergency physicians to provide direct patient care. It also examines the effect of selected system and process factors in a physician's ability to complete primary consults. What are the implications for practitioners? When managing an emergency medical workforce, the contribution of emergency physicians to the number of patients requiring consults should take into account the high volume of alternative duties required. Increasing alternative duties can decrease primary provider tasks that can be completed. COVID-19 pandemic preparation has significantly reduced the ability of emergency physicians to manage their own patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Eficiência Organizacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agendamento de Consultas , Austrália , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
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