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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180451, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101983

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of patients in cancer treatment, their family caregivers, the care provided with the overload, as well as between overload and the care skills. Method: a cross-sectional study conducted at the chemotherapy and radiotherapy services of a university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) from March to August 2017, with 132 family caregivers of patients in cancer treatment. Data was collected by an instrument that characterizes patients, caregivers and care (the Brazilian version of the Caring Ability Inventory) and the Zarit Overload Scale. The following coefficients were used: Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis. Results: there was a significant relationship between the total overload and the patient's level of dependence (p=0.021) and help from others (p=0.009). The "care impact" factor was significantly related with the patient's level of dependence (p=0.006), the caregiver's gender (p=0.035) and the care help (p=0.043). Regarding the "perception of self-efficacy" factor, there was a significant relationship involving the caregiver's age (p=0.036) and, in the "caregiver expectation" factor, a significant relationship was observed with the care help (p=0.002). There was a significant and negative correlation between the total care skill and the overload factor related to interpersonal relationship (p=0.035); and between the "courage" dimension and the "perception of self-efficacy" (p=0.032) and "interpersonal relationship" (p=0.008) factors. Conclusion: the characteristics of the patient, the caregiver and the care provided influence the overload of the family caregiver, and this overload, in turn, interferes with the care skills. These results should be considered when planning interventions that aim to guide and prepare family caregivers for home care.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la asociación de las características de pacientes en tratamiento oncológico, las de sus cuidadores familiares y las de los cuidados prestados con la sobrecarga, y entre esta última y la habilidade de cuidado. Método: estudio transversal desarrollado en los servicios de quimioterapia y radioterapia de un hospital universitario de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), entre marzo y agosto de 2017, con 132 cuidadores familiares de pacientes en tratamiento oncológico. Los datos se recolectaron por medio de un instrumento para caracterizar a los pacientes, a los cuidadores y a los cuidados, la versión brasileña del Caring Ability Inventory, y por medio de la Escala de Sobrecarga de Zarit. Se utilizaron los siguientes coeficientes: correlación de Spearman, Mann-Whitney o Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: se observó una asociación significativa de la sobrecarga total con el grado de dependencia del paciente (p=0,021) y la ayuda de terceros para prestar los cuidados (p=0,009). El factor "impacto de los cuidados" se asoció de manera significativa con el grado de dependencia del paciente (p=0,006), el sexo del cuidador (p=0,035) y la ayuda para ofrecer los cuidados (p=0,043). En el factor "percepción de la autoeficiencia" se registró una asociación significativa con la edad del cuidador (p=0,036) y en el factor "expectativa con respecto a ofrecer los cuidados" se observó una asociación significativa con la ayuda para ofrecerlos (p=0,002). Se registró una asociación significativa y negativa entre la habilidad total de los cuidados y el factor de la sobrecarga relacionado con la relación interpersonal (p=0,035); y de la dimensión "coraje" y los factores "percepción de la autoeficiencia" (p=0,032) y relación interpersonal (p=0,008). Conclusión: las características del paciente, del cuidador y de los cuidados prestados influyen sobre la sobrecarga del cuidador familiar; y dicha sobrecarga, a su vez, interfiere en la habilidade de cuidar. Estos resultados deben ser considerados al planificar intervenciones destinadas a orientar y preparar a los cuidadores familiares para prestar cuidados domiciliarios.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a associação entre as características de pacientes em tratamento oncológico, de seus cuidadores familiares e do cuidado prestado com a sobrecarga, e desta com a habilidade de cuidado. Método: estudo transversal desenvolvido nos serviços de quimioterapia e radioterapia de um hospital universitário do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), no período de março a agosto de 2017, com 132 cuidadores familiares de pacientes em tratamento oncológico. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento de caracterização dos pacientes, dos cuidadores e do cuidado, - versão brasileira do Caring Ability Inventory e a Escala de Sobrecarga de Zarit. Os seguintes coeficientes foram utilizados: correlação de Spearman, Mann-Whitney ou Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: foi observada associação significativa da sobrecarga total com o grau de dependência do paciente (p=0,021) e auxílio de terceiros para o cuidado (p=0,009). O fator impacto de cuidado associou-se de modo significativo com o grau de dependência do paciente (p=0,006), sexo do cuidador (p=0,035) e auxílio para o cuidado (p= 0,043). No fator percepção de autoeficácia houve associação significativa com a idade do cuidador (p=0,036) e, no fator expectativa face ao cuidar, observou-se associação significativa com o auxílio para o cuidado (p=0,002). Houve correlação significativa e negativa entre a habilidade de cuidado total e o fator da sobrecarga relacionado à relação interpessoal (p=0,035); e da dimensão coragem e os fatores percepção de autoeficácia (p=0,032) e relação interpessoal (p=0,008). Conclusão: as características do paciente, do cuidador e do cuidado prestado influenciam na sobrecarga do cuidador familiar e esta, por sua vez, interfere na habilidade de cuidado. Esses resultados devem ser considerados no planejamento de intervenções que visem orientar e preparar os cuidadores familiares para cuidados domiciliares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Família , Enfermagem , Cuidadores , Assistência Domiciliar , Neoplasias , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4185-4195, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027355

RESUMO

This study discusses the reorganization of the Community Health Workers (CHWs) work process as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, considering its importance as a link between the community and the health services in the field of basic care. The literature review comes from the following databases: Virtual Health Library, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and the Brazilian Scientific Publications Portal databases in open access and document review of technical and normative notes from the Municipal Health Secretariats in Brazil. The analysis was based on the premises of Primary Health Care and on the axes of the CHW work, especially cultural competence and community orientation, aiming to discuss the changes introduced in this work regarding the following aspects: 1) health teams support, 2) use of telehealth, and 3) health education. This study concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic demanded reorganization of the work process and assistance flows in the field of basic care. In order for the CHW to continue developing their activities it is necessary to guarantee decent working conditions, training and continuing education, including the concern about the possible discontinuity of other care needed to ensure the population health care in the territory.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Coleta de Dados , Educação em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina
3.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(10): 584-592, 2020 10.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The MonCOVID study aimed to assess the feasibility of early home management and monitoring of patients with suspected or confirmed CoViD-19, and to evaluate if this would ensure a rapid and adequate transfer to hospital care. METHODS: This pilot, open-label, single-arm study included adult symptomatic patients with suspected or confirmed CoViD-19 for whom the general practitioner or other carer had decided not to proceed to hospitalization. Participants were monitored daily at home, by measuring the pulse oximetry (SpO2) at rest and after a rapid walking test. The study assessed feasibility outcomes (at least 80% of patients recommended to be sent to the competent emergency room actually transferred within 24 hours from reporting) and efficacy (SpO2 at emergency room admission). Patients with SpO2 values below 90% (86% if affected by chronic pulmonary diseases) at rest or with a decrease in SpO2 of five percentage points after a rapid walking test were recommended for hospital care. RESULTS: Thirty-seven participants reported by the local health unit of Alessandria and the Metropolitan City of Turin were included in the study. Enrollment, initially planned for two months to reach a target of 340, was interrupted early due to the drastic reduction in the number of cases. On average, each participant was monitored for 8.2 (median 6.0) days, for a total of 302 visits. The participants showed milder symptoms than those observed in the first phase of the epidemic, at least in terms of pulmonary impairment. No patient had a decrease in SpO2 of 5 percentage points or greater and only one patient required hospitalization due to a worsening of the disease. DISCUSSION: The cases collected were not sufficient to demonstrate or refute the hypothesis of the monitoring test effectiveness. However, the study showed the feasibility of such a program, and raised some elements of interest regarding hospital territory integration, the need to develop tools to support home care and the variability of the clinical manifestations of the CoViD-19 disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Oximetria , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Teste de Caminhada , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 47(5): 439-444, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing health care at a distance has evolved over the past decades, resulting in a myriad of terms and styles of care delivery. Telehealth is defined as any health care service delivered at a distance. Nursing services have been delivered by a wide range of specialty nurses for many years using various technological formats. Clinical experience suggests that few WOC nurses had extensively adopted these technologies and principles into their practice as recently as 2019. However, the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has forced both administrators and clinicians to rapidly adapt or introduce telemedicine technologies to deliver specialty care including WOC nurse services. CASES: Three WOC nurses were chosen to describe the use of telehealth technologies to illustrate opportunities for WOC nurses to integrate telehealth nursing into a health care setting. Two adapted telehealth technology into their practice before the pandemic, and one started telehealth practice as a means to provide care after the onset of the pandemic. Disadvantages and advantages are discussed to provide further information regarding WOC patient care using these technologies. CONCLUSION: The pandemic crisis has accelerated the need for health care to reimagine the delivery of care to patients. Telehealth technologies and principles have emerged as essential for WOC nurses to deliver safe and effective care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Especialidades de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Pandemias
5.
Rev Infirm ; 69(263): 26-27, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993900

RESUMO

Body and culture, nursing approach in home care. Working extremely closely with patients' bodies when they provide care in the home, nurses interact with households' private spheres. The intercultural dimension of their competencies enables them to approach the references and beliefs of their patients and to create with them the conditions favourable to the provision of care and relief for their unhealthy bodies.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Corpo Humano , Características Culturais , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938009

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic found Italy unprepared to cope with the large concentrated numbers of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who often required hospital admission and in many cases intensive care. This pandemic very quickly overwhelmed the Italian Healthcare System. This paper describes the Active Home Surveillance System (Operations Center for Discharged Patients; COD19) and the Home Hospital Care System (COD20) and presents the clinical data collected and the level of user satisfaction with the service. The Operations Center for Discharged Patients (COD19) is an active surveillance service for home-care patients which involves: (1) monitoring critical clinical conditions; (2) recognizing social and health issues; (3) and providing necessary clinical services in the form of a telemedicine service. COD20 is a patient-specialist video consultation service that allows to perform an assessment of clinical conditions and any need to visit; defining the priority of access to specialist outpatient visits in the presence or manageable with the new video consultation model. This service was immediately necessary during the COD19 monitoring. COD19 and COD20 are based on the Amazon Web Services Serverless certified platform. The COD19 and COD20 platform can be intrinsically utilized for future epidemic outbreaks; also those with non-respiratory transmission; and is sufficiently flexible to adapt to natural catastrophes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1741-1744, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969609

RESUMO

With the constant increase in life expectancy and the development of chronic diseases in the elderly population, the General Direction of Health of the Canton of Vaud has developed a community plan to strengthen the care of residents in psychological crisis. This strong position of Public Health has made it possible to carry out an ambitious project, with a view to « care management ¼ in elderly psychiatry, involving partners from the care network and promoting care at the place of residence of the individual. This project made it possible to develop recommendations for the strengthening of local and outpatient care, in order to reduce the systematic recourse to hospitalization, and the increase in functional dependence of the elderly on leaving the hospital.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Psiquiatria , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida
8.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 9391251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908584

RESUMO

In this paper, a utility-based multicriteria model is proposed to support the physicians to deal with an important medical decision-the screening decision problem-given the squeeze put on resources due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the COVID-19 emerged, the number of patients with an acute respiratory failure has increased in the health units. This chaotic situation has led to a deficiency in health resources. Thus, this study, using the concepts of the multiattribute utility theory (MAUT), puts forward a mathematical model to aid physicians in the screening decision problem. The model is used to generate which of the three alternatives is the best one for where patients with suspected COVID-19 should be treated, namely, an intensive care unit (ICU), a hospital ward, or at home in isolation. Also, a decision information system, called SIDTriagem, is constructed and illustrated to operate the mathematical model proposed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Conceitos Matemáticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Triagem/métodos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015470, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876682

RESUMO

Importance: Home health care is one of the fastest growing postacute services in the US and is increasingly important in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 and payment reform, yet it is unknown whether patients who need home health care are receiving it. Objective: To examine how often patients referred to home health care at hospital discharge receive it and whether there is evidence of disparities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used Medicare data regarding the postacute home health care setting from October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016. The participants were Medicare fee-for-service and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries who were discharged alive from a hospital with a referral to home health care (2 379 506 discharges). Statistical analysis was performed from July 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Hospital referral to home health care. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included whether discharges received their first home health care visit within 14 days of hospital discharge and the number of days between hospital discharge and the first home health visit. Differences in the likelihood of receiving home health care across patient, zip code, and hospital characteristics were also examined. Results: Among 2 379 506 discharges from the hospital with a home health care referral, 1 358 697 patients (57.1%) were female, 468 762 (19.7%) were non-White, and 466 383 (19.6%) were dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid; patients had a mean (SD) age of 73.9 (11.9) years and 4.1 (2.1) Elixhauser comorbidities. Only 1 284 300 patients (54.0%) discharged from the hospital with a home health referral received home health care services within 14 days of discharge. Of the remaining 1 095 206 patients (46.0%) discharged, 37.7% (896 660 discharges) never received any home health care, while 8.3% (198 546 discharges) were institutionalized or died within 14 days without a preceding home health care visit. Patients who were Black or Hispanic received home health at lower rates than did patients who were White (48.0% [95% CI, 47.8%-48.1%] of Black and 46.1% [95% CI, 45.7%-46.5%] of Hispanic discharges received home health within 14 days compared with 55.3% [95% CI, 55.2%-55.4%] of White discharges). In addition, disadvantaged patients waited longer for their first home health care visit. For example, patients living in high-unemployment zip codes waited a mean of 2.0 days (95% CI, 2.0-2.0 days), whereas those living in low-unemployment zip codes waited 1.8 days (95% CI, 1.8-1.8 days). Conclusions and Relevance: Disparities in the use of home health care remain an issue in the US. As home health care is increasingly presented as a safer alternative to institutional postacute care during coronavirus disease 2019, and payment reforms continue to pressure hospitals to discharge patients home, ensuring the availability of safe and equitable care will be crucial to maintaining high-quality care.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare , Medicare Part C , Alta do Paciente , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
10.
Chest ; 158(3): e93-e97, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892893

RESUMO

A subset of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and lung involvement pose a disposition challenge, particularly when hospital resources are constrained. Those not in respiratory failure are sent home, often with phone monitoring and/or respiratory rate and oxygen saturation monitoring. Hypoxemia may be a late presentation and is often preceded by abnormal lung findings on ultrasound. Early identification of pulmonary progression may preempt emergency hospitalization for respiratory decompensation and facilitate more timely admission. With the goal of safely isolating infected patients while providing advanced monitoring, we present a first report of patient self-performed lung ultrasound in the home with a hand-held device under the guidance of a physician using a novel teleguidance platform.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21988, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Not only has the placement rate of enteral feeding tubes during operations for esophageal cancer increased, but also has number of patients who choose to continue enteral feeding at home instead of removing the feeding tube at discharge. The impacts of home enteral nutrition (HEN) after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients are analyzed. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines. English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, CBM, CNKI, and Wan Fang were searched from inception to December 7, 2019. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the short-term outcomes of HEN following esophagectomy in cancer patients were included. The risk of bias of the included studies was appraised according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The summary of relative risk/weighted mean difference (WMD) estimates and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. RESULTS: Nine randomized controlled trials involving 757 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with oral diet, HEN was associated with significantly increased body weight (WMD 3 kg, 95% CI 2.36-3.63, P < .001), body mass index (WMD 0.97 kg/m, 95% CI 0.74-1.21, P < .001), albumin (WMD 3.43 g/L, 95% CI 2.35-4.52, P < .001), hemoglobin (WMD 7.23 g/L, 95% CI 5.87-8.59, P < .001), and total protein (WMD 5.13 g/L, 95% CI 3.7-6.56, P < .001). No significant differences were observed in prealbumin and gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Physical (WMD 8.82, 95% CI 6.69-10.95, P < .001) and role function (WMD 12.23, 95% CI 2.72-21.74, P = .01) were also significantly better in the HEN group. The nausea/vomiting (WMD -5.43, 95% CI -8.29 to -2.57, P = .002) and fatigue symptoms (WMD -11.76, 95% CI -16.21 to -7.32, P < .001) were significantly reduced. Appetite loss (WMD -8.48, 95% CI -14.27 to -4.88, P = .001), diarrhea (WMD -3.9, 95% CI -7.37 to -0.43, P = .03), and sleep disturbance (WMD -7.64, 95% CI -12.79 to -2.5, P = .004) in the HEN group were also significantly less than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: HEN improved nutrition status, physical and role function, and reduced nausea/vomiting, fatigue, appetite loss, diarrhea, and sleep disturbance compared with an oral diet in esophageal cancer patients postsurgery. HEN did not increase adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Esofagectomia/reabilitação , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Humanos
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 333, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lockdown imposed in the UK on the 23rd of March and associated public health measures of social distancing are likely to have had a great impact on care provision. The aim of this study was to explore the decision-making processes of continued paid home care support for dementia in the time of COVID-19. METHODS: Unpaid carers caring for a person living with dementia (PLWD) who were accessing paid home care before COVID-19 and residing in the UK were eligible to take part. Participants were interviewed over the phone and asked about their experiences of using paid home care services before and since COVID-19, and their decision-making processes of accessing paid home care since the outbreak and public health restrictions. RESULTS: Fifteen unpaid carers, who were also accessing paid care support for the PLWD before COVID-19, were included in the analysis. Thematic analysis identified three overarching themes: (1) Risk; (2) Making difficult choices and risk management; and (3) Implications for unpaid carers. Many unpaid carers decided to discontinue paid carers entering the home due to the risk of infection, resulting in unpaid carers having to pick up the care hours to support the person living with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report on the impact of COVID-19 on paid home care changes in dementia. Findings raise implications for providing better Personal Protective Equipment for paid carers, and to support unpaid carers better in their roles, with the pandemic likely to stay in place for the foreseeable future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Cuidadores/economia , Demência/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 44(4): 319-321, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762205

RESUMO

Risk management of medical devices covers the whole life cycle of medical devices, which is of great significance to the life safety and health condition of patients. The existing risk management of medical devices, especially the risk analysis in the research and development stage, often becomes a mere formality. The special risks faced by the research and development products in the clinical application scenarios are not well addressed. This study proves the necessity and importance of the combination of risk analysis and clinical application in the research and development stage of medical devices by the analysis of several special hazard sources in the process of clinical application of portable emergency ventilator.


Assuntos
Ventiladores Mecânicos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos
14.
Chron Respir Dis ; 17: 1479973120952418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify exercise tests that are suitable for home-based or remote administration in people with chronic lung disease. METHODS: Rapid review of studies that reported home-based or remote administration of an exercise test in people with chronic lung disease, and studies reporting their clinimetric (measurement) properties. RESULTS: 84 studies were included. Tests used at home were the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, two studies), sit-to-stand tests (STS, five studies), Timed Up and Go (TUG, 4 studies) and step tests (two studies). Exercise tests administered remotely were the 6MWT (two studies) and step test (one study). Compared to centre-based testing the 6MWT distance was similar when performed outdoors but shorter when performed at home (two studies). The STS, TUG and step tests were feasible, reliable (intra-class correlation coefficients >0.80), valid (concurrent and known groups validity) and moderately responsive to pulmonary rehabilitation (medium effect sizes). These tests elicited less desaturation than the 6MWT, and validated methods to prescribe exercise were not reported. DISCUSSION: The STS, step and TUG tests can be performed at home, but do not accurately document desaturation with walking or allow exercise prescription. Patients at risk of desaturation should be prioritised for centre-based exercise testing when this is available.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Pneumopatias , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039305, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) randomised controlled trial (RCT) is evaluating a home-based, face-to-face, individually tailored, activity and exercise programme for people living with dementia. Social distancing requirements following the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid changes to intervention delivery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-methods process evaluation will investigate how the changes were implemented and the impact that these have on participants' experience. An implementation study will investigate how the intervention was delivered during the pandemic. A study on the mechanisms of impact and context will investigate how these changes were experienced by the PrAISED participants, their carers and the therapists delivering the intervention. The study will commence in May 2020. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PrAISED RCT and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059. The PrAISED process evaluation will enable us to understand how distancing and isolation affected participants, their activity and exercise routines and whether the therapy programme could be continued with remote support. This will be valuable both in explaining trial results and also contribute to understanding and designing new ways of delivering home-based services and rehabilitation interventions for people with dementia and their carers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15320670; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Demência/terapia , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Vida Independente , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Atividades Cotidianas , Betacoronavirus , Cuidadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Isolamento Social
16.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(3)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855158

RESUMO

Reforming the delivery of outpatient appointments (OPA) was high on the healthcare policy agenda prior to COVID-19. The current pandemic exacerbates the financial and associated resource limitations of OPA. Videoconsulting provides a safe method of real-time contact for some remotely residing patients with hospital-based clinicians. One factor in failing to move from introduction of service change to its general adoption may be lack of patient and public involvement. This project, based in the largest Island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, aimed to codesign the use of the NHS Near Me video consulting platform for OPA to take place in the patient's home. A codesign model was used as a framework. This included: step 1-presenting a process flow map of the current system of using Near Me to public participants and establishing their ideas on various steps in the process, step 2-conducting numerous Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) tests and creating a current process flow diagram based on learning and step 3-conducting telephone interviews and thematic analysis of transcripts (n=7) to explore participants' perceptions of being involved in the codesign process. Twenty-five adaptations were made to the Near Me at Home video appointment process from participants' PDSA testing. Four themes were identified from thematic analysis of participants' feedback of the codesign process, namely: altruistic motivation, valuing community voices, the usefulness of the PDSA cycles and the power of 'word of mouth'. By codesigning the use of Near Me with people living in a remote area of Scotland, multiple adaptations were made to the processes to suit the context in which Near Me at Home will be used. Learning from testing and adapting with the public will likely be useful for others embarking on codesign approaches to improve spread and sustainability of quality improvement projects.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Agendamento de Consultas , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Escócia/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração
17.
Med Care ; 58(9): 805-814, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine site of death and hospice use, identifying potential disparities among veterans dying in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Home Based Primary Care (VA-HBPC). METHODS: Administrative data (2008, 2012, and 2016) were compiled using the VA Residential-History-File which tracks health care service location, daily. Outcomes were site of death [home, nursing home (NH), hospital, inpatient hospice]; and hospice use on the day of death. We compared VA-HBPC rates to rates of 2 decedent benchmarks: VA patients and 5% Traditional Medicare non-veteran males. Potential age, race, urban/rural residence and living alone status disparities in rates among veterans dying in VA-HBPC in 2016 were examined by multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: In 2016, 7796 veterans died in VA-HBPC of whom 62.1% died at home, 11.8% in NHs, 14.7% in hospitals and 11.4% in inpatient hospice. Hospice was provided to 60.9% of veterans dying at home and 63.9% of veterans dying in NH. Over the 2008-2012-2016 period, rates of VA-HBPC veterans who died at home and rates of home death with hospice increased and were higher than both benchmarks. Among VA-HBPC decedents, younger/older veterans were more/less likely to die at home and less/more likely to die with hospice. Race/ethnicity and urban/rural residence were unrelated to death at home but veterans living alone were less likely to die at home. CONCLUSIONS: Results reflect VA-HBPC's primary goal of supporting its veterans at home, including at the end-of-life, surpassing other population benchmarks with some potential disparities remaining.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos
19.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 967-973, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815272

RESUMO

AIM: In Japan, the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system is important for elderly people living at home; however, no clinical studies have revealed a relationship between home- or community-based services and outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter cohort study of patients with AHF enrolled between April 2015 and August 2017. Patients aged ≥65 years with LTCI were divided into those receiving home- and community-based services (service users) and without home and community-based services (service non-users). The endpoint was defined as a composite endpoint, which included all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure after discharge. Subgroup analyses were performed for elderly patients (<85 years) or super-elderly patients (≥85 years). RESULTS: The study participants were eligible for LTCI two times more than community-dwelling people were. At the 1-year follow-up period, the rate of the composite endpoint showed no significant difference between service users and service non-users among all patients or super-elderly patients. However, in elderly patients, the rate of the composite endpoint was significantly lower among service users than service non-users. The difference was independently maintained even after adjustments for differences in comorbidities or in social backgrounds (adjusted hazard ratio 0.62; 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.99, and adjusted hazard ratio 0.57; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.90, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, adverse events following discharge of patients with AHF who used home- and community-based services were prevented only in elderly patients, not in super-elderly patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 967-973.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
20.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52619

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To analyze characteristics, enrollments and completion rates of healthcare professionals enrolled in Self-Instructional Online Courses of the Home Health Care Multicentre Qualification Program, developed by the Ministry of Health and the Universidade Aberta do SUS (UNASUS), and its relationship with Home Health Care Teams implementation. Methods. Data were extracted from the Self-Instructional Online Courses’ UNASUS enrollment platform database (2012-2018), cross-referenced with the Health Facilities’ National Database and compared to Home Care General Coordination team’s database. Main outcomes were completion rates and number of courses enrollments, analyzed by sex, age, region, location, profession, workplace, health teams and course type. Results. Men applied to courses slightly more than women and completion rates were higher (37.1 vs 30.5, p < 0.001); there was a small decline in completion rates by age groups (from 32.8% in 18-29 yr to 31.1% in 46-50 yr age group, p < 0.001) and a rise in course enrollment number, probably related to progressively “digital native” generations. Self-Instructional Online Courses were attended in all Brazilian states and reached all municipality sizes, with completion rates rising from 29.9% in the North to 37.3 in the South; 30-hour courses were completed by almost twice as many professionals as 45-hour and 60-hour courses, suggesting that modularity may improve completion rates. State distribution and national coverage suggest adequate range and coincidence between enrollment and Home Health Care Teams distribution. Conclusions. Regional aspects influence professional interaction with courses; the feminization of health professions and women’s lower completion rates suggest the need for a deeper gender perspective in health facilities and training services. Self- Instructional Online Courses for Home Health Care were an important outreach strategy, with professional’s doubts answered more contextually.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Analizar las características, inscripciones y tasas de finalización de los profesionales de la salud inscritos en los cursos de autoaprendizaje en línea del Programa de Cualificación Multicéntrico de Atención Domiciliaria (desarrollado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil y la Universidad Aberta do SUS, UNASUS), y su relación con la implementación de Equipos de Atención Domiciliaria. Métodos. Se extrajeron los datos de la base de datos de la plataforma de inscripción de cursos de autoaprendizaje en línea de la UNASUS (2012-2018); estos se cruzaron con los datos de la Base de Datos Nacional de Establecimientos de Salud y se compararon con la base de datos del equipo de Coordinación General de Atención Domiciliaria. Se analizaron las tasas de finalización y el número de inscripciones en los cursos según sexo, edad, región, ubicación, profesión, lugar de trabajo, equipo de salud y tipo de curso. Resultados. Los varones se inscribieron ligeramente más que las mujeres y las tasas de finalización fueron más elevadas (37,1 frente a 30,5, p < 0,001); hubo una pequeña disminución en las tasas de finalización según la edad (de 32,8% en el grupo de 18 a 29 años a 31,1% en el grupo de 46 a 50 años, p < 0,001) y un aumento en el número de inscripciones en los cursos, probablemente relacionado con generaciones progresivamente más “nativas digitales”. Los cursos tuvieron participantes de todos los estados brasileños y de municipios de todos los tamaños, con tasas de finalización que aumentaron del 29,9% en el norte del país al 37,3% en el sur; los cursos de 30 horas fueron completados por casi el doble de profesionales que los cursos de 45 y 60 horas, lo que sugiere que la modularidad puede mejorar las tasas de finalización. La distribución por estados y la cobertura nacional sugieren un rango adecuado y una coincidencia entre la matrícula de inscriptos y la distribución de los equipos de atención de salud domiciliaria. Conclusiones. Existen factores regionales que influyen en la interacción de los profesionales con los cursos; la feminización de las profesiones sanitarias y las menores tasas de finalización de las mujeres sugieren la necesidad de una perspectiva de género más profunda en los centros de salud y los servicios de capacitación. Los cursos de autoaprendizaje en línea para profesionales de atención de salud domiciliaria fueron una importante estrategia de divulgación, en la que las dudas de los profesionales se resolvieron de manera más contextual.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Educação Continuada , Educação , Educação a Distância , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Brasil , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Educação Continuada , Educação , Educação a Distância , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Brasil
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