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2.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(1): 40-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809455

RESUMO

The purpose of the Aging Well Nursing-Interprofessional Salon was to explore current local community healthcare issues for older adults and to develop innovative strategies that support and enhance their health. An initiative emerged from the salon that focuses on identifying caregivers to ensure their awareness of available support resources. We are in the process of developing a pilot plan that includes collaboration of PhD and doctorate of nursing practice students, nursing faculty, and community agencies that support older adults.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1467-1474, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719266

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to identify the frequency and goals of Internet usage to access health-related information among primary health care service clients. Methods: The study was conducted in a primary health care centre with a sample of 788 adults. The data were collected through a questionnaire developed by the researchers. Results: The results showed that 81% (n = 640) of the participants used the Internet. All Internet user participants reported that they used the Internet to access health-related information. Of the participants, 67% reported that they used the Internet primarily to obtain information about diseases with 94% reporting that they found the online information reliable and 92% reported that they did not confirm the information they obtained online. The frequency of Internet use to obtain health-related information increased with increase in the level of education of participants. Participants with higher education found the online information to be more reliable and comprehensible. The results showed that while the use of Internet to obtain health-related information was high, the information presented online was not always checked for accuracy. Conclusion: Hence, provision of current and evidence-based information on health-related websites is crucial to preserve community health care.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Serviços de Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 799, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Female Sex workers (FSW) and their clients accounted for 18% of the new HIV infections in 2015/2016. Special community-based HIV testing service delivery models (static facilities, outreaches, and peer to peer mechanism) were designed in 2012 under the Most At Risk Populations Frame work and implemented to increase access and utilization of HIV care services for key populations like female sex workers. However, to date there is no study that has been done to access the preference and uptake of different community-based HIV testing service delivery models used to reach FSW. We assessed preference and uptake of the current community-based HIV testing services delivery models that are used to reach FSW and identified challenges faced during the implementation of the models. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study design using quantitative (interview with the health workers in facilities providing services to female sex workers and interviews with FSWs) and qualitative (interviews with Ministry of Health staff, health workers, district health team members, program staff at different levels involved in delivery of HIV care services, FSWs and political leaders to assess for the enabling environment created to deliver the different community-based HIV testing services to FSWs along the Malaba-Kampala highway. Malaba - Kampala high way is one of the major high ways with many different hot spots where the actual buying and selling of sex takes place. We defined FSWs as any female, who undertakes sexual activity after consenting with a man for money or other items/benefits as an occupation or as a primary source of livelihood irrespective of site of operation within the past six months. We assessed the preference and uptake of different community based HIV testing services delivery model among FSWs based on two indicators, i.e., the proportion of FSWs who had an HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) in the last 12 months and the proportion of FSWs who were positive and linked to care. RESULTS: Overall, 86% (390/456) of the FSWs had taken an HIV test in the last 12 months. Of the 390 FSWs, 72% (279/390) had used static facilities, 25% (98/390) had used outreaches, and 3.3% (13/390) used peer to peer mechanisms to have an HIV test. Overall, 35% (159/390) of the FSWs who had taken an HIV test were HIV positive. Of the 159, 83% (132/159) were successfully linked into care. Ninety one percent (120/132) reported to have been linked into care by static facilities. Challenges experienced included; lack of trust in the results given during outreaches, failure to offer other testing services including hepatitis B and syphilis during outreaches, inconsistent supply of testing kits, condoms, STI drugs, and unfriendly health services due to the infrastructure and non-trained health workers delivering KP HIV testing services. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the FSWs had HCT services and were linked to care through static facilities. Community-based HIV testing service delivery models are challenged with inconsistent supply of HIV testing commodities and unfriendly services.. We recommended strengthening of all HIV testing community-based HIV testing service deliverymodels by ensuring constant supply of HIV testing/AIDS care commoditiesoffering FSW friendly services, and provision of comprehensive HIV/AIDS health care package.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 699, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is an emerging vector disease with frequent outbreaks in Nepal that pose a major threat to public health. Dengue control activities are mostly outbreak driven, and still lack systematic interventions while most people have poor health-related knowledge and practices. Mobile Short Message Service (SMS) represents a low-cost health promotion intervention that can enhance the dengue prevention knowledge and practices of the affected communities. This study aimed to explore the acceptability, appropriateness, and effectiveness of mobile SMS intervention in improving dengue control practices. METHODS: This study was an implementation research that used mixed-methods design with intervention. A total of 300 households were divided into three groups, i.e. one control group, one dengue prevention leaflet (DPL) only intervention group and one DPL with mobile SMS intervention group (DPL + SMS). We used a structured questionnaire to collect information regarding participants' knowledge and practice of dengue prevention. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants to measure acceptability and appropriateness of intervention. Mean difference with standard deviation (SD), one-way ANOVA, paired t-test and regression analyses were used to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. Thematic analysis was used to assess the acceptability, and appropriateness as well as barriers and enablers of the intervention. RESULTS: The DPL + SMS intervention produced significantly higher mean knowledge difference (32.7 ± 13.7 SD vs. 13.3 ± 8.8 SD) and mean practice difference (27.9 ± 11.4 SD vs 4.9 ± 5.4 SD) compared to the DPL only group (p = 0.000). Multivariate analysis showed that the DPL + SMS intervention was effective to increase knowledge by 28.6 points and practice by 28.1 points compared to the control group. The intervention was perceived as acceptable and appropriate by the study participants and key stakeholders. Perceived barriers included reaching private network users and poor network in geographically remote areas, while enabling factors included mobile phone penetration, low cost, and shared responsibility. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile SMS is an effective, acceptable and appropriate health intervention to improve dengue prevention practices in communities. This intervention can be adopted as a promising tool for health education against dengue and other diseases.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 154, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615526

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Africa, a majority of women bring their infant to health services for immunization, but few are checked in the postpartum (PP) period. The Missed opportunities for maternal and infant health (MOMI) EU-funded project has implemented a package of interventions at community and facility levels to uptake maternal and infant postpartum care (PPC). One of these interventions is the integration of maternal PPC in child clinics and infant immunization services, which proved to be successful for improving maternal and infant PPC. AIM: Taking stock of the progress achieved in terms of PPC with the implementation of the interventions, this paper assesses the economic cost of maternal PPC services, for health services and households, before and after the project start in Kaya health district (Burkina Faso). METHODS: PPC costs to health services are estimated using secondary data on personnel and infrastructure and primary data on time allocation. Data from two household surveys collected before and after one year intervention among mothers within one year PP are used to estimate the household cost of maternal PPC visits. We also compare PPC costs for households and health services with or without integration. We focus on the costs of the PPC intervention at days 6-10 that was most successful. RESULTS: The average unit cost of health services for days 6-10 maternal PPC decreased from 4.6 USD before the intervention in 2013 (Jan-June) to 3.5 USD after the intervention implementation in 2014. Maternal PPC utilization increased with the implementation of the interventions but so did days 6-10 household mean costs. Similarly, the household costs increased with the integration of maternal PPC to BCG immunization. CONCLUSION: In the context of growing reproductive health expenditures from many funding sources in Burkina Faso, the uptake of maternal PPC led to a cost reduction, as shown for days 6-10, at health services level. Further research should determine whether the increase in costs for households would be deterrent to the use of integrated maternal and infant PPC.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Redução de Custos/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/economia , Lactente , Cuidado Pós-Natal/economia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 693, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, itself a cardiovascular condition, is a significant risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is recognized as a major public health challenge in Ghana. Beginning in 2014, a collaborative team launched the community-based hypertension improvement program (ComHIP) in one health district in Ghana. The ComHIP project, a public-private partnership, tests a community-based model that engages the private sector and utilizes information and communication technology (ICT) to control hypertension. This paper, focuses on the various challenges associated with managing hypertension in Ghana, as reported by ComHIP stakeholders. METHODS: A total of 55 informants - comprising patients, health care professionals, licensed chemical sellers (LCS), national and sub-national policymakers - were purposively selected for interview and focus group discussions (FGDs). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Where applicable, transcriptions were translated directly from local language to English. The data were then analysed using two-step thematic analysis. The protocol was approved by the two ethics review committees based in Ghana and the third, based in the United Kingdom. All participants were interviewed after giving informed consent. RESULTS: Our data have implications for the on-going implementation of ComHIP, especially the importance of policy maker buy-in, and the benefits, as well as drawbacks, of the program to different stakeholders. While our data show that the ComHIP initiative is acceptable to patients and healthcare providers - increasing providers' knowledge on hypertension and patients' awareness of same- there were implementation challenges identified by both patients and providers. Policy level challenges relate to task-sharing bottlenecks, which precluded nurses from prescribing or dispensing antihypertensives, and LCS from stocking same. Medication adherence and the phenomenon of medical pluralism in Ghana were identified challenges. The perspectives from the national level stakeholders enable elucidation of whole of health system challenges to ComHIP and similarly designed programmes. CONCLUSIONS: This paper sheds important light on the patient/individual, and system level challenges to hypertension and related non-communicable disease prevention and treatment in Ghana. The data show that although the ComHIP initiative is acceptable to patients and healthcare providers, policy level task-sharing bottlenecks preclude optimal implementation of ComHIP.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pessoal Administrativo , Adulto , Conscientização , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Programas Governamentais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Médica , Setor Privado , Saúde Pública , Setor Público , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1326, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well documented that Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the world. The recent development of highly effective direct acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), has opened the possibility of treating and curing HCV infection in the Egyptian population on a large scale. METHODS: A screening demonstration project was implemented in southern Egypt in and around the city of Luxor. Free screening and if indicated, treatment, was offered to those 16 years or older for anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using third generation enzyme immunoassays (Enzygnost® Anti-HCV and HbsAg). Statistical methods included estimation of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: There was a large turnout of 67,042 persons who were screened in a 12-month period starting in June 2016. Thirty-one thousand nine hundred sixty-four males (47.7%) and 35,074 females (52.3%) were screened with a mean age of 43.6 ± 14.3 years. Nine thousand seven hundred one patients (14.5%) were positive for anti-HCV and 2950 (4.4%) for HBsAg. Prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly higher in males than females (19.67% vs.9.73% OR = 2.27; CI 2.2 to 2.4; p < 0.001) and the same for HBsAg (6.2% vs. 2.8% OR = 2.3; CI 2.2 to 2.5; p < 0.001). The prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), ranging from between 1 and 4% in individuals below the age of 40 years, then increased steadily to 42% at age 60 followed by a precipitous decline in age specific prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed unanticipated patterns in the Luxor area of anti-HCV and HBsAg by age and gender in contrast to previous reports on this unique HCV epidemic in Egypt. Moreover, the level and rate of turnout, cost, and other logistical issues, provided essential information for effective planning, design, and evaluation methods for larger national mass screening and treatment programs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1338, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a serious public health concern worldwide. Community-based obesity prevention interventions offer promise due to their focus on the broader social, cultural and environmental contexts rather than individual behaviour change and their potential for sustainability and scalability. This paper aims to determine the effectiveness of a South Australian community-based, multi-setting, multi-strategy intervention, OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle), in increasing healthy weight prevalence in 9 to 11-year-olds. METHODS: A quasi-experimental repeated cross-sectional design was employed. This paper reports on the anthropometric, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behaviour outcomes of primary school children (9-11 years) after 2-3 years of intervention delivery. Consenting children from primary schools (20 intervention communities, INT; 20 matched comparison communities, COMP) completed self-report questionnaires on diet, activity and screen time behaviours. HRQoL was measured using the Child Health Utility 9D. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and weight status were determined from children's measured height and weight. A multilevel mixed-effects model, accounting for clustering in schools, was implemented to determine intervention effect. Sequential Bonferroni adjustment was used to allow for multiple comparisons of the secondary outcomes. RESULTS: At baseline and final, respectively, 2611 and 1873 children completed questionnaires and 2353 and 1760 had anthropometric measures taken. The prevalence of children with healthy weight did not significantly change over time in INT (OR 1.11, 95%CI 0.92-1.35, p = 0.27) or COMP (OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.68-1.06, p = 0.14). Although changes in the likelihood of obesity, BMI z-score and HRQoL favoured the INT group, the differences were not significant after Bonferroni adjustment. There were also no significant differences between groups at final for behavioural outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: OPAL did not have a significant impact on the proportion of 9 to 11-year-olds in the healthy weight range, nor children's BMI z-score, HRQoL and behaviours. Long-term, flexible community-based program evaluation approaches are required . TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12616000477426 (12th April 2016, retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 765, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct Acting Antiviral (DAAs) drugs have a much lower burden of treatment and monitoring requirements than regimens containing interferon and ribavirin, and a much higher efficacy in treating hepatitis C (HCV). These characteristics mean that initiating treatment and obtaining a virological cure (Sustained Viral response, SVR) on completion of treatment, in non-specialist environments should be feasible. We investigated the English-language literature evaluating community and primary care-based pathways using DAAs to treat HCV infection. METHODS: Databases (Cinahl; Embase; Medline; PsycINFO; PubMed) were searched for studies of treatment with DAAs in non-specialist settings to achieve SVR. Relevant studies were identified including those containing a comparison between a community and specialist services where available. A narrative synthesis and linked meta-analysis were performed on suitable studies with a strength of evidence assessment (GRADE). RESULTS: Seventeen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria: five from Australia; two from Canada; two from UK and eight from USA. Seven studies demonstrated use of DAAs in primary care environments; four studies evaluated integrated systems linking specialists with primary care providers; three studies evaluated services in locations providing care to people who inject drugs; two studies evaluated delivery in pharmacies; and one evaluated delivery through telemedicine. Sixteen studies recorded treatment uptake. Patient numbers varied from around 60 participants with pathway studies to several thousand in two large database studies. Most studies recruited less than 500 patients. Five studies reported reduced SVR rates from an intention-to-treat analysis perspective because of loss to follow-up before the final confirmatory SVR test. GRADE assessments were made for uptake of HCV treatment (medium); completion of HCV treatment (low) and achievement of SVR at 12 weeks (medium). CONCLUSION: Services sited in community settings are feasible and can deliver increased uptake of treatment. Such clinics are able to demonstrate similar SVR rates to published studies and real-world clinics in secondary care. Stronger study designs are needed to confirm the precision of effect size seen in current studies. Prospero: CRD42017069873.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1308, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the UK a high proportion of adults with long-term conditions do not engage in regular physical activity. General practice (GP) referral to community-based physical activity is one strategy that has gained traction in recent years. However, evidence for the real-world effectiveness and translation of such programmes is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the individual and organisational impacts of the 'CLICK into Activity' programme - GP referral of inactive adults living with (or at risk of) long-term conditions to community-based physical activity. METHODS: A mixed methods evaluation using the RE-AIM framework was conducted with data obtained from a range of sources: follow-up questionnaires, qualitative interviews, and programme-related documentation, including programme cost data. Triangulation methods were used to analyse data, with findings synthesised across each dimension of the RE-AIM framework. RESULTS: A total of 602 individuals were referred to CLICK into Activity physical activity sessions. Of those referred, 326 individuals participated in at least one session; the programme therefore reached 30.2% of the 1080 recruitment target. A range of individual-, social-, and environmental-level factors contributed to initial physical activity participation. Positive changes over time in physical activity and other outcomes assessed were observed among participants. Programme adoption at GP surgeries was successful, but the GP referral process was not consistently implemented across sites. Physical activity sessions were successfully implemented, with programme deliverers and group-based delivery identified as having an influential effect on programme outcomes. Changes to physical activity session content were made in response to participant feedback. CLICK into Activity cost £175,000 over 3 years, with an average cost per person attending at least one programme session of £535. CONCLUSIONS: Despite not reaching its recruitment target, CLICK into Activity was successfully adopted. Positive outcomes were associated with participation, although low 6- and 12-month follow-up response rates limit understanding of longer-term programme effects. Contextual and individual factors, which may facilitate successful implementation with the target population, were identified. Findings highlight strategies to be explored in future development and implementation of GP referral to community-based physical activity programmes targeting inactive adults living with (or at risk of) long-term conditions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Medicina Geral , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(9): 582-592, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588094

RESUMO

Objective Many preventive care supporter (e.g. kaigo-yobo supporter) training programs, conducted to train community residents, are developed by municipalities. However, it is not necessary that only municipalities can train people effectively or efficiently. In this paper, we initially reviewed the relevant literature and clarified the definitions of concepts like "program contents" and "evaluation indicators," while also planning our own training programs. Later, we developed a program based on the review and examined the results.Methods The literature of the training program was examined, and the training program was developed based on the result. Four researchers and three public health nurses from a community general support center, in the Otsuchi Town of Iwate Prefecture, developed a training program from June to September 2017. The training program developed was then conducted from October to November 2017. To evaluate the participants' satisfaction with the program, a self-report survey was conducted. To evaluate the outcomes of the program, we measured their degree of comprehension of their community's challenges, before and after the program.Results The training program was divided into two parts following the literature review. In the first part, the content of the supporters' activities following the program was determined (Type A), and, in the second, the same content was evaluated by the participants within the program (Type B). Type A consisted of various aspects including both concrete knowledge and skills needed to conduct care preventiveactivities after the program. In Type B, there were many aspects-including both lectures and exercises-that aimed to increase the participants' awareness of community challenges, as well as inspection to learn about pioneering activities which helped them consider concrete care preventive activities following the program. In Otsuchi Town, we found it to be imperative for participants to consider how to respond to various situations and accordingly plan the training program for use in Type B. To evaluate the results, 12 participants were analyzed. Participants included two men and ten women, with an average age of 71.4±10.0 years [range: 53-88]. Comprehension levels of community challenges (3.1→4.1, P=0.046), as well as the confidence to actively involve themselves in their own preventive care strategies (3.4→4.0, P=0.035), significantly increased after involvement in the program. However, their confidence to work for community preventive care support groups (3.1→3.5, P=0.227) did not increase significantly.Conclusion We clarified certain viewpoints, such as the purpose, content, and evaluation indices of community care training programs, by reviewing the relevant literature. Based on the discovered viewpoints, we were then able to obtain certain results through implementing our own training programs, thereby significantly increasing participant comprehension and confidence levels.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Voluntários/educação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
14.
Lancet ; 394(10210): 1724-1736, 2019 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coverage of kangaroo mother care remains very low despite WHO recommendations for its use for babies with low birthweight in health facilities for over a decade. Initiating kangaroo mother care at the community level is a promising strategy to increase coverage. However, knowledge of the efficacy of community-initiated kangaroo mother care is still lacking. We aimed to assess the effect of community-initiated kangaroo mother care provided to babies weighing 1500-2250 g on neonatal and infant survival. METHODS: In this randomised controlled, superiority trial, undertaken in Haryana, India, we enrolled babies weighing 1500-2250 g at home within 72 h of birth, if not already initiated in kangaroo mother care, irrespective of place of birth (ie, home or health facility) and who were stable and feeding. The first eligible infants in households were randomly assigned (1:1) to the intervention (community-initiated kangaroo mother care) or control group by block randomisation using permuted blocks of variable size. Twins were allocated to the same group. For second eligible infants in the same household as an enrolled infant, if the first infant was assigned to the intervention group the second infant was also assigned to this group, whereas if the first infant was assigned to the control group the second infant was randomly assigned (1:1) to the intervention or control group. Mothers and infants in the intervention group were visited at home (days 1-3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28) to support kangaroo mother care (ie, skin-to-skin contact and exclusive breastfeeding). The control group received routine care. The two primary outcomes were mortality between enrolment and 28 days and between enrolment and 180 days. Analysis was by intention to treat and adjusted for clustering within households. The effect of the intervention on mortality was assessed with person-time in the denominator using Cox proportional hazards model. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02653534 and NCT02631343, and is now closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Between July 30, 2015, and Oct 31, 2018, 8402 babies were enrolled, of whom 4480 were assigned to the intervention group and 3922 to the control group. Most births (6837 [81·4%]) occurred at a health facility, 36·2% (n=3045) had initiated breastfeeding within 1 h of birth, and infants were enrolled at an average of about 30 h (SD 17) of age. Vital status was known for 4470 infants in the intervention group and 3914 in the control group at age 28 days, and for 3653 in the intervention group and 3331 in the control group at age 180 days. Between enrolment and 28 days, 73 infants died in 4423 periods of 28 days in the intervention group and 90 deaths in 3859 periods of 28 days in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·70, 95% CI 0·51-0·96; p=0·027). Between enrolment and 180 days, 158 infants died in 3965 periods of 180 days in the intervention group and 184 infants died in 3514 periods of 180 days in the control group (HR 0·75, 0·60-0·93; p=0·010). The risk ratios for death were almost the same as the HRs (28-day mortality 0·71, 95% CI 0·52- 0·97; p=0·032; 180-day mortality 0·76, 0·60-0·95; p=0·017). INTERPRETATION: Community-initiated kangaroo mother care substantially improves newborn baby and infant survival. In low-income and middle-income countries, incorporation of kangaroo mother care for all infants with low birthweight, irrespective of place of birth, could substantially reduce neonatal and infant mortality. FUNDING: Research Council of Norway and University of Bergen.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Método Canguru/métodos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Método Canguru/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 532-537, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper provides a case study of the responses to alcohol of an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (The Service), and investigates the implementation of comprehensive primary health care and how it challenges the logic of colonial approaches. METHODS: Data were drawn from a larger comprehensive primary health care study. Data on actions on alcohol were collected from: a) six-monthly service reports of activities; b) 29 interviews with staff and board members; c) six interviews with advocacy partners; and d) community assessment workshops with 13 service users. RESULTS: The Service engaged in rehabilitative, curative, preventive and promotive work targeting alcohol, including advocacy and collaborative action on social determinants of health. It challenged other government approaches by increasing Aboriginal people's control, providing culturally safe services, addressing racism, and advocating to government and industry. CONCLUSIONS: This case study provides an example of implementation of the full continuum of comprehensive primary health care activities. It shows how community control can challenge colonialism and ongoing power imbalances to promote evidence-based policy and practice that support self-determination as a positive determinant for health. Implications for public health: Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services are a good model for comprehensive primary health care approaches to alcohol control.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etnologia , Colonialismo , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Racismo , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
16.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1347-1357, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has set ambitious targets for the global elimination of tuberculosis. However, these targets will not be achieved at the current rate of progress. METHODS: We performed a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, to evaluate the effectiveness of active community-wide screening, as compared with standard passive case detection alone, for reducing the prevalence of tuberculosis. Persons 15 years of age or older who resided in 60 intervention clusters (subcommunes) were screened for pulmonary tuberculosis, regardless of symptoms, annually for 3 years, beginning in 2014, by means of rapid nucleic acid amplification testing of spontaneously expectorated sputum samples. Active screening was not performed in the 60 control clusters in the first 3 years. The primary outcome, measured in the fourth year, was the prevalence of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis among persons 15 years of age or older. The secondary outcome was the prevalence of tuberculosis infection, as assessed by an interferon gamma release assay in the fourth year, among children born in 2012. RESULTS: In the fourth-year prevalence survey, we tested 42,150 participants in the intervention group and 41,680 participants in the control group. A total of 53 participants in the intervention group (126 per 100,000 population) and 94 participants in the control group (226 per 100,000) had pulmonary tuberculosis, as confirmed by a positive nucleic acid amplification test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (prevalence ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.78; P<0.001). The prevalence of tuberculosis infection in children born in 2012 was 3.3% in the intervention group and 2.6% in the control group (prevalence ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.70 to 2.36; P = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: Three years of community-wide screening in persons 15 years of age or older who resided in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, resulted in a lower prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in the fourth year than standard passive case detection alone. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; ACT3 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000372684.).


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1380, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health issue worldwide. Those who have made a recent suicide attempt are at high risk for dying by suicide in the future, particularly during the period immediately following departure from a hospital emergency department. As such the transition from hospital-based care to the community is an important area of focus in the attempt to reduce suicide rates. There is a need for evaluation studies to test the effectiveness of interventions directed to this stage (termed 'aftercare' interventions). METHODS: A controlled non-randomised two group (intervention vs treatment-as-usual control) design, using an intention-to-treat model, will evaluate the effectiveness of a suicide prevention aftercare intervention providing follow-up after presentations to a hospital emergency department as a result of a suicide attempt or high risk for suicide. The intervention is a community-based service, utilising two meetings with a mental health clinician and follow-up contacts by peer workers via a combination of face-to-face and telephone for four weeks, with the option of extension to 12 weeks. Seventy-five participants of the intervention service will be recruited to the study and compared to 1265 treatment-as-usual controls. The primary hypotheses are that over 12 months, those who participate in the aftercare follow-up intervention are less likely than controls to present to a hospital emergency department for a repeat suicide attempt or because of high risk for suicide, will have fewer re-presentations during this period and will have lower all-cause mortality. As a secondary aim, the impact of the intervention on suicide risk factors for those who participate in the service will be evaluated using pre- and post-intervention repeated measures of depression, anxiety, stress, hopelessness, belongingness, burdensomeness, and psychological distress. Enrolments into the study commenced on 1 November 2017 and are anticipated to cease in November 2019. DISCUSSION: The study aims to contribute to the understanding of effective interventions for individuals who have presented to a hospital emergency department as a result of a suicide attempt or at high risk for suicide and provide evidence in relation to interventions that incorporate peer-workers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12618001701213 . Registered on 16 October 2018. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Tentativa de Suicídio , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco
18.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662849

RESUMO

Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) programmes for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) depend on voluntary community drug distributors (CDDs) to deliver drugs, and these volunteer schemes need regular training and supervision. NTD policy now includes integration of multiple disease programmes, but we are unsure if there is clarity in what is currently expected of CDDs and how they are managed. We therefore analysed World Health Organization (WHO) policy, strategy and implementation guidance, and select national NTD programme implementation plans. Methods: Included are a) WHO global and WHO-Regional Office for Africa guidelines, strategies, operational manuals and meeting reports published between January 2007 to February 2018 that included policy and plans for CDDs; and b) national NTD programme master plans for Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria. For both review components, we examined the CDD responsibilities through a framework developed iteratively against the documents and prepared a narrative synthesis. Results: Twenty WHO policy documents met the inclusion criteria. In the twelve global and eight regional documents, the CDD role was not explicitly or comprehensively defined. Three documents mentioned CDDs will distribute drugs; some mentioned health promotion, data handling and engagement in clinical care. Four WHO documents noted a need for CDD training or management, eight detailed some aspect of this, and one regional document provided a comprehensive overview. In the national plans, additional responsibilities included case management in two countries and transmission control in two countries. Every plan included training and supervision, but this was not always explicit, and details of the purpose and frequency varied. In all national plans, CDD motivation was identified as a challenge but not comprehensively addressed, although one document mentioned provision of bicycles. Conclusions: WHO and national policies and plans assume CDDs will implement NTD programmes. However, there is almost no clear delineation of responsibilities, nor is there up-to-date practical guidance to guide managers. This ambiguity, in relation to the lack of explicit policies or programmatic guidance, probably impairs the effectiveness of NTD programmes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Camarões , Gana , Humanos , Libéria , Nigéria , Políticas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 26(2): 83-88, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe the methodology and to assess the effectiveness of a community-based rehabilitation (CBR) program to identify and refer children with blinding cataract for the management and surgery to reduce the burden of childhood blindness due to cataract in Kinshasa. METHODS: Church-based volunteers were trained to identify children with presumed eye disorders in their localities and households and to refer them for cataract identification by an ophthalmic nurse during parishes' visits. Volunteers were parishioners living in the quartiers where identification took place and worked as community workers with the CBR program. Nurses used a lamp-torch to rule out cataract. Selected children were referred to the tertiary eye health facility at St Joseph Hospital for diagnosis and management. RESULTS: Identification took place in 31 out of 165 parishes in the Archdioceses of Kinshasa from 2000 to 2016 and 11,106 children aged <16 years were screened. Among them, 1277 children (11.5%) were presumed to have cataract. Ninety-two children among them died before surgery; 107 children were lost to further follow-up and did not report to the CBR center for referral. Reasons given were change of home address, moving in their lieu of origin, death, and refusal of treatment by the parents. Finally, only 1078 children were referred to the pediatric ophthalmologist and 705 children (65.4%) were definitively diagnosed to have treatable cataract, while in 373 children (34.6%), cataract surgery was not indicated for several reasons. There was a positive history of familial cataract in 36 children (2.8%). CONCLUSION: Using church-based volunteers and ophthalmic nurses during community screening proved efficient in the identification and referral of pediatric cataract. Keeping regular identification activities in the community and maintaining high-quality and accessible pediatric cataract surgery services can help to clear up the backlog of cataract blind children.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Organizações Religiosas/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Adolescente , Cegueira/prevenção & controle , Catarata/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pediatria , Voluntários
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