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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunization rates among the adult population in Poland are below desired targets, urging the need to expand this service in the community. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the ultimate goals for limiting the spread of the infection are vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Pharmaceutical companies are in a race for the fastest possible way to deliver vaccines. Community pharmacists in Poland are recognised as an accessible yet underutilised group of medical professionals. Therefore, involving pharmacists in vaccinations may have beneficial results for the healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the readiness and willingness of community pharmacists following the Pharmacist Without Borders project who had either been trained or not in providing immunization services, and to identify the factors that may support the implementation of such services in Poland. METHODS: This study was conducted among pharmacists between February and August 2020 in Poland. A survey was developed to determine their readiness to provide vaccination services in their pharmacies, to recognise any barriers to vaccinations, as well as the factors necessary to implement vaccination services in Polish pharmacies. RESULTS: A total of 1777 pharmacists participated in the study, comprising 127 (7.1%) pharmacists trained in vaccinations during the Pharmacists Without Borders project and 1650 (92.9%) pharmacists not participating in the workshops. Pharmacists participating in the workshops more often indicated that providing vaccinations in community pharmacies would improve the overall vaccination rate (p = 0.0001), and that pharmacists could play an important role in advertising and promoting vaccinations (p = 0.0001). For the pharmacists not participating in the workshops, they indicated to a much greater extent possible barriers affecting the readiness to provide vaccinations in pharmacies. They most often pointed out that vaccination services would result in a significant workload increase (p = 0.0001), that pharmacies were not adapted to immunization, and that there were not enough training courses for pharmacists (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The pharmacists working in community pharmacies indicated many advantages of vaccinations in pharmacies. This study identified barriers to the introduction of vaccinations and factors necessary to implement these services in pharmacies. The pharmacists trained during the immunization programme of the Pharmacists Without Borders project showed a greater readiness to provide immunization services.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Adulto , Humanos , Imunização , Pandemias , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Polônia , Papel Profissional , Vacinação
2.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 13(1): 32-59, ene. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199749

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: durante los últimos años ha existido un aumento en la prescripción y dispensación de opioides y una elevada prevalencia de pacientes con dolor crónico no oncológico. Objetivo principal; evaluar adherencia farmacoterapéutica de pacientes con dolor no oncológico en tratamiento con fentanilo o tapentadol. Material/MÉTODOS: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal realizado por 139 farmacéuticos comunitarios. Población diana: mayores de 18 años que acuden a la farmacia comunitaria con prescripción de fentanilo o tapentadol. Las variables recogidas fueron edad, sexo, patología, carácter crónico/agudo, indicación, motivo del dolor, principios activos dispensados (conocimiento de posología, administración, posibles reacciones adversas), adherencia (Test de Haynes-Sackett), intensidad del dolor (Escala Visual Analógica), e intervención del farmacéutico. Para medir la adherencia se utilizó el test de Haynes-Sackett, que permite detectar pacientes no adherentes, conocer las dificultades que tienen en el uso de fentanilo o tapentadol y ofrecer recomendaciones para mejorar el uso de estos tratamientos y minimizar los problemas de falta de adherencia. La evaluación del dolor se realizó solo a los pacientes en tratamiento de continuación; determinando el valor medio mediante la medición a través de la EVA del dolor. RESULTADOS: el análisis de la adherencia con el test de Haynes-Sackett mostró que 358 pacientes (87,1 %) no tuvieron dificultad para tomarse/ponerse tratamiento, y 53 pacientes (12,9 %) sí presentaron dificultad, de los cuales, un 77 % son mayores de 70 años y un 79 % son mujeres. Los principales motivos de la no adherencia en la población del estudio fueron: ser persona dependiente, tener dificultad en la colocación y tener problemas de adhesión del parche de fentanilo. La evaluación media del dolor en los pacientes del estudio fue de 6,1 puntos en la EVA; un 44,5 % de los pacientes presenta valores de EVA superior a 6 puntos, para los pacientes no adherentes el valor promedio de la EVA fue 6,6 mientras que para los pacientes adherentes fue 6. Para los pacientes con tratamiento crónico, refirieron un 41 % tener el dolor controlado, 53 % presentó mejora de su capacidad funcional y 57 % mejora de su calidad de vida. En un 37,9 % de los tratamientos de continuación se manifestaron reacciones adversas. La principal reacción adversa fue el estreñimiento presente en un 23,6 % de pacientes con tratamientos crónicos. El 53,9 % de los pacientes respondió sí a querer un Servicio Profesional Farmacéutico Asistencial (SPFA) de abordaje del dolor crónico. CONCLUSIONES: la mayoría de pacientes son adherentes. El principal motivo de no adherencia fue ser una persona dependiente. El valor promedio de EVA fue de 6 puntos. Los pacientes no alcanzan un control adecuado del dolor, aunque reconocen tener mejor capacidad funcional y calidad de vida. En casi un 40% de los tratamientos de continuación se manifestaron reacciones adversas. La mitad de los pacientes demanda un servicio profesional farmacéutico asistencial en dolor


INTRODUCTION: In recent years there has been an increase on prescription and dispensation of opioids and high prevalence of patients with chronic non-oncological pain. Main objective; evaluate the pharmacotherapy adherence of patients with non-cancer pain treated with fentanyl or tapentadol. MATERIAL/ METHODS: Observational, descriptive and transverse study performed by 139 community pharmacists. Target population: people over 18 years old that come to com-munity pharmacy with a prescription of fentanyl or tapentadol. The collected variables were age, sex, pathology, chronic/acute character, indication, reason of pain, dispensed active principles (knowledge of posology, administration, possible adverse reactions), adherence (Haynes-Sackett Test), pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), and the pharmacist’s intervention. Haynes-Sackett test was used to measure the adherence, which allows detecting non-adherent patients, knowing the difficulties related with the use fentanyl or tapentadol and offering recommendations to improve the use of these treatments and minimize the problems of lack of adherence. The pain evaluation was carried out only in continuation care treatment; determining the average value using the VAS pain measuring system. RESULTS: The adherence analysis using Haynes-Sackett showed 358 patients (87.1%) without difficulties to take/put on treatment while 53 patients (12.9%) did present difficulties, of which 77% were older than 70 years old and 79% were women. The main reasons for the non-adherence in the studied population were: being de-pendent people, having difficulties in the placement and having adhesion problems with fentanyl patches. The average pain measure evaluation in the studied patients was 6.1 points in VAS; 44.5% of patients presented VAS values above 6 points, for the non-adherent patients the average VAS value was 6.6 while for the adherent patients was 6.In patients with chronic treatment, the 41% had controlled pain, 53% presented an improvement in their functional capacity and the 57% had improved their quality life. Adverse reactions were manifested in the 37.9% of the continuation care treatments. The main adverse reaction was the constipation, present in the 23.6% of the patients with chronic treatments.53.9% of the patients answered affirmative to be under Assistance Pharmaceutical Professional Service of boarding chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: Most of patients were adherent. The main reason for non-adherence was to be a dependent person. VAS average value was 6 points and patients did not reach to an adequate pain control, although they recognize a better functional capacity and quality of life. Almost 40% of the continuation care treatments manifested adverse reactions. Half of the patients demanded Assistance Pharmaceutical Professional Service in pain


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Comercialização de Produtos , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Tapentadol/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Farmácias/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Posologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Prescrições de Medicamentos
3.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1845-1852, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317763

RESUMO

Pharmacies have been practicing innovative infection control measures during COVID-19. This article seeks to explore the current activities undertaken across various community pharmacy settings in relation to the safety of the workplace environment for staff and patients. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australia during the COVID-19 outbreak from 1st to 30th April 2020, addressing community pharmacist's awareness and response to infection and sanitation control. RESULTS: A total of 137 pharmacists took part in the survey. Regular cleaning took place in the pharmacy, but the use of gloves while cleaning was not regularly practice (48.18%). In addition, only 46.72% of respondents reported observing script baskets being cleaned and disinfected. About one-third (37.96%) of pharmacists were aware of the two-step cleaning and disinfecting process, with only 18.98% of pharmacist practicing such cleaning procedures. More than half of surveyed pharmacists reported having difficulty keeping up with pharmacy practice and infection control guidelines during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the majority of pharmacists are not fully aware of the proper infection control measures needed in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacists must play a bigger role in infection control measures to ensure staff and public health safety.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 2002-2004, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists and their teams are easy accessible healthcare providers with an important role in primary care. As a consequence of the COVID-19 epidemic, (pharmaceutical) care and specifically communication between patients and healthcare providers is compromised. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the provision of pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with an online questionnaire was sent to community pharmacies in the Netherlands. The questionnaire covered the following main topics: changes in pharmacy setting and logistic procedures, communication about medication and baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Pharmacies implemented hygiene measures and minimized direct patient-provider contact, e.g. by delivering medication at home to a wider range of patients (47.0%), temporarily not conducting medication reviews (55.8%) and only performing inhalation instructions via telephone (22.3%). Only a small number of pharmacies used telepharmacy, such as video calling during patient education and counseling. A total of 76.7% of the participants expressed concerns towards the pharmaceutical care for vulnerable patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show considerable impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on both logistic procedures and services regarding patient education and counseling. Pharmacies should be stimulated to implement telepharmacy or remote service to optimally support patients during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Adulto , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/organização & administração
5.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1832-1837, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID19) has adversely affected the delivery of various health services. Little is known about the impact of COVID19 on pharmacy services across the United Kingdom (UK). We surveyed community pharmacists across the UK to understand their protective practices, professional and general well-being, and the delivery of pharmacy services during the COVID19 pandemic. METHODS: Community pharmacists were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey via the nationwide weekly newsletter of Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee and the local pharmaceutical committees during the second week of May 2020. The survey remained open for 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 206 pharmacists responded to the survey with representations from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The majority of pharmacists (>75% or above) reported an increase in customer traffic to their pharmacy and were asking relevant questions from patients with flu-like symptoms before signposting them to the appropriate care. Most pharmacists (>85%) were maintaining a safe distance of 2 m from customers and 72% were wearing an N95 protective mask and 28% were using protective gloves and apron in addition to safe distancing and protective masks. Ninety-nine percent of pharmacists reported drug shortages with 38% and 26% reported significant drug shortages and critical drug shortages causing disruptions beyond over the counter medicines. Eighty-nine percent pharmacists reported inappropriate behaviour from patients or carers with 31% and 16% reported it to be a regular or frequent problem, respectively. Fifty-three% of pharmacists were willing to offer their assistance for mass testing of COVID19 antibodies if adequate training and reimbursement are provided. CONCLUSION: Community pharmacists in the UK are facing considerable challenges in terms of personal protection and the delivery of pharmacy services. Inappropriate behaviour from patients and carers towards community pharmacists require urgent attention to ensure a safe working place for all community pharmacists.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
6.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1925-1928, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317766

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is putting enormous pressure on healthcare systems worldwide and various countries are struggling to flatten the curve to prevent their healthcare system from becoming overwhelmed. Studies have shown that people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality. However, the interruption of routine care and support due to the current challenges with healthcare providers, facilities, and essential medicines due to this pandemic is adversely affecting people with CKD. This is because poor management of this disease leads to negative health outcomes. In order to maintain good health, this vulnerable group of patients rely heavily on the extended role of the community pharmacists in chronic disease management. This paper highlights the extended role of the community pharmacists in CKD management supportive care during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade
7.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 12(4): 37-46, oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197490

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la falta de suministro de medicamentos provoca resultados económicos, clínicos y humanísticos negativos en los pacientes, generando también carga de trabajo adicional a los agentes sanitarios. Para ayudar a los farmacéuticos comunitarios se ha diseñado Luda Farma® (LF), una plataforma electrónica de gestión y colaboración entre farmacias destinada a la mejora de la eficiencia en el control del stock, que proporciona un entorno colaborativo compartiendo información puntual sobre stock de medicamentos concretos entre ellas. OBJETIVOS: analizar el número de medicamentos en desabastecimiento, según la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS) y el Centro de Información sobre el Suministro de Medicamentos (CISMED) que se localizan para los pacientes a través de la plataforma LF. Identificar qué medicamentos, que se encuentran en desabastecimiento, se localizan a través de la plataforma. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, utilizando los datos generados a través de LF durante el año 2019 (del 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre). Se utilizó LF para buscar aquellos medicamentos en desabastecimiento según CISMED y AEMPS. Se cruzaron los datos de la red con los listados de CISMED y AEMPS. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el lenguaje de programación R. RESULTADOS: participaron 389 farmacias comunitarias adheridas libre y gratuitamente a la red LF. Realizaron 7.628 encargos de medicamentos: 1.993 con problemas de suministro en AEMPS y 1.794 en CISMED. El resto de los encargos son medicamentos no declarados en falta, en ninguna base de datos y productos que no son medicamentos. Son encargos que realizan las farmacias, ya sea porque no tienen el producto demandado, no pueden ponerlo a disposición del paciente tan rápido como necesita el paciente, aunque lo encarguen, porque se les ha acabado y recurrieron a LF para buscar el producto concreto en otra farmacia para que el paciente pueda recogerlo cuando lo desee el paciente. Los medicamentos que mayor número de veces se reservaron fueron: Apocard® 100 mg 60 comp, Trankimazin Retard® 0,5 mg 30 comp y Elontril® 150 mg 30 comp. CONCLUSIONES: LF ayuda a los farmacéuticos comunitarios al dar una solución in situ a los pacientes que no encuentran los medicamentos que buscan, disminuyendo el impacto del desabastecimiento de los medicamentos


BACKGROUND: Medicine shortages cause negative economic, clinical and humanistic results for patients, also generating additional workload for healthcare stakeholders.Luda Farma (LF) is a pharmacy electronic management and collaborative platform aimed at improving efficiency in stock control, and to help pharmacists by providing them a collaborative tool that allows sharing specific information on the stock of partic­ular medications among pharmacies. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the number of medicines in short supply (according to the AEMPS and CISMED listings) that patients locate through the LF platform. To identify which medicines in short supply are located through the platform. METHOD: This retrospective, observational study, used the data generated through LF during the year 2019 (from January 1st to December 31st).LF was used to search for those medicines in short supply according to CISMED and AEMPS. Data from the network was searched at the CISMED and the AEMPS listings. Data were processed with programming language R. RESULTS: 389 pharmacies that freely and voluntarily affiliated to the LF network par­ticipated. They carried out 7,628 orders between pharmacies: 1993 of those medicines had supply problems according to the AEMPS, and 1,794 medicines had supply problems according to the CISMED listings. The drugs with the most significant number of reservations were: Apocard® 100mg 60 tablets, Trankimazin Retard® 0.5mg 30 tablets, and Elontril® 150 mg 30 tablets. CONCLUSIONS: LF helps pharmacists by providing an on­site solution to patients who cannot find the drugs they are looking for, lessening the impact of drug shortages


Assuntos
Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde , Farmácias/organização & administração , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Fatores de Tempo , Características de Residência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
8.
Farm. hosp ; 44(5): 185-191, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195145

RESUMO

En febrero de 2018 se publicó en la Comunidad de Madrid la Resolución 189/2018 con el objetivo de centralizar el procedimiento de adquisición, elaboración, distribución y dispensación de metadona a los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes del Servicio Madrileño de Salud bajo la responsabilidad de un servicio de farmacia hospitalaria. El servicio de farmacia hospitalaria inició esta actividad en marzo de 2018, siendo la primera vez que se centraliza en un servicio de farmacia hospitalaria la gestión integral del plan de mantenimiento con metadona para la atención de pacientes drogodependientes en la Comunidad de Madrid. Al inicio del proyecto se analizó el circuito anterior, se adaptó el laboratorio de farmacotecnia y se diseñó el procedimiento de adquisición de metadona. Se implementó una vía de comunicación con los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes, diseñándose formularios de so-licitud y se establecieron los correspondientes procedimientos de control derivados de su naturaleza estupefaciente. Se han diseñado y adjudicado, cumpliendo la Ley de Contratos de la Administración Pública, procedimientos normalizados para la adquisición de metadona, envases para la dosificación personalizada en los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes y rutas de transporte. Asimismo, se ha adjudicado un concurso para la implementación de un sistema informático de gestión y sistemas automatizados de dispensación, actualmente en vías de instalación. También se está actualizando el protocolo farmacoterapéutico del Plan de mantenimiento con metadona de la Comunidad de Madrid. En año y medio se han elaborado 5.300 litros de metadona solución y se han dispensado 2.844 prescripciones individualizadas. Disponemos de resultados de calidad percibida por los profesionales de los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes mediante una encuesta de satisfacción. La tasa de respuesta fue del 92%. El grado de satisfacción global fue: 91% muy satisfecho/bastante satisfecho y 9% satisfecho. Destaca el alto grado de satisfacción (bastante o muy satisfecho) del 81,8% con la eficacia y rapidez de la resolución de incidencias por parte de los profesionales del servicio de farmacia. Este proceso permite incorporar el conocimiento y experiencia de los farmacéuticos especialistas a este ámbito asistencial, así como aprovechar recursos, instalaciones y procedimientos ya existentes. Todo ello redunda en un abordaje eficiente, eficaz y seguro de esta actividad clínico-asistencial y posibilitar un cambio de modelo de asistencia farmacoterapéutica de los pacientes dependientes de opiáceos


In February 2018, Resolution 189/2018 was published in the Autonomous Community of Madrid with the objective of centralizing the procedure for the acquisition, preparation, distribution, and dispensing of methadone to Centres for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients within the Madrid Health Service under the responsibility of a Hospital Pharmacy Service. The Hospital Pharmacy Service began this activity in March 2018. This is the first time that the comprehensive management of a methadone maintenance plan has been centralized in an Hospital Pharmacy Service for the care of drug-dependent patients in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. At the beginning of the Project, the previous workflow was analysed, the pharmaceutical laboratory was adapted, and the methadone acquisition procedure was designed. A communication channel with the Centres for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients was implemented and application forms were designed. Corresponding control procedures were established given that the medication under consideration was a narcotic. Standard procedures for the acquisition of methadone, of containers for personalized dosing in Centres for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients, and transport routes were designed and contracted out through public tender in compliance with the Public Administration Contract Law. A tender has also been awarded for the implementation of a computerized management system and automated dispensing systems, which are currently undergoing installation. The pharmacotherapeutic protocol of the Methadone Maintenance Plan of the Autonomous Community of Madrid is also being updated. Over 18 months, 5,300 L of methadone solution have been prepared and 2,844 individual prescriptions have been dispensed. High levels of perceived satisfaction were reported via a questionnaire administered to the Centre for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients staff. The response rate was 92%. Overall satisfaction was very satisfied/quite satisfied (91%) and satisfied (9%). These results highlight the high level of satisfaction (quite satisfied or very satisfied: 81.8%) with the effectiveness and speed of resolution of incidents by the Hospital Pharma-cy Service staff. This process incorporates the knowledge and experience of hospital pharmacists into this healthcare field, as well as taking advantage of existing resources, facilities, and procedures. All these aspects lead to an efficient, effective, and safe approach to this clinical-care activity and enable a change in the pharmacotherapeutic health care model for opioid-dependent patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico , Estabilidade de Medicamentos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to explore patient safety culture of community pharmacists working in Dessie and Gondar towns, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st to 31st March 2018. In this cross-sectional survey, the Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), was used to collect data. PSOPSC is a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed among staffs who work in community pharmacies of Dessie and Gondar towns. All staffs available on data collection period in the pharmacy were included. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 25 was used to enter and analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 120 participants were approached and completed the questionnaire. Results from the study showed that high positive response rate was demonstrated in the domains of "Teamwork" (90.2%) followed by physical space and environment (83.1%). On the other hand, the result also identified that there is an enormous problem related to mistake communication (44.8%) and work pressure (45%). In addition, significant difference of percent positive responses were obtained across towns and staff working hours. CONCLUSIONS: The patient safety culture of community pharmacists is appreciable especially with respect to their teamwork. Besides, urgent attention should be given to areas of weakness, mainly in the domain of "mistake communication" and "staffing and work pressure".


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E69, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701431

RESUMO

Community pharmacists assist patients to manage disease and prevent complications. Despite the enormous challenge the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dealt to the health care system, community pharmacists have maintained the delivery of critical health services to communities, including those most at risk for COVID-19. Community pharmacists are in a key position to deliver priority pandemic responses including point-of-care testing for chronic disease management, vaccinations, and COVID-19 testing.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Papel Profissional , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação
12.
Therapie ; 75(4): 343-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660776

RESUMO

Addictovigilance is a safety monitoring targeted at substances with potential for abuse and dependence. This vigilance was involved during the period of COVID-19 epidemic due to the significant changes in access to drugs and psychological disruption caused by the pandemic and lockdown. This article aims to present the different steps implemented by the French Addictovigilance network in collaboration with the French Health authorities from March to May 2020, including monitoring of potential harmful events, and scientific communication. The first events were identified through the continuity of the networking between the French addictovigilance centres and their partners: community pharmacies, general practitioners, specialized structures and emergency wards. As soon as the lockdown began, first cases of overdoses (lethal or not) were reported with opioids, mainly with methadone, and other opioids (heroin, oxycodone, tramadol or antitussive codeine). Lockdown-related noteworthy events consisted in clinical cases or other relevant information for which lockdown clearly played an important role: among the many substances identified at least once, pregabalin, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and nitrous oxide were the most significant in terms of prevalence, seriousness or particularly specific to the lockdown context. Despite significant decrease in the activity and travel limited to vital needs, community pharmacies continued to identify falsified prescriptions in this period, highlighting an increase in suspicious requests for pregabalin, codeine and tramadol. In parallel, the French addictovigilance network continued its communications efforts in the period, issuing a newsletter on tramadol, a press release on methadone and naloxone, and participating in the COVID-19 frequently asked questions (FAQs) of the French Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutic website (https://sfpt-fr.org/covid19). COVID-19 epidemic has been an important challenge for addictovigilance, and has proved that this monitoring is highly essential for alerting health professionals and health authorities to points of vigilance in the field of psychoactive substances.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Clínicos Gerais/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
13.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 42(4): 1197-1206, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524513

RESUMO

Background An infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (later called COVID-19) reached pandemic levels in 2020 and community pharmacists were involved in responding to this pandemic, also in Kosovo. Objectives To explore the experiences of community pharmacists in relation to provision of community pharmacy services during COVID-19 pandemic. Setting Community pharmacists in Kosovo. Methods This was a cross-sectional study where data was collected via a self-administered online questionnaire, from 264 pharmacists actively practicing in Kosovo during the pandemic. The questionnaire consisted of a combination of closed and open-ended questions, optional statements and statements on a five-point Likert scale, derived at least in part from the Transtheoretical Model. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in responses to Likert-type items whereas categorical variables were analyzed using Chi square testing. Main outcome measures Community pharmacists' perceptions on COVID-19 related preventative measures. Results A response rate of 40.6% was achieved. Sufficient and adequate COVID-19-related preventative measures were being implemented by a majority of pharmacies (n = 232; 87.9%), and over two-thirds of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that their pharmacies were sufficiently prepared with protective equipment for their personnel. Implementation of preventative measures was associated with respondents' perception that pharmacists and the pharmacy profession were valued more by patients during the pandemic and to a lesser degree, by other health professionals. Most commonly stated pros dealt with employee and patient safety, while key cons dealt with increased costs and running out of the necessary protective equipment. Key barriers to pharmacy activities were price increases by wholesalers, and patients' panic and excessive buying, whereas drivers dealt with professional obligation to assist and opportunity to prove inseparable to other health professionals. The most popular means of accessing COVID-19 related information by pharmacists was via mobile devices and information from professional organizations was considered most useful by pharmacists. Conclusions Community pharmacies actively implemented various measures as precautions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Our findings highlight the value of continuous provision of information by professional organizations and use of mobile devices as key means to access information by pharmacists.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kosovo , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Papel Profissional , Sociedades Farmacêuticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 541, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists possess significant potential for providing health services to the public when it comes to issues of weight management. However, this practice has not been observed in most parts of the world including low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Pakistan. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of pharmacists in providing healthy weight management (HWM) services to adults in Pakistan, and the barriers associated with the implementation of this type of role. METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study was set in seven hospitals (public and private) and three chain pharmacies in Lahore, Punjab - a province of Pakistan. Data was collected from in-depth individual interviews with pharmacists (n = 19) and medical doctors (n = 15). Purposive sampling techniques were applied to recruit both types of study participants. Telephone contact was made by the trained data collectors with the pharmacists to set the date and time of the interview after explaining to them the purpose of the study and obtaining their willingness and verbal recorded consent to participate. Registered medical doctors were recruited through snowball sampling techniques. The sample size was determined by applying the point at which thematic saturation occurred. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed to draw conclusions using inductive thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Through inductive qualitative analysis eight themes emerged; potential role for community pharmacists, collaborative approaches, barriers, ideal pharmacist-based weight management program, professional requirements and need for training, potential for implementation, current scenario in pharmacies and level of trust of pharmacists. The first six themes were common to both pharmacists and medical professionals. The unique theme for doctors was the 'level of trust of pharmacists', and for the pharmacists was the 'current scenario in pharmacies'. CONCLUSION: The majority of participants in our study had strong convictions that Pakistani pharmacists have the potential for provide effective HWM services to their communities. Of concern, none of the participating pharmacies were offering any sort of weight management program and none of the medical professionals interviewed were aware of HWM programs taking place. Medical doctors were of the opinion that pharmacists alone cannot run these programs. Doctor participants were firm that after being adequately trained, pharmacists should only carry out non-pharmacological interventions. To implement a HWM pharmacy model in Pakistan, it is necessary to overcome barriers outlined in this study.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Obesidade/terapia , Farmácias/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Médicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194067

RESUMO

The overall goal of Swedish health care is good health and equitable care for the whole population. The responsibility for health is shared by the central government, the regions, and the municipalities. Primary care accounts for approximately 20 percent of all expenditures on health care. About 16% of all physicians work in primary health. The regions have also employed a large number of clinical pharmacists, usually hospital-based, but many perform a variety of different primary care services, the most common of which is patient medication reviews. Swedish primary health care is at a crossroads facing extensive challenges, due to changes in demography and demanding financial conditions. These changes necessitate large transformations in health services and delivery. Current Government inquiries have primarily focused on two ways to meet the challenges; a shift towards more local care requiring a transfer of resources from hospital care, and a further development of structured digi-physical care, that is both digital ("online doctors") and physical accessibility of care. While primary care at present is undergoing processes of change, community pharmacy has done so during the past decade since the re-regulation of the Swedish pharmacy market. A monopoly was replaced by a competitive system, where five pharmacy chains now share most of the market, a competition that has made community pharmacy very commercialized. A number of different, promising primary care services are being offered, but they are usually delivered on a small scale due to a lack of remuneration and philosophy of providers. Priority is given to sales and fast dispensing of prescriptions, often with a minimum of counseling. Reflecting primary health care, community pharmacy in Sweden is at a crossroads but currently has a golden opportunity to choose a route of collaboration with primary health care in its current transformation into more local and digi-physical care. A major challenge is that primary health care inquires, strategic plans, and national policy documents usually do not include community pharmacy as a partner. Hence, community pharmacy have to be proactive and seize this chance of changes in primary health policy and organization in order to become an important link in the chain of health care delivery, or there is a significant risk that it will predominantly remain a retail business


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Suécia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Farmacêuticos , Prática Profissional/normas
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 639, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for acceptable and feasible HIV testing options to ensure people living with HIV know their status so they can access care. Pharmacist-provided HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) may overcome testing barriers, including privacy concerns, testing wait times, and improve accessibility. In the APPROACH study, we aimed to develop and assess an HIV POCT program in community pharmacies for future scale up and evaluation. This paper describes the program uptake, participant and pharmacist experiences, and implementation factors. METHODS: A pharmacist-provided HIV POCT program was offered in 4 pharmacies in two Canadian provinces. A mixed methods design incorporated self-report questionnaire data, participant telephone interviews, pharmacist focus groups, workload analysis, and situational analysis to assess the uptake, acceptability and feasibility of the HIV POCT program. RESULTS: Over the 6-month pilot, 123 HIV tests were performed. One new case of HIV was identified; this participant was linked with confirmatory testing and HIV care. Participants were predominantly male (76%), with a mean age of 35 years. This was the first HIV test for 27% participants, and 75% were at moderate to very high risk of undiagnosed HIV infection, by Denver HIV Risk Score. Questionnaires and telephone interviews showed participants were very satisfied with the program; 99% agreed HIV POCT should be routinely offered in pharmacies and 78% were willing to pay for the service. Participants felt the pharmacy was convenient, discreet, and that the pharmacist was supportive and provided education about how to reduce their future risk. Pharmacists felt prepared, confident, and expressed professional satisfaction with offering HIV POCT. Community and public health supports, clear linkage to care plans to refer participants with positive HIV POCT results, and provision of counselling tools were important enabling factors for the program. Pharmacist remuneration, integration with existing healthcare systems, and support for ongoing promotion of HIV POCT availability in pharmacies were identified as needs for future scale-up and sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: A successful model of pharmacy-based POCT, including linkage to care, was developed. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach in finding new diagnoses and linking them with care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03210701) on July 6, 2017.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/organização & administração , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 396, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past several years, there has been more emphasis on integration within health care. Community pharmacy is often under-represented within integrated care models. This study explored stakeholder perceptions and enablers of including community pharmacy within an integrated care model. METHODS: A qualitative study was undertaken. Participants were recruited through professional networks and social media, as well as snowball recruitment from other participants. They included community pharmacists, clinicians, and decision-makers working in Ontario, Canada. Data were collected using telephone interviews completed with a semi-structured interview guide based on Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research from June to September 2018. Data were analysed inductively and deductively following the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. An additional theoretical framework (Rainbow Model of Integrated Care) was used to categorize enablers. RESULTS: Twenty-two participants were interviewed including nine pharmacists, seven clinicians, and six decision-makers. Three key themes were identified: 1) Positive value of including pharmacy in integrated care models; 2) One model does not fit all; and 3) Conflict of interest. Four key enablers were identified reflecting functional and normative factors: functional - 1) remuneration, 2) technology; normative - 3) engagement, and 4) relationships. While both functional and normative factors were discussed, the latter seemed to be more important to facilitate the inclusion of community pharmacy. Many participants characterized community pharmacists' lack of skills or confidence to provide patient care. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms previously known views about concerns with community pharmacy's conflict of interest. However, discordant perceptions of conflict of interest and negative perceptions about capabilities of community pharmacy need to be addressed for successful integration. Normative enablers, such as culture, are likely important for organizational integration and require additional inquiry.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Farmacêuticos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Ontário , Farmácias , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Value Health ; 23(4): 451-460, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the cost-effectiveness of pharmacy-based intranasal naloxone distribution to high-risk prescription opioid (RxO) users. METHODS: We developed a Markov model with an attached tree for pharmacy-based naloxone distribution to high-risk RxO users using 2 approaches: one-time and biannual follow-up distribution. The Markov structure had 6 health states: high-risk RxO use, low-risk RxO use, no RxO use, illicit opioid use, no illicit opioid use, and death. The tree modeled the probability of an overdose happening, the overdose being witnessed, naloxone being available, and the overdose resulting in death. High-risk RxO users were defined as individuals with prescription opioid doses greater than or equal to 90 morphine milligram equivalents (MME) per day. We used a monthly cycle length, lifetime horizon, and US healthcare perspective. Costs (2018) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were discounted 3% annually. Microsimulation was performed with 100 000 individual trials. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: One-time distribution of naloxone prevented 14 additional overdose deaths per 100 000 persons, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $56 699 per QALY. Biannual follow-up distribution led to 107 additional lives being saved with an ICER of $84 799 per QALY compared with one-time distribution. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed that a biannual follow-up approach would be cost-effective 50% of the time at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100 000 per QALY. Naloxone effectiveness and proportion of overdoses witnessed were the 2 most influential parameters for biannual distribution. CONCLUSION: Both one-time and biannual follow-up naloxone distribution in community pharmacies would modestly reduce opioid overdose deaths and be cost-effective at a WTP of $100 000 per QALY.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Analgésicos Opioides/economia , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/economia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Overdose de Drogas/economia , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Naloxona/economia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Risco
20.
Med J Aust ; 212(7): 314-320, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the community pharmacy supply of naloxone by supply type - individual prescription, prescriber bag, and non-dispensed (supplied over the counter or expired) - during 2014-2018; to examine whether the 2016 rescheduling of naloxone as an over-the-counter drug influenced non-dispensed naloxone supply volume. DESIGN, SETTING: Analysis of monthly naloxone prescriptions (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme) and sales data (IQVIA), 2014-2018, for Australia and by state and territory; time series analysis of non-dispensed naloxone supply to assess effect of rescheduling on naloxone supply. MAJOR OUTCOMES: Total naloxone supply to community pharmacies; prescribed and non-dispensed naloxone supply. RESULTS: During 2014-2018, 372 351 400 µg units of naloxone were sold to community pharmacies: non-dispensed naloxone accounted for 205 866.5 units (55.3%), prescriber bags for 155 841 units (41.8%), and individual prescriptions for 10 643.5 units (2.9%). Population-adjusted national naloxone sales to community pharmacies increased between 2014 and 2018 (per year: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-2.22). This increase was primarily attributable to increased volumes of prescriber bag naloxone (IRR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.50-1.78) and, to a lesser extent, increased individual prescription supply (IRR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.85-2.26). Non-dispensed naloxone supply volume was unchanged at the national level (IRR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.85-1.01); changes in non-dispensed supply immediately following rescheduling and subsequently were not statistically significant in time series analyses for most jurisdictions. CONCLUSIONS: Total naloxone supply to community pharmacies in Australia increased between 2014 and 2018, but rescheduling that enabled over-the-counter access did not significantly influence the volume of non-dispensed naloxone.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Austrália , Comércio/tendências , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Lineares , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribução , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/provisão & distribução , Estudos Retrospectivos
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