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1.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 20: 23259582211017742, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining essential HIV services has being a Global challenge during the COVID-19 crises. Myanmar has 54 million inhabitants. Neighbor of China, Thailand, India and Bangladesh it was impacted by COVID-19, but came up with a comprehensive and effective response, following WHO recommendations. The HIV Prevalence is 0.58% and it is concentrated among key population. A HIV Contingency Plan was developed to face this challenge. METHODOLOGY: The programme-based cross-sectional descriptive study with analysis of routinely collected data from MoHS data system, between 2019 and 2020 was conducted, comparing first six months of 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: HIV outreach activities and HIV testing were slightly affected after detection of first COVID-19 case, till mid May 2020. After that, outreach activities resumed. Introduction of HIV self-testing was initiated. 72% of more than 21,000 PWID on MMT were receiving take home dose up to 14 days and 60% of ART patients were receiving 6 months ARV dispensing. CONCLUSION: Essential HIV services were maintained.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiologia
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 921-931, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether the stratification of outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia by body mass index (BMI) can help predict hospitalization and other severe outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected consecutive cases of community-managed COVID-19 pneumonia from March 1 to April 20, 2020, in the province of Bergamo and evaluated the association of overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI <30 kg/m2) and obesity (≥30 kg/m2) with time to hospitalization (primary end point), low-flow domiciliary oxygen need, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, intubation, and death due to COVID-19 (secondary end points) in this cohort. We analyzed the primary end point using multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: Of 338 patients included, 133 (39.4%) were overweight and 77 (22.8%) were obese. Age at diagnosis was younger in obese patients compared with those overweight or with normal weight (P<.001), whereas diabetes, dyslipidemia, and heart diseases were differently distributed among BMI categories. Azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisolone use were similar between BMI categories (P>.05). Overall, 105 (31.1%) patients were hospitalized, and time to hospitalization was significantly shorter for obese vs over- or normal-weight patients (P<.001). In the final multivariable analysis, obese patients were more likely to require hospitalization than nonobese patients (hazard ratio, 5.83; 95% CI, 3.91 to 8.71). Results were similar in multiple sensitivity analyses. Low-flow domiciliary oxygen need, hospitalization with noninvasive mechanical ventilation, intubation, and death were significantly associated with obesity (P<.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with community-managed COVID-19 pneumonia, obesity is associated with a higher hospitalization risk and overall worse outcomes than for nonobese patients.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Obesidade , Pneumonia Viral , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , /terapia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e21892, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the COVID-19 pandemic will have a negative effect on China's economy in the short term, it also represents a major opportunity for internet-based medical treatment in the medium and long term. Compared with normal times, internet-based medical platforms including the Haodf website were visited by 1.11 billion people, the number of new registered users of all platforms increased by 10, and the number of new users' daily consultations increased by 9 during the pandemic. The continuous participation of physicians is a major factor in the success of the platform, and economic return is an important reason for physicians to provide internet-based services. However, no study has provided the effectiveness of interactive tools in online health care communities to influence physicians' returns. OBJECTIVE: The effect of internet-based effort on the benefits and effectiveness of interactive effort tools in internet-based health care areas remains unclear. Thus, the goals of this study are to examine the effect of doctors' internet-based service quality on their economic returns during COVID-19 social restrictions, to examine the effect of mutual help groups on doctors' economic returns during COVID-19 social restrictions, and to explore the moderating effect of disease privacy on doctors' efforts and economic returns during COVID-19 social restrictions. METHODS: On the basis of the social exchange theory, this study establishes an internet-based effort exchange model for doctors. We used a crawler to download information automatically from Haodf website. From March 5 to 7, 2020, which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in China, cross-sectional information of 2530 doctors were collected. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear regression showed that disease privacy (ß=.481; P<.001), reputation (ß=.584; P<.001), and service quality (ß=.560; P<.001) had a significant positive effect on the economic returns of the physicians. The influence of mutual help groups on earnings increases with an increase in the degree of disease privacy (ß=.189; P<.001), indicating that mutual help groups have a stronger effect on earnings when patients ask questions about diseases regarding which they desire privacy. CONCLUSIONS: For platform operators, the results of this study can help the platform understand how to improve doctors' economic returns, especially regarding helping a specific doctor group improve its income to retain good doctors. For physicians on the platform, this study will help doctors spend their limited energy and time on tools that can improve internet-based consultation incomes. Patients who receive internet-based health care services extract information about a doctor based on the doctor's internet-based efforts to understand the doctor's level of professionalism and personality to choose the doctor they like the most. The data used in this study may be biased or not representative of all medical platforms, as they were collected from a single website.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Internet , Telemedicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias , /isolamento & purificação
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210055, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625510

RESUMO

Importance: Mobile integrated health care (MIH) is a new model of community-based health care to provide on-site urgent or nonurgent care. Niagara emergency medical services (NEMS) started MIH in 2018 to serve the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada. However, its economic impact is unknown. Objective: To compare time on task and cost between MIH and ambulance delivered by NEMS from a public payer's perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation was an analysis of the NEMS databases regarding responses to emergency calls by the NEMS from 2016 to 2019. Emergency calls serviced by MIH in 2018 to 2019 were used as an intervention cohort. Propensity score matching was used to identify a 1:1 matched cohort of calls serviced by regular ambulance response for the same period and 2 years prior. Statistical analyses were performed from January to April 2020. Exposures: MIH compared with matched ambulance services. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the time on task (including time on scene and time at hospital) and costs. Costs were calculated in 2019 Canadian dollars using cost per minute and compared with the 3 ambulance cohorts. Results: In 2018 to 2019, there were 1740 calls serviced by MIH for which a matched ambulance cohort was identified for the same period and 2 years prior. The mean (SD) time on task was 72.7 (51.0) minutes for MIH, compared with 84.1 (52.0) minutes, 84.3 (54.1) minutes, and 79.4 (42.0) minutes for matched ambulance in 2018 to 2019, 2017 to 2018, and 2016 to 2017, respectively. Of calls serviced by MIH, 498 (28.6%) required ED transport (ie, after MIH team assessment, transport to ED was deemed to be necessary or demanded by the patient), compared with 1300 (74.7%) calls serviced by ambulance in 2018 to 2019, 1294 (74.4%) in 2017 to 2018, and 1359 (78.1%) in 2016 to 2017. The mean (SD) total cost per 1000 calls was $122 760 ($78 635) for MIH compared with $294 336 ($97 245), $299 797 ($104 456), and $297 269 ($81 144) for regular ambulance responses in the 3 matched cohorts, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Compared with regular ambulance response, MIH was associated with a substantial reduction in the proportion of patients transported to the ED, leading to a substantial saving in total costs. This finding suggests that the MIH model is a promising and viable solution to meeting urgent health care needs in the community, while substantially improving the use of scarce health care resources.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/economia , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias , Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Pontuação de Propensão
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044197, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376182

RESUMO

AIM: To explore indigenous communities' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences for maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Mamás del Río is a community-based, MNH programme with comprehensive supervision covering monthly meetings with community health workers (CHW), community leaders and health facilities. With the onset of the lockdown, supervisors made telephone calls to discuss measures against COVID-19, governmental support, CHW activities in communities and provision of MNH care and COVID-19 preparedness at facilities. As part of the programme's ongoing mixed methods evaluation, we analysed written summaries of supervisor calls collected during the first 2 months of Peru's lockdown. RESULTS: Between March and May 2020, supervisors held two rounds of calls with CHWs and leaders of 68 communities and staff from 17 facilities. Most communities banned entry of foreigners, but about half tolerated residents travelling to regional towns for trade and social support. While social events were forbidden, strict home isolation was only practised in a third of communities as conflicting with daily routine. By the end of April, first clusters of suspected cases were reported in communities. COVID-19 test kits, training and medical face masks were not available in most rural facilities. Six out of seven facilities suspended routine antenatal and postnatal consultations while two-thirds of CHWs resumed home visits to pregnant women and newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation was hardly feasible in the rural Amazon context and community isolation was undermined by lack of external supplies and social support. With sustained community transmission, promotion of basic hygiene and mask use becomes essential. To avoid devastating effects on MNH, routine services at facilities need to be urgently re-established alongside COVID-19 preparedness plans. Community-based MNH programmes could offset detrimental indirect effects of the pandemic and provide an opportunity for local COVID-19 prevention and containment.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Saúde do Lactente , Saúde Materna , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/tendências , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/tendências , Peru/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos
10.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e4, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181873

RESUMO

Cape Town is currently one of the hotspots for COVID-19 on the African continent. The Metropolitan Health Services have re-organised their primary health care (PHC) services to tackle the epidemic with a community-orientated primary care perspective. Two key goals have guided the re-organisation, the need to maintain social distancing and reduce risk to people using the services and the need to prepare for an influx of people with COVID-19. Facilities were re-organised to have 'screening and streaming' at the entrance and patients were separated into hot and cold streams. Both streams had 'see and treat' stations for the rapid treatment of minor ailments. Patients in separate streams were then managed further. If patients with chronic conditions were stable, they were provided with home delivery of medication by community health workers. Community health workers also engaged in community-based screening and testing. Initial evaluation of PHC preparedness was generally good. However, a number of key issues were identified. Additional infrastructure was required in some facilities to keep the streams separate with the onset of winter. Managers had to actively address the anxiety and fears of the primary care workforce. Attention also needed to be given to the prevention and treatment of non-COVID conditions as utilisation of these services decreased. The epidemic exposed intersectoral and intrasectoral fault lines, particularly access to social services at a time when they were most needed. Community screening and testing had to be refocused due to limited laboratory capacity and a lengthening turnaround time.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Instalações de Saúde , Planejamento em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica , Cidades , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epidemias , Pessoal de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Organizações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Triagem
11.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 77, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technology can enable syringe service programs (SSPs) and other community-based organizations (CBOs) operating under a harm reduction framework to work with an increased number of clients and can also enable organizations to offer services more effectively (e.g., offering HIV testing in ways participants may be more likely to accept). In the current time of COVID-19 social distancing, technology can also help organizations more safely provide services to people with compromised immune systems and to clients who might otherwise not be reached. However, technology projects implemented in harm reduction settings are frequently conceptualized and developed by researchers or technology specialists rather than by SSP staff or clients. METHODS: To more effectively meet the needs of SSPs and other CBOs across the USA, our team conducted qualitative interviews with 16 individuals who have extensive backgrounds working in the field of harm reduction. Interviews were digitally recorded and professionally transcribed, and the transcripts were checked for accuracy by the interviewers. The resulting transcripts were coded and analyzed to determine emerging themes. RESULTS: Interviewees mentioned the ability of technology to deliver consistent quality messaging to multiple clients at the same time and the potential to customize or tailor technology-based messaging to specific client populations as positive benefits. Clear barriers to technology use also emerged, in particular regarding privacy, data security, and the need to maintain client trust when discussing sensitive issues (e.g., illicit drug use). CONCLUSIONS: Technology offers the potential to deliver consistently high-quality health communication and maintain contact with clients who may have no other access to care. If designed and managed effectively, technology can also address issues related to providing services during times when physical contact is limited due to COVID-19 social distancing measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravação de Videoteipe/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124619

RESUMO

This paper aims to share the reflections related to the community actions in which the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona has been involved during the emergency of COVID-19. The tasks carried out can be arranged in three stages, frequently overlapping: detection of needs and problems; contact with key stakeholders to assess what to do and how to do it; adaptation of the interventions to the "new normal" and generation of new responses. The emerging problems included: not being able to do the confinement (due to homelessness, material conditions, living in a situation of violence); digital gap (lack of knowledge, devices, access to Wifi); greater exposure to COVID-19 in the essential but precarious, feminized and racialized jobs (care, cleaning, food shops) that are the most frequent in the neighborhoods in where we work; language and cultural barriers that preclude to follow recommendations; to lose employment; insufficient income to cover basic needs; social isolation; and the deterioration of emotional health caused by the situation. During the process, some interventions were adapted to be delivered on-line. Solidarity networks and local resources were key to meet basic needs, but also other needs related to lack of digital knowledge or device. Community action in health, from a critical, intersectional and local perspective, and with intersectoral work and community participation, can contribute to: facilitate a contextualized response in the event of a health crisis; mitigate the effects derived from its economic and social crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Espanha
14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1305-e1315, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, including ART initiation, clinical and laboratory monitoring, and refills, could reduce barriers to treatment and improve viral suppression, reducing the gap in access to care for individuals who have detectable HIV viral load, including men who are less likely than women to be virally suppressed. We aimed to test the effect of community-based ART delivery on viral suppression among people living with HIV not on ART. METHODS: We did a household-randomised, unblinded trial (DO ART) of delivery of ART in the community compared with the clinic in rural and peri-urban settings in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the Sheema District, Uganda. After community-based HIV testing, people living with HIV were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with mobile phone software to community-based ART initiation with quarterly monitoring and ART refills through mobile vans; ART initiation at the clinic followed by mobile van monitoring and refills (hybrid approach); or standard clinic ART initiation and refills. The primary outcome was HIV viral suppression at 12 months. If the difference in viral suppression was not superior between study groups, an a-priori test for non-inferiority was done to test for a relative risk (RR) of more than 0·95. The cost per person virally suppressed was a co-primary outcome of the study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02929992. FINDINGS: Between May 26, 2016, and March 28, 2019, of 2479 assessed for eligibility, 1315 people living with HIV and not on ART with detectable viral load at baseline were randomly assigned; 666 (51%) were men. Retention at the month 12 visit was 95% (n=1253). At 12 months, community-based ART increased viral suppression compared with the clinic group (306 [74%] vs 269 [63%], RR 1·18, 95% CI 1·07-1·29; psuperiority=0·0005) and the hybrid approach was non-inferior (282 [68%] vs 269 [63%], RR 1·08, 0·98-1·19; pnon-inferiority=0·0049). Community-based ART increased viral suppression among men (73%, RR 1·34, 95% CI 1·16-1·55; psuperiority<0·0001) as did the hybrid approach (66%, RR 1·19, 1·02-1·40; psuperiority=0·026), compared with clinic-based ART (54%). Viral suppression was similar for men (n=156 [73%]) and women (n=150 [75%]) in the community-based ART group. With efficient scale-up, community-based ART could cost US$275-452 per person reaching viral suppression. Community-based ART was considered safe, with few adverse events. INTERPRETATION: In high and medium HIV prevalence settings in South Africa and Uganda, community-based delivery of ART significantly increased viral suppression compared with clinic-based ART, particularly among men, eliminating disparities in viral suppression by gender. Community-based ART should be implemented and evaluated in different contexts for people with detectable viral load. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; the University of Washington and Fred Hutch Center for AIDS Research; the Wellcome Trust; the University of Washington Royalty Research Fund; and the University of Washington King K Holmes Endowed Professorship in STDs and AIDS.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has yet to endorse deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention as part of public health campaigns. We aimed to quantify the effectiveness of repellent distributed by the village health volunteer (VHV) network in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in reducing malaria in order to advance regional malaria elimination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between April 2015 and June 2016, a 15-month stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial was conducted in 116 villages in Myanmar (stepped monthly in blocks) to test the effectiveness of 12% N,N-diethylbenzamide w/w cream distributed by VHVs, on Plasmodium spp. infection. The median age of participants was 18 years, approximately half were female, and the majority were either village residents (46%) or forest dwellers (40%). No adverse events were reported during the study. Generalised linear mixed modelling estimated the effect of repellent on infection detected by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (primary outcome) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (secondary outcome). Overall Plasmodium infection detected by RDT was low (0.16%; 50/32,194), but infection detected by PCR was higher (3%; 419/13,157). There was no significant protection against RDT-detectable infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.25, 95% CI 0.004-15.2, p = 0.512). In Plasmodium-species-specific analyses, repellent protected against PCR-detectable P. falciparum (adjusted relative risk ratio [ARRR] = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.95, p = 0.026), but not P. vivax infection (ARRR = 1.41, 95% CI 0.80-2.47, p = 0.233). Repellent effects were similar when delayed effects were modelled, across risk groups, and regardless of village-level and temporal heterogeneity in malaria prevalence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$256 per PCR-detectable infection averted. Study limitations were a lower than expected Plasmodium spp. infection rate and potential geographic dilution of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed apparent protection against new infections associated with the large-scale distribution of repellent by VHVs. Incorporation of repellent into national strategies, particularly in areas where bed nets are less effective, may contribute to the interruption of malaria transmission. Further studies are warranted across different transmission settings and populations, from the GMS and beyond, to inform WHO public health policy on the deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616001434482).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Voluntários , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/economia , Malária Falciparum/economia , Malária Vivax/economia , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003274, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with increased HIV risk and other adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. We assessed the impact of Unite for a Better Life (UBL), a gender-transformative, participatory intervention delivered to men, women, and couples in Ethiopia in the context of the coffee ceremony, a traditional community-based discussion forum. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Villages (n = 64) in 4 Ethiopian districts were randomly allocated to control, men's UBL, women's UBL, or couples' UBL, and approximately 106 households per village were randomly selected for inclusion in the trial. The intervention included 14 sessions delivered twice weekly by trained facilitators; control arm households were offered a short IPV educational session. Primary outcomes were women's experience of past-year physical or sexual IPV 24 months postintervention. Secondary outcomes included male perpetration of past-year physical or sexual IPV, comprehensive HIV knowledge, and condom use at last intercourse. Additional prespecified outcomes included experience and perpetration of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV and emotional IPV, HIV/AIDs knowledge and behaviors, decision-making, and gender norms. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was conducted, evaluating 6,770 households surveyed at baseline in 2014-2015 (1,680 households, 16 clusters in control; 1,692 households, 16 clusters in couples' UBL; 1,707 households, 16 clusters in women's UBL; 1,691 households, 16 clusters in men's UBL). Follow-up data were available from 88% of baseline respondents and 87% of baseline spouses surveyed in 2017-2018. Results from both unadjusted and adjusted specifications are reported, the latter adjusting for age, education level, marriage length, polygamy, socioeconomic status, and months between intervention and endline. For primary outcomes, there was no effect of any UBL intervention compared to control on women's past-year experience of physical (couples' UBL arm adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-1.30, p = 0.973; women's UBL arm AOR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.87-1.42, p = 0.414; men's UBL arm AOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.81-1.28, p = 0.865) or sexual IPV (couples' UBL arm AOR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.62-1.20, p = 0.378; women's UBL arm AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.89-1.50; p = 0.291; men's UBL arm AOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.63-1.01, p = 0.062). For the secondary outcomes, only the men's UBL intervention significantly reduced male perpetration of past-year sexual IPV (AOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.94, p = 0.014), and no intervention reduced perpetration of past-year physical IPV. Among women, the couples' UBL intervention significantly improved comprehensive HIV knowledge, and both couples' and women's UBL significantly increased reported condom use at last intercourse. Among additional outcomes of interest, the men's UBL intervention was associated with a significant reduction in women's experience of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99, p = 0.036) and men's perpetration of physical and/or sexual IPV (AOR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62-0.98, p = 0.037). UBL delivered to men and couples was associated with a significant reduction in HIV risk behaviors and more equitable intrahousehold decision-making and household task-sharing. The primary limitation is reliance on self-reported data. CONCLUSIONS: A gender-transformative intervention delivered to men was effective in reducing self-reported perpetration of sexual IPV but did not reduce IPV when delivered to couples or women. We found evidence of decreased sexual IPV with men's UBL across men's and women's reports and of increased HIV knowledge and condom use at last intercourse among women. The men's UBL intervention could help accelerate progress towards gender equality and combating HIV/AIDS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02311699) and in the American Economic Association registry (AEARCTR-0000211).


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , População Rural , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Etiópia/etnologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(8): jrm00089, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is a multisystem illness that has considerable long-term physical, psychological, cognitive, social and vocational sequelae in survivors. Given the scale of this burden and lockdown measures in most countries, there is a need for an integrated rehabilitation pathway using a tele-medicine approach to screen and manage these sequelae in a systematic and efficient way. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team of professionals in the UK developed a comprehensive pragmatic telephone screening tool, the COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Screen (C19-YRS), and an integrated rehabilitation pathway, which spans the acute hospital trust, community trust and primary care service within the National Health Service (NHS) service model. RESULTS: The C19-YRS telephone screening tool, developed previously, was used to screen symptoms and grade their severity. Referral criteria thresholds were applied to the output of C19-YRS to inform the decision-making process in the rehabilitation pathway. A dedicated multidisciplinary COVID-19 rehabilitation team is the core troubleshooting forum for managing complex cases with needs spanning multiple domains of the health condition. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend that health services dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic adopt a comprehensive telephone screening system and an integrated rehabilitation pathway to manage the large number of survivors in a timely and effective manner and to enable the provision of targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Sobreviventes , Telemedicina/métodos , Reino Unido
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 871, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder with huge psychological, social, and economic consequences, including premature deaths and loss of productivity. Sub-Saharan Africa carries the highest burden of epilepsy. The management of epilepsy in Cameroon remains unsatisfactory due to poor identification of cases and a limited knowledge of the distribution of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether community drug distributors (CDDs) - volunteers selected by their communities to distribute ivermectin against onchocerciasis and who have been proven efficient to deliver other health interventions such as insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent malaria, vitamin A tablets, and albendazole to treat soil transmitted helminthiasis - can be used to reliably identify people living with epilepsy to promote better management of cases. METHODS: This study was carried out in three health Districts in Cameroon. An exhaustive house to house census was carried out by trained CDDs under the supervision of local nurses. In each household, all suspected cases of epilepsy were identified. In each health district, five communities were randomly selected for a second census by trained health personnel (research team). The results of the two censuses were compared for verification purposes. RESULTS: A total of 53,005 people was registered in the 190 communities surveyed with 794 (1.4%) individuals identified as suspected cases of epilepsy (SCE) by the CDDs. In the 15 communities where the SCE census was verified, the average ratio between the number of suspected cases of epilepsy reported in a community by the research team and that reported by the CDDs was 1.1; this ratio was < 0.8 and > 1.2 in 6 communities. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that CDDs, who are present in about 200,000 communities in 31 Sub Saharan African countries where onchocerciasis is endemic, can be successfully used to assess epilepsy prevalence, and therefore map epilepsy in many African countries.


Assuntos
Censos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
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