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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 635, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and newborn mortality is high immediately after childbirth and up to 42 days postnatally despite the availability of interventions. Postnatal care is crucial in preventing mortality and improving the health of women and newborns. This prospective cohort study investigated the initiation and utilization of postnatal care at health facilities and explored users' and providers' perspectives on utilization of postnatal care services. METHODS: A sequential explanatory mixed method was used involving women who were followed from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 3-4 months postnatally in Northwest, Tanzania. From January to December 2018, a door-to-door survey was conducted 3-4 months postnatally among 1385 of these women. A convenience sample of women and community health workers participated in focus group discussions, and traditional birth attendants and nurses participated in key informant interviews to complement quantitative data. Data analyses were conducted using STATA version 13 and NVIVO version 12. STUDY FINDINGS: Approximately, one half of participants attended postnatal care within 42 days after delivery. Postnatal care seeking within 48 h after delivery was reported by 14.6 % of the participants. Women who attended antenatal care at least four times, delivered at health facilities or experienced delivery-related complications were more likely to seek postnatal care. Limited knowledge on the postnatal care services and obstetric complications after childbirth, and not being scheduled for postnatal care by health providers negatively influenced services uptake. Overwhelming workload and shortages of supplies were reported to hinder the provision of postnatal care services. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of postnatal care services remains low in this setting as a result of a number of disparate and complex factors that influence women's choices. Provision of effective postnatal care is hindered by lack of supplies, staffing, and inadequate infrastructure. To ensure accessibility and availability of quality services in this setting, both demand and supply sides factors need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Tanzânia
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 657, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community Health Navigators (CHNs) are members of a patient's care team that aim to reduce barriers in accessing healthcare. CHNs have been described in various healthcare settings, including chronic disease management. The ENhancing COMmunity health through Patient navigation, Advocacy, and Social Support (ENCOMPASS) program of research employs CHNs, who are trained to improve access to care and community resources for patients with multiple chronic diseases. With complex and demanding roles, it is essential that CHNs communicate with each other to maintain knowledge exchange and best practices. A Community of Practice (CoP) is a model of situated learning that promotes communication, dedication, and collaboration that can facilitate this communication. The objective of this study was to engage with CHNs to determine how a CoP could be implemented to promote consistency in practices and knowledge for CHNs across primary care sites. METHODS: A needs assessment for a CHN CoP was conducted using sequential steps of inquiry. A preliminary focused literature review (FLR) was done to examine the ways in which other healthcare CoPs have been implemented. Results from the FLR guided the creation of an exploratory survey and group interview with key informants to understand best approaches for CoP creation. Political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analyses synthesized results in a comprehensive manner for strategic recommendations. RESULTS: The FLR identified different approaches and components of healthcare CoPs and guided analyses of mitigatable risk factors and leverageable assets for the intervention. The survey and group interview revealed an informal and effective CoP amongst current CHNs, with preferred methods including coffee meetings, group trainings, and seminars. A well-maintained web platform with features such as an encrypted discussion forum, community resource listing, calendar of events, and semi-annual CHN conferences were suggested methods for creating an inter-regional, formal CoP. CONCLUSION: The study findings recognise the presence of an informal CoP within the studied CHN cohort. Implementation of a formal CoP should complement current CoP approaches and aid in facilitating expansion to other primary care centres utilizing digital communication methods, such as a comprehensive web platform and online forum.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Saúde Pública , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde
3.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 145, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is an important public health problem in low-income countries. Delays in reaching health facilities and insufficient health care professionals call for innovative community-level solutions. There is limited evidence on the role of community health workers in the management of pregnancy complications. This study aimed to describe the feasibility of task-sharing the initial screening and initiation of obstetric emergency care for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia from the primary healthcare providers to community health workers in Mozambique and document healthcare facility preparedness to respond to referrals. METHOD: The study took place in Maputo and Gaza Provinces in southern Mozambique and aimed to inform the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomized controlled trial. This was a mixed-methods study. The quantitative data was collected through self-administered questionnaires completed by community health workers and a health facility survey; this data was analysed using Stata v13. The qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with various community groups, health care providers, and policymakers. All discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic analysis using QSR NVivo 10. Data collection was complemented by reviewing existing documents regarding maternal health and community health worker policies, guidelines, reports and manuals. RESULTS: Community health workers in Mozambique were trained to identify the basic danger signs of pregnancy; however, they have not been trained to manage obstetric emergencies. Furthermore, barriers at health facilities were identified, including lack of equipment, shortage of supervisors, and irregular drug availability. All primary and the majority of secondary-level facilities (57%) do not provide blood transfusions or have surgical capacity, and thus such cases must be referred to the tertiary-level. Although most healthcare facilities (96%) had access to an ambulance for referrals, no transport was available from the community to the healthcare facility. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that task-sharing for screening and pre-referral management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia were deemed feasible and acceptable at the community-level, but an effort should be in place to address challenges at the health system level.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Moçambique , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Encaminhamento e Consulta
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1637-1646, 2021 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076106

RESUMO

The work of Community Health Workers (ACS) was analyzed in light of Communities of Practice (CP) theory. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study carried out in four municipalities in Ceará. Six focus groups and six interviews were carried out with 45 Community Health Workers (ACS), observing ethical aspects. The data corpus was analyzed using the content analysis technique. The results show that ACS participation in the ESF is marked by experience in the community, and the main focus is monitoring priority groups. The practices put them before the diverse social and family complexities, generating reflections and building new meanings for themselves and their work process. The ACS CPs engage and share challenges and unique learning from work, characterized by close contact and relationships with the families of the territory, which reveals needs hardly perceived by other ESF professionals. The meaning of being ACS as one who listens, embraces, and perceives the needs of families invisible to services, is evident in the reification processes. The ACS better exercise their role as ESF articulators in the territories the greater the spaces for dialogue between them, the other team members, and management.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 607, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic test evaluation includes measures of performance and assessment of operational characteristics. The latter focuses on end-user understanding of instructions to perform the test, ease of use, test turnaround time and ease of result interpretation. This study aimed to assess user comprehension of training for and ease of use of a Taenia solium point of care test (TS POC) evaluated in a community and hospital setting in Zambia and Tanzania, respectively. METHODS: The TS POC is a three-step in-house-produced rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the simultaneous detection of taeniosis (TST) and cysticercosis (TSCC) antibodies. Data collected by administering questionnaires to 29 end-users and from the main evaluation database was analyzed quantitatively. RESULTS: End-users (28/29, 97%) perceived that the training they received for performing the test was sufficient. They performed 4080 tests, of which 80 were invalid. The community-based study and TST tests had higher invalid rates. The overall result interpretation was within the acceptable range of RDTs with an overall disagreement between readers of 3.3%. The Kappa coefficient of agreement was 85 and 82% for TSCC and TST, respectively. There was more disagreement among readers in the community-based study. CONCLUSION: End-users rated the TS POC kit moderate in terms of ease of use citing long test turnaround time and difficulties in using the blood transfer device. Overall, the operational performance of the TS POC kit and end-users was within the established acceptable performance range.


Assuntos
Testes Imediatos , Taenia solium , Teníase/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
7.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(2): 598-606, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120960

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine's Neighborhood Health Education Learning Program (NeighborhoodHELP) initiated a longitudinal assessment and mitigation of social and health care challenges for a population of approximately 850 underserved households. Here, we describe the needs assessment, ensuing interventions, and lessons learned during this pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Populações Vulneráveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Assistência Alimentar , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
8.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E55, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256965

RESUMO

The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 and associated disparities among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native children and teenagers has been documented. Reducing these disparities along with overcoming unintended negative consequences of the pandemic, such as the disruption of in-person schooling, calls for broad community-based collaborations and nuanced approaches. Based on national survey data, children from some racial and ethnic minority groups have a higher prevalence of obesity, asthma, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension; were diagnosed more frequently with COVID-19; and had more severe outcomes compared with their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Furthermore, a higher proportion of children from some racial and ethnic minority groups lived in families with incomes less than 200% of the federal poverty level or in households lacking secure employment compared with NHW children. Children from some racial and ethnic minority groups were also more likely to attend school via online learning compared with NHW counterparts. Because the root causes of these disparities are complex and multifactorial, an organized community-based approach is needed to achieve greater proactive and sustained collaborations between local health departments, local school systems, and other public and private organizations to pursue health equity. This article provides a summary of potential community-based health promotion strategies to address racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes and educational inequities among children and teens, specifically in the implementation of strategic partnerships, including initial collective work, outcomes-based activities, and communication. These collaborations can facilitate policy, systems, and environmental changes in school systems that support emergency preparedness, recovery, and resilience when faced with public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nativos Estadunidenses/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1936435, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076567

RESUMO

Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) was developed in 2003 as an innovative model to facilitate continuing education and professional development. ECHO emphasizes 'moving knowledge, not people.' To accomplish this, ECHO programs use virtual collaboration and case-based learning to allow practitioners, including those in rural and underserved areas, to receive specialist training. The ECHO model has expanded rapidly and is now used in 44 countries. Preliminary research on ECHO's efficacy and effectiveness has shown promising results, but evidence remains limited and appropriate research outcomes have not been clearly defined. To improve the evidence basis for ECHO, this study of 5 ECHO programs (cancer prevention/survivorship, integrated pain management, hepatitis C, HIV, and LGBTQ+ health care elucidated actionable insights about the ECHO programs and directions in which future evaluations and research might progress. This was a qualitative study following COREQ standards. A trained interviewer conducted 10 interviews and 5 focus groups with 25 unique, purposively sampled ECHO attendees (2 interviews and 1 focus group for each of the 5 programs). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the general inductive approach, then reviewed for reliability. We identified four major categories (reasons to join ECHO, value of participating in ECHO, ways to improve ECHO, and barriers to participation) composed of 23 primary codes. We suggest that thematic saturation was achieved, and a coherent narrative about ECHO emerged for discussion. Participants frequently indicated they received valuable learning experiences and thereby changed their practice; rigorous trials of learning and patient-level outcomes are warranted. This study also found support for the idea that the ECHO model should be studied for its role in convening communities of practice and reducing provider isolation as an outcome in itself. Additional implications, including for interprofessional education and model evolution, were also identified and discussed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Especialização
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 505, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth are at high risk for HIV, but are often left out of designing interventions, including those focused on adolescents. We organized a designathon for Nigerian youth to develop HIV self-testing (HIVST) strategies for potential implementation in their local communities. A designathon is a problem-focused event where participants work together over a short period to create and present solutions to a judging panel. METHODS: We organized a 72-h designathon for youth (14-24 years old) in Nigeria to design strategies to increase youth HIVST uptake. Proposals included details about HIVST kit service delivery, method of distribution, promotional strategy, and youth audience. Teams pitched their proposals to a diverse seven-member judging panel who scored proposals based on desirability, feasibility, potential impact and teamwork. We examined participants' socio-demographic characteristics and summarized themes from their HIVST proposals. RESULTS: Forty-two youth on 13 teams participated in the designathon. The median team size was 3 participants (IQR: 2-4). The median age was 22.5 years (IQR: 21-24), 66.7% were male, 47.4% completed tertiary education, and 50% lived in Lagos State. Themes from proposals included HIVST integration with other health services, digital marketing and distribution approaches, and engaging students. Judges identified seven teams with exceptional HIVST proposals and five teams were supported for further training. CONCLUSIONS: The designathon provided a structured method for incorporating youth ideas into HIV service delivery. This approach could differentiate HIV services to be more youth-friendly in Nigeria and other settings.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Autoteste , Adolescente , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E55, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081577

RESUMO

The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 and associated disparities among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native children and teenagers has been documented. Reducing these disparities along with overcoming unintended negative consequences of the pandemic, such as the disruption of in-person schooling, calls for broad community-based collaborations and nuanced approaches. Based on national survey data, children from some racial and ethnic minority groups have a higher prevalence of obesity, asthma, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension; were diagnosed more frequently with COVID-19; and had more severe outcomes compared with their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Furthermore, a higher proportion of children from some racial and ethnic minority groups lived in families with incomes less than 200% of the federal poverty level or in households lacking secure employment compared with NHW children. Children from some racial and ethnic minority groups were also more likely to attend school via online learning compared with NHW counterparts. Because the root causes of these disparities are complex and multifactorial, an organized community-based approach is needed to achieve greater proactive and sustained collaborations between local health departments, local school systems, and other public and private organizations to pursue health equity. This article provides a summary of potential community-based health promotion strategies to address racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes and educational inequities among children and teens, specifically in the implementation of strategic partnerships, including initial collective work, outcomes-based activities, and communication. These collaborations can facilitate policy, systems, and environmental changes in school systems that support emergency preparedness, recovery, and resilience when faced with public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nativos Estadunidenses/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 572311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169052

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the attitude, willingness, and satisfaction with contracted service (CS) among staff in community health service (CHS) centers in urban China and to explore the associated factors of satisfaction with CS. From August 2016 to July 2017, five CHS centers in three provinces of China were selected. Setting-level information was collected by official document review; and personal information on demographic characteristics, awareness, willingness, and attitude of CS among staff was collected by questionnaire survey. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to explore the associated factors of satisfaction with CS. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to visually demonstrate the correlations among category data related with satisfaction with CS. The CS signing rates were 30.78, 12.72, 22.20, 14.32, and 21.19% in the five CHS centers. A total of 286 staff included family doctors (40.91%), nurses (31.12%), and others (27.97%) completed the survey. For the sense of self-worth, 86.01% (246/286) participants hold a positive attitude. The predominant barrier of CS signing was caused by the work pressure due to CS performance assessment (48.60%, 139/286). About 30% of family doctors and nurses reported a heavy work pressure, and more than 30% of doctors had great feeling of fatigue. Notably, 51.69% family doctors would like to change their job in the future. Compared with other staff, family doctors were more likely to be unsatisfied with CS (OR: 2.793, 95% CI: 1.155-6.754, p = 0.022). Participants in Sichuan province have lower satisfaction than other places. The MCA yielded similar factors consistent with multivariable results of clustering with different levels of CS satisfaction. Our study revealed that the CS coverage and satisfaction among staff from the primary healthcare system varied geographically and are associated with professional field, workload, and pressure. Measures that aim to promote the stability of primary care human resource should be considered in the future.


Assuntos
Serviços Contratados , Clínicos Gerais , China , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1024, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on how mobile health (mHealth) application (app) technology on mother and child health (MCH) is developed. This research aimed (a) to explore the process of developing mobile apps for MCH community-based services in the Indonesian setting of Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu/Integrated Health Service Post), (b) to determine the feasibility of using the app by community health workers (CHWs), and (c) to evaluate the scalability of the mobile app at the national level in Indonesia. METHODS: A hybrid method was used to synergistically combine the action research principles and mixed methods comprising qualitative and quantitative methods. This study was conducted in the Pasawahan District, Purwakarta, Indonesia, from 2017 to 2019. Content analysis, coding, and categorizing were performed using NVivo 12 Pro for transcribed data. The Wilcoxon test (2018 and 2019) was conducted using STATA 15 Special Edition. RESULTS: (1) The use of a CHW notebook for data entry into the Posyandu Information System book delayed the data reporting process, resulting in the need to develop a mobile app. (2) There were significant differences in CHWs' knowledge (p = 0.000) and skills (p = 0.0097) on training (2018) and Posyandu phases (2019). (3) A total of 964 Posyandu have been registered in the Posyandu mobile app from almost all provinces in Indonesia. CONCLUSIONS: The three-year hybrid approach includes the crucial phases that are necessary to develop a mobile app that is more user-friendly and can act as a substitute for CHWs' book. Hence, its implementation is promising for use at the national level.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia
14.
Trials ; 22(1): 403, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost all Aboriginal children in remote communities have persistent bilateral otitis media affecting hearing and learning throughout early childhood and school years, with consequences for social and educational outcomes, and later employment opportunities. Current primary health care and specialist services do not have the resources to meet the complex needs of these children. METHOD/DESIGN: This stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial will allocate 18 communities to one of five 6-monthly intervention start dates. Stratification will be by region and population size. The intervention (Hearing for Learning Initiative, HfLI) consists of six 20-h weeks of training (delivered over 3 months) that includes Certificate II in Aboriginal Primary Health Care (3 modules) and competencies in ear and hearing data collection (otoscopy, tympanometry and hearScreen), plus 3 weeks of assisted integration into the health service, then part-time employment as Ear Health Facilitators to the end of the trial. Unblinding will occur 6 months prior to each allocated start date, to allow Community Reference Groups to be involved in co-design of the HfLI implementation in their community. Relevant health service data will be extracted 6-monthly from all 18 communities. The primary outcome is the difference in proportion of children (0 to 16 years of age) who have at least one ear assessment (diagnosis) documented in their medical record within each 6-month period, compared to control periods (no HfLI). Secondary outcomes include data on sustainability, adherence to evidence-based clinical guidelines for otitis media, including follow-up and specialist referrals, and school attendance. Structured interviews with staff working in health and education services, Ear Health Trainees, Ear Health Facilitators and families will assess process outcomes and the HfLI broader impact. DISCUSSION: The impact of training and employment of Ear Health Facilitators on service enhancement will inform the health, education and employment sectors about effectiveness of skills and job creation that empowers community members to contribute to addressing issues of local importance, in this instance ear and hearing health of children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03916029 . Registered on 16 April 2019.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emprego , Audição , Humanos , Northern Territory , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 390, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring person-centred outcomes and using this information to improve service delivery is a challenge for many care providers. We aimed to identify predictors of QoL among older adults receiving community-based aged care services and examine variation across different community care service outlets. METHODS: A retrospective sample of 1141 Australians aged ≥60 years receiving community-based care services from a large service provider within 19 service outlets. Clients' QoL was captured using the ICEpop CAPability Index. QoL scores and predictors of QoL (i.e. sociodemographic, social participation and service use) were extracted from clients' electronic records and examined using multivariable regression. Funnel plots were used to examine variation in risk-adjusted QoL scores across service outlets. RESULTS: Mean age was 81.5 years (SD = 8) and 75.5% were women. Clients had a mean QoL score of 0.81 (range 0-1, SD = 0.15). After accounting for other factors, being older (p < 0.01), having lower-level care needs (p < 0.01), receiving services which met needs for assistance with activities of daily living (p < 0.01), and having higher levels of social participation (p < 0.001) were associated with higher QoL scores. Of the 19 service outlets, 21% (n = 4) had lower mean risk-adjusted QoL scores than expected (< 95% control limits) and 16% (n = 3) had higher mean scores than expected. CONCLUSION: Using QoL as an indicator to compare care quality may be feasible, with appropriate risk adjustment. Implementing QoL tools allows providers to measure and monitor their performance and service outcomes, as well as identify clients with poor quality of life who may need extra support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand clinical trial registry number: ACTRN12617001212347 . Registered 18/08/2017.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(2)2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The early COVID-19 pandemic resulted in great psychosocial disruption and stress, raising speculation that psychiatric disorders may worsen. This study aimed to identify patients vulnerable to worsening mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective observational study used electronic health records from March 9 to May 31 in 2019 (n = 94,720) and 2020 (n = 94,589) in a large, community-based health care system. Percent change analysis compared variables standardized to the average patient population for the respective time periods. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, psychiatric visits increased significantly (P < .0001) in 2020, with the majority being telephone/video-based (+264%). Psychiatric care volume increased overall (7%), with the greatest increases in addiction (+42%), behavioral health in primary care (+17%), and adult psychiatry (+5%) clinics. While patients seeking care with preexisting psychiatric diagnoses were mainly stable (−2%), new patients declined (−42%). Visits for substance use (+51%), adjustment (+15%), anxiety (+12%), bipolar (+9%), and psychotic (+6%) disorder diagnoses, and for patients aged 18­25 years (+4%) and 26­39 years (+4%), increased. Child/adolescent and older adult patient visits decreased (−22.7% and −5.5%, respectively), and fewer patients identifying as White (−3.8%) or male (−5.0) or with depression (−3%) or disorders of childhood (−2%) sought care. CONCLUSIONS: The early COVID-19 pandemic was associated with dramatic changes in psychiatric care facilitated by a rapid telehealth care transition. Patient volume, demographic, and diagnostic changes may reflect comfort with telehealth or navigating the psychiatric care system. These data can inform health system resource management and guide future work examining how care delivery changes impact psychiatric care quality and access.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(2)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies within the psychiatry literature have illustrated the importance of discharge planning and execution, as well as accessibility of outpatient follow-up post-discharge. We report the results of implementing a new seamless care transition policy to expedite post-discharge follow-up in the community Addiction and Mental Health (AMH) program in the Edmonton Zone, Alberta, Canada. The policy involved a distribution mechanism for assessment by a mental health therapist (MHT) within 7 days of discharge as well as a dedicated roster of community psychiatrists to accept newly discharged patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the feasibility of this novel policy and to assess its effect on our outcome measures of wait time to first outpatient MHT assessment and re-admission rate to hospital. METHODS: Our study involved a retrospective clinical audit with total sampling design and a comparison of data 1 year before (2015/2016 fiscal year) and 1 year after (2017/2018 fiscal year) the implementation of the seamless care policy within the Edmonton Zone. Extracted data were analyzed with simple descriptive statistics and presented as percentages, mean and median. RESULTS: Overall, with the enactment of this policy, follow-up volumes ultimately increased, while wait times for initial assessment decreased on average for patients discharged from the hospital. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, MHT completed 128 assessments of post-discharge patients who were new to the community AMH program compared to 298 completed new assessments for the 2017/2018 fiscal year. The corresponding wait times for the new MHT assessments were 12.7 days (median of 12 days) and 7.8 days (median of 6 days), respectively. Similarly, psychiatrists completed only 59 assessments of post-discharge patients who were new to AMH compared to 133 new psychiatric assessments for the 2017/2018 fiscal year. The corresponding wait times for the new psychiatric assessments were 15.3 days (median of 14 days) and 8.8 days (median of 7 days), respectively. We correspondingly found a slight decline in readmission rates after the implementation of our model in the subsequent fiscal year. CONCLUSION: We envision that this policy will set a precedent with regard to streamlining post-discharge follow-up care for admitted inpatients, ultimately improving mental health outcomes for patients.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Alta do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Alberta , Auditoria Clínica , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 20: 23259582211017742, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining essential HIV services has being a Global challenge during the COVID-19 crises. Myanmar has 54 million inhabitants. Neighbor of China, Thailand, India and Bangladesh it was impacted by COVID-19, but came up with a comprehensive and effective response, following WHO recommendations. The HIV Prevalence is 0.58% and it is concentrated among key population. A HIV Contingency Plan was developed to face this challenge. METHODOLOGY: The programme-based cross-sectional descriptive study with analysis of routinely collected data from MoHS data system, between 2019 and 2020 was conducted, comparing first six months of 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: HIV outreach activities and HIV testing were slightly affected after detection of first COVID-19 case, till mid May 2020. After that, outreach activities resumed. Introduction of HIV self-testing was initiated. 72% of more than 21,000 PWID on MMT were receiving take home dose up to 14 days and 60% of ART patients were receiving 6 months ARV dispensing. CONCLUSION: Essential HIV services were maintained.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(19): 707-711, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227230

RESUMO

On May 13, 2020, Chicago established a free community-based testing (CBT) initiative for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The initiative focused on demographic groups and geographic areas that were underrepresented in testing by clinical providers and had experienced high COVID-19 incidence, including Hispanic persons and those who have been economically marginalized. To assess the CBT initiative, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) compared demographic characteristics, economic marginalization, and test positivity between persons tested at CBT sites and persons tested in all other testing settings in Chicago. During May 13-November 14, a total of 253,904 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests were conducted at CBT sites. Compared with those tested in all other testing settings in Chicago, persons tested at CBT sites were more likely to live in areas that are economically marginalized (38.6% versus 32.0%; p<0.001) and to be Hispanic (50.9% versus 20.7%; p<0.001). The cumulative percentage of positive test results at the CBT sites was higher than that at all other testing settings (11.1% versus 7.1%; p<0.001). These results demonstrate the ability of public health departments to establish community-based testing initiatives that reach communities with less access to testing in other settings and that experience disproportionately higher incidences of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/etnologia , Teste para COVID-19/economia , Chicago/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Áreas de Pobreza , Adulto Jovem
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