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1.
N Z Med J ; 133(1524): 11-19, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119566

RESUMO

AIM: Recent changes in funding have reduced the cost of the highly effective levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LIUS) contraceptives (Mirena and Jaydess). This paper explores equity of access to intrauterine contraceptives for Maori and the general population by locating and surveying all potential providers within the Southern District Health Board catchment area. METHODS: Using online survey, e-mail or phone, we asked if intrauterine contraceptive insertion was provided, what device was provided, cost and number of appointments required. ArcGIS 10.6.1 software was used to estimate population distribution, and to create service areas showing distance to nearest current providers for Maori and the general population. RESULTS: All 88 potential providers agreed to participate; two thirds (66.3%) provided some intrauterine contraceptive insertion. Approximately three quarters of the Maori and general population live within 5km of a primary provider. Costs ranged from $0 to $270, in addition to the cost of the required consultations. Number of consultations required varied from one to three. CONCLUSIONS: Cost and travel time likely remain barriers to accessing intrauterine contraceptives for a significant population within this catchment. Increasing the capacity for all primary providers to offer insertion, funding the insertion process, minimising the number of appointments required and providing mobile services would improve access.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/economia , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/estatística & dados numéricos , Levanogestrel , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo , Nova Zelândia , Viagem
5.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(3): 1831717, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073725

RESUMO

In recent decades, bold steps taken by the government of Nepal to liberalise its abortion law and increase the affordability and accessibility of safe abortion and family planning have contributed to significant improvements in maternal mortality and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. The Trump administration's Global Gag Rule (GGR) - which prohibits foreign non-governmental organisations (NGOs) from receiving US global health assistance unless they certify that they will not use funding from any source to engage in service delivery, counselling, referral, or advocacy related to abortion - threatens this progress. This paper examines the impact of the GGR on civil society, NGOs, and SRH service delivery in Nepal. We conducted 205 semi-structured in-depth interviews in 2 phases (August-September 2018, and June-September 2019), and across 22 districts. Interview participants included NGO programme managers, government employees, facility managers and service providers in the NGO and private sectors, and service providers in public sector facilities. This large, two-phased study complements existing anecdotal research by capturing impacts of the GGR as they evolved over the course of a year, and by surfacing pathways through which this policy affects SRH outcomes. We found that low policy awareness and a considerable chilling effect cut across levels of the Nepali health system and exacerbated impacts caused by routine implementation of the GGR, undermining the ecology of SRH service delivery in Nepal as well as national sovereignty.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/economia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Política , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Nepal , Estados Unidos
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e043763, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether implementation of lockdown orders in South Africa affected ambulatory clinic visitation in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal (KZN). DESIGN: Observational cohort SETTING: Data were analysed from 11 primary healthcare clinics in northern KZN. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 46 523 individuals made 89 476 clinic visits during the observation period. EXPOSURE OF INTEREST: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis to estimate changes in clinic visitation with a focus on transitions from the prelockdown to the level 5, 4 and 3 lockdown periods. OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily clinic visitation at ambulatory clinics. In stratified analyses, we assessed visitation for the following subcategories: child health, perinatal care and family planning, HIV services, non-communicable diseases and by age and sex strata. RESULTS: We found no change in total clinic visits/clinic/day at the time of implementation of the level 5 lockdown (change from 90.3 to 84.6 mean visits/clinic/day, 95% CI -16.5 to 3.1), or at the transitions to less stringent level 4 and 3 lockdown levels. We did detect a >50% reduction in child healthcare visits at the start of the level 5 lockdown from 11.9 to 4.7 visits/day (-7.1 visits/clinic/day, 95% CI -8.9 to 5.3), both for children aged <1 year and 1-5 years, with a gradual return to prelockdown within 3 months after the first lockdown measure. In contrast, we found no drop in clinic visitation in adults at the start of the level 5 lockdown, or related to HIV care (from 37.5 to 45.6, 8.0 visits/clinic/day, 95% CI 2.1 to 13.8). CONCLUSIONS: In rural KZN, we identified a significant, although temporary, reduction in child healthcare visitation but general resilience of adult ambulatory care provision during the first 4 months of the lockdown. Future work should explore the impacts of the circulating epidemic on primary care provision and long-term impacts of reduced child visitation on outcomes in the region.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage has stagnated over the past decade and fallen short of WHO targets in Ethiopia. Community engagement strategies that reach beyond traditional health systems may reduce dropout and increase coverage. This evaluation assesses changes in immunization, postpartum family planning, and antenatal care coverage after implementation of an enhanced community engagement and defaulter tracing strategy, entitled "Fifth Child" project, across two districts in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State (BGRS), Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A formative evaluation was conducted to examine the contribution of the strategy on immunization, postpartum family planning and antenatal care utilization in Assosa and Bambasi districts of BGRS. The quantitative findings are presented here. Routine and project-specific data were analyzed to assess changes in uptake of childhood vaccinations, postpartum family planning and antenatal care. Between January 2013 and December 2016, pentavalent-3 coverage increased from 63% to 84% in Assosa, and from 78% to 93% in Bambasi. Similarly, measles vaccine coverage increased from 77% to 81% in Assosa, and from 59% to 86% in Bambasi. Approximately 54% of all eligible infants across both woredas defaulted on scheduled vaccinations at least once during the period. Among defaulting children, 84% were identified and subsequently caught up on the vaccinations missed. Secondary outcomes of postpartum family planning and antenatal care also increased in both woredas. CONCLUSION: The "Fifth Child" project likely contributed to enhanced immunization performance and increased utilization of immunization and select perinatal health services in two woredas of BGRS. Further research is required in order to determine the impact of this community engagement strategy.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Programas de Imunização , Assistência Perinatal , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Participação da Comunidade , Etiópia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22978, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126370

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the impact of epilepsy, myasthenia gravis (MG), and multiple sclerosis (MS) on pregnancy and family planning decision-making in a cohort of Saudi women. Women with epilepsy, MG, and MS were recruited consecutively at the time of their follow-up visits at a neurology clinic. Data were collected using 3 standardized questionnaires, and presented using descriptive statistics. A logistic regression was performed to determine variables associated with decisions regarding abstaining from pregnancy and encouraging other women to conceive. A total of 272 (83 epilepsy, 69 MG, and 120 MS) women with a mean age of 29.9 ±â€Š8.0 years participated. The proportion of women who abstained from or postponed pregnancy was 41.2% and 31.4%, respectively. The concerns mentioned most often were disease worsening during pregnancy, peripartum and postpartum, side effects of medications on the unborn child, and inability to care for the child. Older age was independently associated with the decision to abstain from pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 - 1.25). Higher knowledge levels were independently associated with encouraging other women to have children (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.11-1.53). Over 50% of women reported that they were not counseled on issues related to pregnancy and childbirth. In conclusion, we identified a major influence of epilepsy, MG, and MS on pregnancy and family planning. Comprehensive counseling programs are needed to help women with these neurological diseases make informed family-planning decisions.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Miastenia Gravis/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with mental illness have a special need for family planning as they carry a high risk of unplanned pregnancy, sexual violence and, the poor obstetric outcomes due to their mental illness, as well as teratogenicity from exposure to psychotropic medications lower antenatal care utilization. OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, and utilization of family planning and associated factors among women attending psychiatric outpatient clinics in Addis Ababa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 women attending the outpatient psychiatric clinics of three general and one specialized mental hospital in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. A structured and pretested questionnaire were administered by psychiatric nurses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of family planning methods. RESULT: Four hundred twenty-two participants who had follow up at the psychiatric outpatient departments participated in the study. Almost 88% of participants had an unintended pregnancy. Only 68% of study participant had ever heard about Family planning. Just over one third (38.6%) reported current use of at least one method of Family planning. Of those not using family planning 73.3% had no intention to have children. And 38.8% did not have any intention to use Family Planning in the future. Fear of drug-interaction with psychiatric medication was the most common reason not to use contraceptives. Having one or two children was associated with higher utilization of family planning [adjusted odds ratio (95%, confidence interval) 2.05 (1.06, 3.99)]. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the majority of women with mental illness were not using family planning methods. The Awareness of the Family planning methods is lower than the national average. Education and counselling about family planning for women attending psychiatric outpatient departments should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238653, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886923

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disrespect and abusive care is a violation of women's basic human rights and it is serious global problem that needs urgent intervention. Poor quality client-provider interaction is commonly reported from family planning programmes. In Ethiopia, disrespect and abusive care is very common (21-78%) across health facilities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the status of respectful family planning service (client-provider interaction) in Sidama zone, south Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: Health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2018. Data were collected from 920 family planning clients recruited from 40 randomly selected health facilities. The Mother on Respect index (MORi) questionnaire was used to collect the data through client exit interview. Partial proportional odds ordinal regression was employed to identify determinants of respectful family planning service. RESULT: Among family planning clients, the level of respectful family planning service was found to be zero (0%) in the very low respect category, 75(18.5%) in the low respect category, 382(41.52%) in moderate respect category and 463(50.33%) in high respect category. Being a short acting method client (AOR = 0.30, 95%CI [0.12, 0.72]), being an uneducated client (AOR = 0.39, 95%CI [0.25, 0.61]) or a client with elementary education (AOR = 0.41, 95%CI [0.23, 0.73]), client's poverty (AOR = 0.75, 95%CI [0.56, 0.99]), and long waiting time (AOR = 0.46, 95%CI [0.30, 0.69])significantly reduced the odds of moderate and high respect compared to low respect. Conversely, preference of male service providers, service providers' work satisfaction and health workers' prior training on respectful care significantly increased the odds of moderate and high respect. CONCLUSION: Considering the current strategy of zero tolerance for disrespect and abuse in Ethiopia, the level of respectful care in this study is sub-optimal. Short term training for service providers on respectful care seems valuable to enhance the level of respectful care for family planning clients irrespective of their socioeconomic background.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 671-677, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial progress in reducing pregnancy-related preventable morbidity and mortality, these remain unacceptably high in developing countries. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised recommendations for antenatal care (ANC) from a 4-visit model to a minimum of 8 ANC contacts to reduce perinatal mortality further and improve women's experience of care. The guidelines also recommend that the first ANC visit (ANC-1) should occur during the first trimester. OBJECTIVES: To describe the uptake of routine ANC and its associated factors in South Africa (SA) prior to the 2016 WHO recommendations, when the country recommended 4 ANC visits, to bring to light potential challenges in achieving the current recommendations. METHODS: Secondary data analyses were performed from 3 facility-based, cross-sectional national surveys, conducted to measure 6-week mother-to-child transmission of HIV and coverage of related interventions in SA. These surveys recruited mother-infant pairs attending selected public primary healthcare facilities for their infants' 6-week immunisation in 2010, 2011 -2012 and 2012 -2013. Quantitative questionnaires were used to gather sociodemographic and antenatal-to-peripartum information from Road to Health cards and maternal recall. The inclusion criteria for this secondary assessment were at least 1 ANC visit, the primary outcome being uptake of ≥4 ANC visits. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to: (i) identify maternal factors associated with ANC visits; and (ii) establish whether receiving selected ANC activities was associated with frequency or timing of ANC-1. RESULTS: Of the 9 470, 9 646 and 8 763 women who attended at least 1 ANC visit, only 47.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 45.4 -49.6), 55.6% (95% CI 53.2 -58.0) and 56.7% (95% CI 54.3 -59.1) adhered to ≥4 ANC visits, while 36.0% (95% CI 34.5 -37.5), 43.5% (95% CI 42.0 -45.1) and 50.8% (95% CI 49.3 -52.2) attended ANC-1 early (before 20 weeks' gestation) in 2010, 2011 -2012 and 2012 -2013, respectively. Multiparity and lower socioeconomic status were significantly associated with non-adherence to the 4-visit ANC recommendation, while a later survey year, higher education, being married, >19 years old, HIV-positive, planned pregnancy and knowing how HIV is transmitted vertically were strongly related to ≥4 ANC visits. The number of women who received selected ANC activities increased significantly with survey year and ≥4 ANC visits, but was not associated with timing of ANC-1. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increases in the uptake of ≥4 ANC visits and early ANC-1 rates between 2010 and 2013, these practices remain suboptimal. Adhering to ≥4 ANC visits improved coverage of selected ANC activities, implying that strengthening efforts to increase the uptake of ANC from at least 4 to 8, could improve overall outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estado Civil , Paridade , Cooperação do Paciente , Gravidez , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 218, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to 1) measure the percentage of women who received SMS-based family planning communication, and 2) its association with modern contraception and maternal healthcare services among mothers. In recent years, there has been a growing interest surrounding mobile phone-based health communication and service delivery methods especially in the areas of family planning and reproductive health. However, little is known regarding the role of SMS-based family planning communication on the utilisation of modern contraception and maternal healthcare services in low-resource settings. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 94,675 mothers (15-49 years) were collected from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in 14 low-and-middle-income countries. The outcome variables were self-reported use of modern contraception and basic maternal healthcare services (timely and adequate use of antenatal care, and of facility delivery services). Data were analysed using multivariate regression and random effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: The coverage of SMS-based family planning communication for the pooled sample was 5.4% (95%CI = 3.71, 7.21), and was slightly higher in Africa (6.04, 95%CI = 3.38, 8.70) compared with Asia (5.23, 95%CI = 1.60, 8.86). Among the countries from sub-Saharan Africa, Malawi (11.92, 95%CI = 11.17, 12.70) had the highest percent of receiving SMS while Senegal (1.24, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.53) had the lowest. In the multivariate analysis, SMS communication shown significant association with the use of facility delivery only (2.22 (95%CI = 1.95, 2.83). The strength of the association was highest for Senegal (OR = 4.70, 95%CI = 1.14, 7.33) and lowest for Burundi (OR = 1.5; 95%CI = 1.01, 2.74). Meta analyses revealed moderate heterogeneity both in the prevalence and the association between SMS communication and the utilisation of facility delivery. CONCLUSION: Although positively associated with using facility delivery services, receiving SMS on family planning does not appear to affect modern contraceptive use and other components of maternal healthcare services such as timely and adequate utilisation of antenatal care.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Comunicação , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(8): 336-343, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757980

RESUMO

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are a priority population for HIV prevention in high-burden settings. We evaluated psychosocial characteristics, behavioral risk factors for HIV, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and uptake among AGYW seeking contraceptive services at four public sector family planning (FP) clinics offering integrated PrEP delivery in Kisumu, Kenya. From October 2018 to June 2019, we approached all AGYW (aged 15-24 years) seeking contraception to participate in a survey following receipt of FP services and PrEP screening. Overall, 470 AGYW were screened for PrEP at their FP visit by facility staff and subsequently enrolled in the survey. Median age was 22 years (interquartile range 20-23), 22% of AGYW were in school, and 55% were married. The most frequent forms of contraception were implants and injectables (41% each). Over a third of AGYW (36%) reported low social support, 13% had symptoms of moderate to severe depression, and 3% reported intimate partner violence. Three-quarters (75%) of AGYW reported recent condomless sex and 42% suspected that their primary partner had other sexual partners. Most AGYW (89%) had previously heard of PrEP; 76% had at least one PrEP eligibility criterion as per national guidelines; however, only 4% initiated PrEP at their current FP visit. PrEP initiators more frequently had high HIV risk perception than noninitiators (85% vs. 10%, p < 0.001). Low perceived HIV risk (76%) and pill burden (51%) were common reasons for declining PrEP among AGYW with HIV behavioral risk factors. PrEP counseling should be tailored to AGYW to guide appropriate PrEP decision-making in this important population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(3): 1794412, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815492

RESUMO

In 2017, the Trump Administration reinstated and expanded the Global Gag Rule (GGR). This policy requires non-governmental organisations (NGOs) not based in the US to certify that they will not provide, counsel, refer, or advocate for abortion as a method of family planning in order to receive most categories of US global health assistance. Robust empirical evidence demonstrating the policy's impacts is acutely lacking. This paper describes the effects of the expanded GGR policy in Kenya eighteen months after its reinstatement. We conducted semi-structured interviews with purposively selected representatives of US- and non-US-based NGOs, as well as managers and health providers at public and private health facilities, between September 2018 and March 2019. Organisations reported critical funding loss as they were forced to choose between US government-funded projects and projects supporting safe abortion. This resulted in the fragmentation of sexual and reproductive health and HIV services, and closure of some service delivery programmes. At public and private health facilities, participants reported staffing shortages and increased stock-outs of family planning and safe abortion commodities. The expanded GGR's effects transcended abortion care by also disrupting collaboration and health promotion activities, strengthening opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights in some segments of Kenyan civil society and government. Our findings indicate that the GGR exposes and exacerbates the weaknesses and vulnerabilities of the Kenyan health system, and illuminates the need for action to mitigate these harms.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/economia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Política , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Estados Unidos
18.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(3): 1794411, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835637

RESUMO

The Trump Administration's Protecting Life in Global Health Assistance (PLGHA) significantly expands the "Global Gag Rule" - and, in so doing, weakens the global governance of abortion. By chilling debate, reducing transparency, ghettoising sexual and reproductive health and rights work, and interfering with research, PLGHA makes an already bad context demonstrably worse. Individual women suffer the most, as PLGHA inhibits ongoing efforts to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/economia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Política , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760153

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the desire of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to use contraceptives, the majority of them have challenges with access to contraceptive services. This is more evident in high fertility countries in SSA. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of unmet need for contraception among AGYW in selected high fertility countries in SSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from current Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) carried out between 2010 and 2018 in 10 countries in SSA were analysed. A sample size of 24,898 AGYW who were either married or cohabiting was used. Unmet need for contraception was the outcome variable in this study. The explanatory variables were age, marital status, occupation, educational level, frequency of reading newspaper/magazine, frequency of listening to radio, frequency of watching television and parity (individual level variables) and wealth quintile, sex of household head, place of residence and decision-maker in healthcare (household/community level variables). Descriptive and multilevel logistic regression analyses were carried out. The results of the multilevel logistic regression analyses were reported using adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The prevalence of unmet need for contraception in all the countries considered in this study was 24.9%, with Angola, recording the highest prevalence of 42.6% while Niger had the lowest prevalence of 17.8%. In terms of the individual level predictors, the likelihood of unmet need for contraception was low among AGYW aged 20-24 [aOR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.76-0.88], those with primary [aOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.13-1.31] and secondary/higher levels of formal education [aOR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.08-1.28, p < 0.001], cohabiting AGYW [aOR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.42-1.63] and AGYW with three or more births [aOR = 3.41; 95% CI = 3.02-3.85]. At the household/community level, the odds of unmet need for contraception was highest among poorer AGYW [aOR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.21-1.53], AGYW in female-headed households [aOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.13-1.33], urban AGYW [aOR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.11-1.32] and AGYW who took healthcare decisions alone [aOR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21]. CONCLUSION: This study has identified disparities in unmet need for contraception among AGYW in high fertility countries in SSA, with AGYW in Angola having the highest prevalence. Both individual and household/community level factors predicted unmet need for contraception among AGYW in this study. However, based on the ICC values, household/community level factors prevailed the individual level factors. Enhancing access to contraception among poorer AGYW, those in female-headed households, those in urban areas and those who take healthcare decisions alone by both governmental and non-governmental organisations in high fertility countries is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multinível/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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