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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent obesity conducted in Latin America and provide suggestions for future prevention efforts in countries of the region. METHODS: Articles published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 2000 and 2017 were searched in four online databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, LILACS, and REDALYC). Inclusion criteria were: studies targeting school-aged children and adolescents (6-18 years old), focusing on preventing obesity in a Latin American country using at least one school-based component, reporting at least one obesity-related outcome, comprising controlled or before-and-after design, and including information on intervention components and/or process. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most effective interventions (n = 3) had moderate quality and included multi-component school-based programs to promote health education and parental involvement focused on healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. These studies also presented a better study designs, few limitations for execution, and a minimum duration of six months. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based prevention experiences are important guides for future strategies implemented in the region. Alongside gender differences, an adequate duration, and the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods, evidence-based prevention should be considered to provide a clearer and deeper understanding of the true effects of school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Humanos , América Latina , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
2.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(4): 267-269, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025729

RESUMO

The pandemic is creating unprecedented demand for mental health support for young people. While schools often facilitate mental health support for their students, the demands for online teaching and the uncertainty created by the pandemic make traditional delivery of support through schools challenging. Technology provides a potential way forward. We have developed a digital ecosystem, HABITS, that can be integrated into school and healthcare systems. This has allowed us to deploy specific evidence-based interventions directly, and through schools, to students and to parents in New Zealand during the current pandemic. Chatbot architecture is particularly suited to rapid iteration to provide specific information while apps can provide more generalised support. While technology can provide some solutions, it is important to be aware of the potential to increase current inequities, with those facing the greatest challenges to health and well-being, also least able to afford the resources to access digital interventions. Development of an integrated and equitable digital system will take time and collaboration.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Computadores , Ecossistema , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Telecomunicações
3.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(4): 258-259, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026141

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted existing gaps in school-based mental health services and created new and urgent needs to address student mental health. Evidence from early in the pandemic already suggests that preexisting educational and mental health disparities have increased under the stress of the current health crisis. School mental health professionals are essential to help address anxiety, to promote social adjustment in the 'new normal', and to address trauma, grief, and loss. Schools will also need to creatively support teachers during this unprecedented time. Such efforts will require adequate funding and advocacy for the inclusion of school-based mental health supports within governmental COVID-19 aid packages.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E119, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the social needs of low-income households with children during the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis of a rapid-response survey among low-income households with children on social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, and diet-related behaviors. METHODS: We distributed an electronic survey in April 2020 to 16,435 families in 4 geographic areas, and 1,048 responded. The survey asked families enrolled in a coordinated school-based nutrition program about their social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, food insecurity, and diet-related behaviors during the pandemic. An open-ended question asked about their greatest concern. We calculated descriptive statistics stratified by location and race/ethnicity. We used thematic analysis and an inductive approach to examine the open-ended comments. RESULTS: More than 80% of survey respondents were familiar with COVID-19 and were concerned about infection. Overall, 76.3% reported concerns about financial stability, 42.5% about employment, 69.4% about food availability, 31.0% about housing stability, and 35.9% about health care access. Overall, 93.5% of respondents reported being food insecure, a 22-percentage-point increase since fall 2019. Also, 41.4% reported a decrease in fruit and vegetable intake because of COVID-19. Frequency of grocery shopping decreased and food pantry usage increased. Qualitative assessment identified 4 main themes: 1) fear of contracting COVID-19, 2) disruption of employment status, 3) financial hardship, and 4) exacerbated food insecurity. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the compounding effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on households with children across the spectrum of social needs.


Assuntos
Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(4): 260-262, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049102

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic causes much disruption globally on sociopolitical, economic and healthcare fronts. While much of the impact has focused on the epidemiology and medical management of the pandemic, more need to be focused on the mental health impact of COVID-19. This article describes the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Singapore's schools and the response and adaptation of the school community mental health services. Singapore's response is one of balancing the needs of the population and demands in this crisis, with the utilization of technology and outbreak and support control measures. Further consideration needs to be afforded to increase capacity of the school and mental health services to support youth and tapping on technological innovations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Singapura
6.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(4): 270-272, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049109

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the social distancing procedures have caused disruptions to daily activities. The first preventive procedures by the closing of schools will undoubtedly have short- and long-term consequences for the mental health of school students. The movement restrictions, school closures and stay at home during the COVID-19 pandemic will likely lead to a rise in the rates of domestic violence, loneliness, depression, fear, panic and anxiety, and substance use among school students.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Paquistão , Quarentena/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remain one of the most common causes of morbidity among children in Ethiopia. Assessment of the magnitude of STH and its association with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and identify barriers for school-level prevention assist public health planners to prioritize promotion strategies and is a basic step for intervention. However, there is a lack of evidence on the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and barriers for school-level prevention among schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and identify barriers for school level prevention in technology village of Hawassa University; 2019. METHODS: An institution-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1080 schoolchildren from September 5 to October 15, 2019. A two-stage cluster and purposive sampling technique were used to draw the study participants. A pretested, structured questionnaire, observation checklist, and in-depth interview were used to collect the data. Two grams of stool samples were collected from each study participant and examined using direct wet mount and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Both bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis method by Atlas-Ti software and presented in narratives. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of STHs was 23.1% (95% CI = 21.4, 27.6). The identified predictors of STHs were large family size (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.53-3.99), absence of separate toilet room for male and female (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.91-5.79), toilet not easy to clean (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.44-3.33), inadequate knowledge about STHs (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.07-3.44) and children who had travelled greater than 100 meters to access toilet (AOR = 3.45; 95% CI = 2.24-8.92). These results were supported by the individual, institutional, socio-economic and cultural qualitative results. CONCLUSION: The STHs was moderate public health concerns. Reinforcing the existing fragile water, sanitation and hygiene programs and regular deworming of schoolchildren may support to reduce the burden of STHs. Also, increasing modern family planning methods utilization to decrease family size is recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Saneamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
8.
Work ; 67(1): 29-35, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, telehealth was an emerging occupational therapy (OT) service delivery model possessing many positive attributes. These include the potential to offset well-documented global occupational therapy practitioner (OTP) shortages. However, wide-spread adoption of telehealth as a delivery model in school-based practice is lacking in the OT evidence literature. While the COVID-19 global health emergency propelled many OTPs into the use of telehealth technologies, in some cases with minimal preparation, an investigation was conducted into the likelihood of telehealth adoption when comprehensive training was provided so that appropriateness of student fit for telehealth could be determined and essential planning could take place. OBJECTIVE: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, a comprehensive training program was developed incorporating detailed perceptions of OTPs experienced in and new to telehealth in school-based practice as measured via surveys with the goal of increasing adoption of telehealth technologies for the delivery of OT services. Following the completion of the online New to Telehealth Pre-training Survey, OTPs new to telehealth were invited to complete the OT Telehealth Primer: School-based Practice training program. Analysis of pre- and post-training surveys yielded information about attitudinal changes experienced post-training. METHODS: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, school-based occupational therapy practitioners (OTP) experienced in telehealth were invited to complete a survey exploring benefits and barriers encountered in the delivery of OT services using telehealth. OTPs new-to-telehealth were invited to complete a different survey intended to explore attitudes about the potential use of telehealth. Data collected from both surveys were used to develop a comprehensive training program, The OT Telehealth Primer for School-based Practice. OTPs new-to-telehealth were invited to complete the training program and a post-training survey. A descriptive data analysis was completed on responses from pre- to post-training surveys and the chi-square test of independence was used to evaluate difference in reported likelihood of adopting telehealth into practice before and after training. RESULTS: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, the top benefits identified by the OTP Experienced Telehealth-User Survey included: 1) service access, 2) collaboration and carry-over with team members, 3) efficiency themes, and4) student engagement and comfort. Top benefits identified by the OTP New to Telehealth Survey identified the same top benefits after participating in the training program. A significant decrease in perceived barriers was noted in scores from pre- to post-training by OTPs new to telehealth. The perceived barriers that did not significantly decrease post-training suggest the need for future education and future protocol development. These included: unreliable internet, lack of hands-on opportunity and e-helpers' (parent, caregiver or support system available to assist the student in person during a telehealth session) decreased comfort with technology. Of the participants who completed the OT Telehealth Primer: School-based Practice, 80% reported being likely to add telehealth as a delivery model for future OT practice. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, completion of the comprehensive training program OT Telehealth Primer: School-based Practice program yielded improved perceived benefits and an increased likelihood of telehealth adoption into practice by OTPs. However, both OTPs and school administrators require ongoing education for successful widespread adoption to be achieved thus offsetting the global shortage of OTPs and increasing service access. Future research, particularly related to available training and support for the rapid adoption of telehealth technologies during the COVID-19 global health emergency, will yield helpful information about the likelihood of continued use of telehealth in practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Terapia Ocupacional/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Eficiência Organizacional , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Terapia Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239002, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925957

RESUMO

This study investigated the efficacy of a culturally modified resilience education program on Japanese adolescents' well-being from a differential susceptibility perspective. First, a culturally modified resilience education intervention was developed by employing the SPARK resilience program and implemented with 407 Japanese high school students in Tokyo (age = 15-16, M = 192, F = 215). To test intervention efficacy, students' level of resilience, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression were measured pre-, post-, and three months after intervention. Additionally, sensory processing sensitivity, using the Japanese version of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale for Adolescence, was measured as an index of individual sensitivity. Analysis of variance was used to examine the baseline differences and interaction effects of students' gender and level of sensory processing sensitivity. Latent growth curve models were used to assess the overall effects of the intervention and change over time. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in enhancing students' overall self-efficacy; and that highly sensitive students, who scored significantly lower in well-being than their counterparts at baseline, responded more positively to the intervention, and had a greater reduction in depression and promotion of self-esteem. These findings provided unique evidence in line with the differential susceptibility perspective and useful implications to develop personalized treatment interventions for adolescents in different cultural contexts.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Resiliência Psicológica , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia
10.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042867, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine any change in referral patterns and outcomes in children (0-18) referred for child protection medical examination (CPME) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study, analysing routinely collected clinical data from CPME reports in a rapid response to the pandemic lockdown. SETTING: Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, which provides all routine CPME for Birmingham, England, population 1.1 million including 288 000 children. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged under 18 years attending CPME during an 18-week period from late February to late June during the years 2018-2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of referrals, source of disclosure and outcomes from CPME. RESULTS: There were 78 CPME referrals in 2018, 75 in 2019 and 47 in 2020, this was a 39.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 59.0%) reduction in referrals from 2018 to 2020, and a 37.3% (95% CI 8.6% to 57.4%) reduction from 2019 to 2020. There were fewer CPME referrals initiated by school staff in 2020, 12 (26%) compared with 36 (47%) and 38 (52%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In all years 75.9% of children were known to social care prior to CPME, and 94% of CPME concluded that there were significant safeguarding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: School closure due to COVID-19 may have harmed children as child abuse has remained hidden. There needs to be either mandatory attendance at schools in future or viable alternatives found. There may be a significant increase in safeguarding referrals when schools fully reopen as children disclose the abuse they have experienced at home.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , População , Isolamento Social , Serviço Social/métodos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 171-177, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) require diverse services to support their health, educational success, and family functioning. Rarely can the needs of young parents be met by a single school or service provider. This case study examines how one large school district funded through the pathways to success initiative was able to facilitate systems change to increase young parents' access to and use of supportive services. METHODS: Data sources include a needs and resources assessment, quarterly reports documenting grantee effort, sustainability plans, social network analysis, and capstone interviews. All data sources were systematically reviewed to identify the existing context prior to the start of the initiative, the changes that resulted from the initiative, and efforts that could potentially be maintained beyond the grant period. RESULTS: The community context prior to Pathways implementation was one of disconnected services and missed opportunities. The full-time program coordinator hired by the district focused on systems-level change and facilitated connections between organizations. This greater connectivity contributed to increased collaboration with the goal of producing lasting benefits for young parents. DISCUSSION: Promoting sustainable connections and collaboration at the systems level can help dismantle barriers to service access and benefit young parents.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Rede Social
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1363, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia screening in high schools offers a way to reach adolescents outside of a traditional clinic setting. Using transmission dynamic modeling, we examined the potential impact of high-school-based chlamydia screening programs on the burden of infection within intervention schools and surrounding communities, under varying epidemiological and programmatic conditions. METHODS: A chlamydia transmission model was calibrated to epidemiological data from three different settings. Philadelphia and Chicago are two high-burden cities with existing school-based screening programs. Rural Iowa does not have an existing program but represents a low-burden setting. We modeled the effects of the two existing programs to analyze the potential influence of program coverage and student participation. All three settings were used to examine a broader set of hypothetical programs with varying coverage levels and time trends in participation. RESULTS: In the modeled Philadelphia program, prevalence among the intervention schools' sexually active 15-18 years old population was 4.34% (95% credible interval 3.75-4.71%)after 12 program years compared to 5.03% (4.39-5.43%) in absence of the program. In the modeled Chicago program, prevalence was estimated as 5.97% (2.60-7.88%) after 4 program years compared to 7.00% (3.08-9.29%) without the program. In the broader hypothetical scenarios including both high-burden and low-burden settings, impact of school-based screening programs was greater in absolute terms in the higher-prevalence settings, and benefits in the community were approximately proportional to population coverage of intervention schools. Most benefits were garnered if the student participation did not decline over time. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained high student participation in school-based screening programs and broad coverage of schools within a target community are likely needed to maximize program benefits in terms of reduced burden of chlamydia in the adolescent population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Chlamydia trachomatis , Programas de Rastreamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Chicago/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 525-531, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) significantly increases the risk of developing cervical cancer later in life. Therefore, globally, HPV vaccines targeted to pre-adolescent and adolescent girls have been on the rise since the licensure in 2006. However, the introduction of HPV vaccines has been relatively slow in Africa. At the end of 2016, only 8 of the 54 countries in Africa were reported to have introduced HPV vaccination at a national level. By 2019, the number of countries had grown marginally to 11. OBJECTIVES: To investigate stakeholders' perspectives on the experiences, challenges and lessons learnt during national HPV vaccine introduction in Africa. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to selected participants from 8 African countries. These countries had successfully introduced HPV vaccination at a national level by the end of 2016. We used in-depth interviews and self-administered online questionnaires for data collection and analysis. Data are presented without naming the country or participants; therefore, readers will not be able to identify the results that are specific to individual countries. Narrative and thematic reporting were used to describe the results. RESULTS: We obtained results from 6 of the 8 targeted countries. The challenges reported during HPV vaccination programmes were: identifying the target population, using a school-based vaccine-delivery strategy, obtaining political support, the need to integrate HPV vaccination with existing school health programmes and engaging multiple stakeholders. These challenges were similar in all 6 countries. The lessons learnt were that a school-based delivery strategy is a successful approach for national HPV vaccination, and that identifying girls for vaccination at schools was less challenging if implemented through a class-based instead of an age-based approach. CONCLUSIONS: Most African countries do not have established platforms to deliver vaccines to pre-adolescent and adolescent populations. The successful introduction of the HPV vaccine through school-based vaccination strategies in African countries may have created a platform to deliver other adolescent vaccines. The similarity of the study findings across the 6 participating countries further strengthens the need to document and disseminate the challenges and lessons learnt during HPV vaccine introduction in Africa. Documentation and dissemination of the challenges and lessons learnt are useful to other countries in Africa that plan to introduce an HPV vaccination programme, and possibly other adolescent vaccines.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , África , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22072, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925744

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence has consistently shown the high efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in preventing cervical cancers. However, the HPV vaccine uptake rate in Hong Kong is very low. We will develop and evaluate an innovative, theory-based multidisciplinary team-led school-based HPV vaccination health-promotion program (MDL-SHPVP), engaging female adolescents, parents/guardians, and secondary school personnel in multicomponent educational strategies and interactive discussions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster randomized controlled trial is proposed. We will recruit 2520 female adolescents and their parents/guardians from 18 secondary day schools. The MDL-SHPVP is underpinned by the Health Belief Model and Precaution Adoption Process Model. Multicomponent interventions will be offered, including education sessions with small group dialogues with a registered nurse and trained healthcare and lay volunteers, and educational computer games. A team of volunteers will be established to raise HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine awareness. Outcomes include adolescents' uptake of the HPV vaccine, adolescents' intention to receive HPV vaccination, vaccine acceptance among parents/guardians, and parents'/guardians' and adolescents' HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Data will be collected at baseline, 1 month, and 1 year after intervention. The generalized estimating equations analysis will be used for comparing the outcomes between the 2 groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong-New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Ref. no.: 2019.055). We will disseminate the study findings via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at relevant events and international and local conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04438291.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
16.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 90-94, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128958

RESUMO

Las afecciones bucodentales constituyen un problema de salud pública por su alta prevalencia y su fuerte impacto individual y colectivo en términos de dolor, malestar y discapacidad social y funcional. El Centro de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria San Pantaleón, ubicado en la provincia de Buenos Aires, brinda asistencia sanitaria gratuita a la comunidad. Un relevamiento documentó que el 97% de los concurrentes presentaba caries y no se lavaban los dientes por falta de cepillo y pasta dental. Se decidió llevar adelante un programa de promoción de la salud bucodental. El objetivo fue evaluar su implementación; que incluyó: a) rastreo de caries y problemas odontológicos; b) coordinación interinstitucional; c) entrega de cepillos y pasta dental; d) intervención educativa; e) extensión comunitaria. Participaron en forma irregular 120 niñas, niños y adolescentes entre 5 y 18 años del Centro de Apoyo Escolar Fundación Bajo Boulogne. Se realizaron dos encuentros educativos y entrega de cepillos y pasta dental. En la revisión odontológica inicial sobre 60 participantes se detectaron caries en 43 (71,6%), que fueron derivados para tratamiento odontológico, pero concurrieron solo 26 (60,4%). El conocimiento sobre salud bucodental mostró cambios entre los más pequeños luego de las intervenciones educativas. Se logró implementar el programa, cumplimentando las actividades propuestas. Pero surgieron barreras que dificultaron la cobertura. En cuanto a la eficacia de la intervención educativa, no se logró mostrar cambios en el conocimiento. Se consiguió la detección oportuna, la incorporación de hábitos como el cepillado dentro de la institución educativa, la articulación para mejorar el acceso a la atención y la vinculación entre los diferentes actores comunitarios. (AU)


Oral disorders are a public health problem due to their high prevalence and their strong individual and collective impact in terms of pain, discomfort, and social and functional disability. The San Pantaleón Family and Community Medicine Center, located in the province of Buenos Aires, provides free healthcare to the community. A survey documented that 97% of those present had cavities and did not brush their teeth due to a lack of brush and toothpaste. It was decided to carry out an oral health promotion program. The objective was to evaluate its implementation; which included: a) tracking of caries and dental problems; b) inter-institutional coordination; c) delivery of brushes and toothpaste; d) educational intervention; e) community extension. 120 girls and boys and adolescents between 5 and 18 years of age from the Bajo Boulogne Foundation School Support Center irregularly participated. Two educational meetings were held, handing out brushes and toothpaste. In the initial dental review of 60 participants, caries was detected in 43 (71.6%), who were referred for dental treatment, with only 26 (60.4%) concurring. Oral health knowledge showed changes among the youngest after educational interventions. It was possible to implement the program, completing the proposed activities. Barriers arose that made coverage difficult. Regarding the effectiveness of the educational intervention, it was not possible to show changes in knowledge. Timely detection was achieved, the incorporation of habits such as brushing within the educational institution, articulation to improve access to care and the link between the different community actors. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Saúde Bucal/educação , Educação em Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/tendências , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde Bucal/métodos , Educação em Saúde Bucal/tendências , Odontologia Comunitária/educação , Odontologia Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867355

RESUMO

School administrator involvement is recognized as a key factor in the extent to which school health promotion programs and initiatives are successfully implemented. The aims of this scoping review are to: (a) Identify existing documents that contain recommendations regarding the involvement of school administrators in school-based health promotion; (b) distill and summarize the recommendations; (c) examine differences in the recommendations by targeted professional level, professional group, health promotion content focus, and by whether the recommendations are evidence-based or opinion-based; and (d) evaluate the research informing the recommendations. We drew upon the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines to conduct the review. Our team conducted a comprehensive literature search with no date or geographic restrictions from January 2018 through April 2018 using four electronic databases: Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, Physical Education Index, and PubMed. Eligibility criteria included any online documents, in English, that contained recommendations targeting school administrators' (e.g., principals, assistant principals, superintendents) involvement (e.g., support, endorsement, advocacy) in school health programming (e.g., physical activity, nutrition, wellness). The search yielded a total of 1225 records, which we screened by title, then by abstract, and finally by full text, resulting in 61 records that met inclusion criteria. Data (e.g., recommendations, targeted contexts, targeted administrators) from these records were extracted for a content analysis. Included records contained 80 distinct recommendations, which we summarized into three themes (Collaboration, Advocacy, and Support) using a content analysis. Separate content analyses revealed no qualitative differences in the recommendations by professional level, professional group, or content focus, or by whether the recommendations were evidence-based or opinion-based. Twenty-one of the included records were peer-reviewed research articles. Using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), we appraised qualitative research articles the highest and mixed methods research articles the lowest. This review provides a basis for future research and professional practice aiming to increase school administrators' involvement in school-based health promotion.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Exercício Físico , Humanos
18.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47791

RESUMO

Tendo em vista que não há uma solução comum que se adeque a todas as escolas, e nem solução que atenda a todos os segmentos diferenciados de uma mesma escola, a Nota Técnica sugere a construção, em cada unidade escolar, de um Plano Integrado e Intersetorial Local de ações para o enfrentamento e convívio com a Covid-19, com ações sanitárias e educacionais, em sintonia com o planejamento de instâncias regionais e macrorregionais e respeitando a singularidade local.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents should perform, according to the World Health Organization guidelines, at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per-day in order to avoid the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The school represents a fundamental setting to conduct interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and contrast sedentary behaviors. Active breaks (ABs), bouts of 10 min of PA conducted inside the classroom, seem to be a good strategy to promote PA and improve classroom behavior. The aim of this study protocol is to describe the design and the assessment of the Imola Active Breaks I-MOVE study. METHODS: The I-MOVE study is a school-based intervention trial, with a quasi-experimental design, performed in a primary school. It involves one experimental-group performing the intervention, focused on ABs, and one control-group. Nine main outcomes are evaluated: PA and sedentary behaviors; health related fitness; motor control development; dietary patterns; anthropometric evaluation; sociodemographic determinants; cognitive function; time-on-task behavior and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the I-MOVE study will help to clarify the effects of incorporating ABs in the Italian school curriculum as a new public health strategy and an innovative school model oriented to the well-being of children and teachers for the best quality of school life.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Aptidão Física , Qualidade de Vida , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Itália , Saúde Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21233, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of how multicomponent school-based interventions work and their effects on health and education outcomes are needed. This paper described the methods of the Movimente Program, a school-based intervention that aims to increase physical activity (PA) and decrease sedentary behavior (SB) among Brazilian students. METHODS: This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with adolescents from 7th to 9th grade in public schools from Florianopolis, Southern Brazil. After agreement, 6 schools were randomly selected to intervention or control groups (3 schools each), and all eligible students were invited to the study. The Movimente intervention program was performed during a school year and included 3 main components: Teacher training (including face-to-face meeting, social media platform, and handbook with lesson plans); improvements in the PA environment in school; and educational strategies. Control schools continued with their traditional schedule. Baseline (March/April 2017), postintervention (November/December 2017), and maintenance (June/July 2018) evaluations included PA and SB as primary outcomes (assessed by self-report and accelerometry). Secondary outcomes included psychosocial factors related to PA and SB (e.g., social support and self-efficacy), as well as health (e.g., quality of life and nutritional status) and education (e.g., academic achievement) outcomes. A program evaluation was performed based on the RE-AIM framework. Participants, intervention staffs, and evaluators were not blinded to group assignment, but a standardized evaluation protocol was applied independently of the trial allocation. RESULTS: Statistical analyses will include a multilevel approach for repeated measurements and mediation analysis. Any side effects of the intervention will be recorded. The sample size close to that expected (n = 1090) was reached (n = 999). The results of this trial will involve valuable information about the effect and the evaluation of a multicomponent intervention carried out in a middle-income country. CONCLUSION: By creating opportunities for adolescents to be active at school using multicomponent strategies, the Movimente program has the potential to enhance students health and academic performance which may encourage the school community (e.g., teachers, principals) to adopt the program. Also, this trial will provide evidence for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers on how multicomponent program may be implemented in a school setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: NCT02944318; date of registration: 18 October 2016).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Resultado do Tratamento
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