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1.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 2): 422-428, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Population aging and unequal accessibility of health care are increasingly important in developed countries. One strategy to overcome these issues is utilizing telemedicine, which is recently made possible technologically by the advancement of internet speed, high speed zooming cameras, and the information storages. In Taiwan, the telemedicine is granted legally by the amendment for Taiwan's Physician Act in 2018. METHODS: Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Kaohsiung CGMH) is the first hospital in Taiwan to provide the telemedicine service connecting to Cheng Kung Branch of Taitung Hospital since Nov 2018. Consultation services from Dermatology, ENT, and Ophthalmology have been delivered in the live-interactive and face to face module every week. RESULTS: Dermatology consultation comprises the majorities. In the first year, there were totally 426 dermatology consultation services. Eczema, fungal infections, and scabies infestation were the three most common diseases in the beginning. The disease diagnosis became more diverse after several months, including some ready-to-treat diseases pending correct diagnosis, such as pediculosis, psoriasis, and urticaria. Coupled with dermoscopic images, diseases such as hair loss, pediculosis capitis, skin tumor, and scabies, were diagnosed promptly. The subjective patient improvement rate was more than 75% year-round and the case closure rate was more than 85% year-round. CONCLUSION: Teledermatology is a promising approach to serve the remote medical-underprivileged regions. The teledermatology is anticipated to help underserved regions, nursing homes, prisons, and in situations with severe pandemic infections, such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitais de Distrito , Hospitais Rurais , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Dermatopatias , Telemedicina/métodos , Dermatologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/terapia , Taiwan , Telemedicina/organização & administração
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321718

RESUMO

Rural populations in the United States are faced with a variety of health disparities that complicate access to care. Community health workers (CHWs) and their Spanish-speaking counterparts, promotores de salud, are well-equipped to address rural health access issues, provide education, and ultimately assuage these disparities. In this article, we compare community health workers in the states of Indiana and Texas, based on the results of two separate research studies, in order to (1) investigate the unique role of CHWs in rural communities and (2) understand how their advocacy efforts represent a central form of caregiving. Drawing on ethnographic, qualitative data-including interviews, photovoice, and participant observation-we analyze how CHWs connect structurally vulnerable clients in rural areas to resources, health education, and health and social services. Our primary contribution to existing scholarship on CHWs is the elaboration of advocacy as a form of caregiving to improve individual health outcomes as well as provoke structural change in the form of policy development. Finally, we describe how CHWs became especially critical in addressing disparities among rural populations in the wake of COVID-19, using their advocacy-as-caregiving role that was developed and well-established before the pandemic. These frontline workers are more vital than ever to address disparities and are a critical force in overcoming structural vulnerability and inequities in health in the United States.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Defesa do Paciente , Serviços de Saúde Rural , População Rural , Humanos , Indiana , Texas , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343797

RESUMO

Introduction: the increased demands of health facilities and workers due to coronavirus overwhelm the already burdened Tanzanian health systems. This study evaluates the current capacity of facilities and providers for HIV care and treatment services and their preparedness to adhere to the national and global precaution guidelines for HIV service providers and patients. Methods: data for this study come from the latest available, Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey 2014-15. Frequencies and percentages described the readiness and availability of HIV services and providers. Chi-square test compared the distribution of services by facility location and availability and readiness of precaution commodities and HIV services by managing authorities. Results: availability of latex gloves was high (83% at OPD and 95.3% laboratory). Availability of medical masks, alcohol-based hand rub and disinfectants was low. Availability of medical mask at outpatient department (OPD) was 28.7% urban (23.5% public; 33.8% private, p=0.02) and 13.5% rural (10.1% public; 25.4% private, p=0.001) and lower at laboratories. Fewer facilities in rural area (68.4%) had running water in OPD than urban (86.3%). Higher proportions of providers at public than private facilities in urban (82.8% versus 73.1%) and rural (88.2% versus 81.6%) areas provided HIV test counseling and at least two other HIV services. Conclusion: availability of commodities such as medical masks, alcohol-based hand rub, and disinfectant was low while the readiness of providers to multitask HIV related services was high. Urgent distribution and re-assessment of these supplies are necessary, to protect HIV patients, their caregivers, and health providers from COVID-19.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Desinfetantes/provisão & distribução , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Higienizadores de Mão/provisão & distribução , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Instalações Privadas/normas , Instalações Privadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Logradouros Públicos/normas , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/normas , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/normas , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Rural Remote Health ; 20(4): 6068, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264566

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Rural hospitals in the USA are often served by advanced practice nurses, due to the difficulty for such facilities to recruit physicians. In order to facilitate a full range of services for patients, some states permit advanced practice nurses to practice with full independence. However, many states limit their scopes of practice, resulting in the potential for limited healthcare access in underserved areas. The COVID-19 pandemic temporarily upended these arrangements for several states, as 17 governors quickly passed waivers and suspensions of physician oversight restrictions. ISSUES: Physician resistance is a primary hurdle for states that limit advanced practice nurse scopes of practice. Longstanding restrictions were removed, however, in a short period of time. The pandemic demonstrated that even governors with strong political disagreements agreed on one way that healthcare access could potentially be improved. LESSONS LEARNED: Despite longstanding concerns over patient safety when advanced practice nurses practice with full autonomy, governors quickly removed practice restrictions when faced with a crisis situation. Implied in such behavior are that policymakers were aware of advanced practice nurses' capabilities prior to the pandemic, but chose not to implement full practice authority, and that governors appeared to disagree as to whether to temporarily waive specific restrictions or suspend restrictions entirely, consistent with their political affiliation. We propose more research into understanding whether or not such changes should become permanent.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/legislação & jurisprudência , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209177

RESUMO

Introduction: in developing countries, community health workers (CHWs) are essential, for provision of behaviour change communication towards prevention of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection at rural grassroots level. We aimed at assessing their level of knowledge and practice of preventive measures in a developing country setting. Methods: total enumeration of all CHWs in a rural local government area in southern Nigeria was carried out, using cross-sectional descriptive study design. Pretested self-administered 15-item questionnaire was used to assess knowledge of COVID-19 including basic epidemiology, virology, preventive measures and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Practice of preventive measures was also assessed. Each correct response to knowledge question contributed one unit to the total score which was converted to percentage. Total knowledge score of 50% or greater was considered satisfactory. Results: complete data was obtained from eighty-six (86) respondents with mean age of 36.3±8.9 years (18-54 years). Mean total knowledge score was 28.14±12.8% (6.7 to 53.3%), and 9.3% (n=8) had score of at least 50%. Correct responses to appropriate sequence of putting on and removing personal protective equipment (PPE) were 5.8% (n=5) and 8.1% (n=7), respectively. Regular practice of use of face masks, goggles, gloves, and hand hygiene was found to be 50% (n=43), 12.8% (n=11), 30.2% (n=26), and 56.4% (n=48), respectively. Conclusion: community health workers are grossly underprepared for provision of health education on COVID-19, due to their poor level of knowledge. Their capacity building through workshops and effective continuing education program are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Aust J Rural Health ; 28(6): 613-617, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216416

RESUMO

The rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia has highlighted the vulnerabilities of remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in terms of the high prevalence of complex chronic disease and socio-economic factors such as limited housing availability and overcrowding. The response has also illustrated the capability of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander leaders and the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services Sector, working with the government, to rapidly and effectively mitigate the threat of transmission into these vulnerable remote communities. The pandemic has exposed persistent workforce challenges faced by primary health care services in remote Australia. Specifically, remote health services have a heavy reliance on short-term or fly-in, fly-out/drive-in, drive-out staff, particularly remote area nurses. The easing of travel restrictions across the country brings the increased risk of transmission into remote areas and underscores the need to adequately plan and fund remote primary health care services and ensure the availability of an adequate, appropriately trained local workforce in all remote communities.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Pandemias
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 811, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is causing a pandemic and forces physicians to restructure their work. We want to share our experience in the outpatient management of potentially-infected patients with special consideration of altered national test strategies during the crisis. METHODS: We analysed patients with respiratory symptoms reporting to our three rural general practitioner (GP) offices in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, from 27.01-20.04.2020 (n = 489 from a total of 6090 patients). A history of symptoms was taken at the doorstep following a specific questionnaire. Patients with respiratory symptoms were examined in a separated isolation area, while the others were allowed to enter the office. We applied the first recommended algorithm of the German Robert Koch Institute (RKI) to test suspected patients and compared our results with an adapted, more liberal version of the RKI, which is currently applied in Germany. RESULTS: Eighty patients (16.36%, mean age: 47.03 years+ - 18.08) were sent to a nasopharyngeal smear. Five patients (6.25%) proved to be positive, four of whom had established risk factors for COVID-19. Overall, the most common symptoms were cough (83.75%), sore throat (71.25%), as well as myalgia and fatigue (66.25%). The most common diagnoses were rhinopharyngitis (37.22%) and acute bronchitis (30.27%). A sore throat was more common in positively-tested patients (80% vs. 12%). Applying the first RKI test strategy yielded 6.25% of positive tests (n = 80), while the more liberal later RKI recommendation would have achieved 1.36% positive tests from 369 patients. No positive test was missed by applying the conservative strategy. None of our employees called in sick during this period, which emphasises the efficacy and safety of our screening methods. CONCLUSION: A clinical distinction between ordinary respiratory infections and COVID-19 is not possible in a low-prevalence population. Our model to prevent unprotected physical contact, screen patients in front of the office with protective equipment, and examine respiratory infections in separated areas works in the GP setting without overt health risks for employees. Thus, this approach should be used as a GP standard to uphold patient care without major health risks for the personnel. Large multi-centre studies are necessary to work out the most suitable test strategy.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Clínicos Gerais , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Air Med J ; 39(6): 516-519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228907

RESUMO

The aims of this article are to comment on pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mental health activity in rural and remote Australia, including related air medical retrievals; to discuss how the current pandemic is likely to impact on this vulnerable population's mental health; and to provide potential solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant air medical activity from rural and remote Australia. COVID-19 and the necessary public health and socioeconomic interventions are likely to significantly compound mental health problems for both the general public and the mental health workforce servicing rural and remote communities. However, the COVID-19 crisis provides a window of opportunity to develop, support, and build novel and sustainable solutions to the chronic mental health service vulnerabilities in rural and remote areas in Australia and other countries.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Resgate Aéreo/organização & administração , Resgate Aéreo/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Saúde da População Rural/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Rural/tendências , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/tendências
10.
Rural Remote Health ; 20(4): 6132, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160300

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The safe and effective application of psychomotor skills in the clinical environment is a central pillar of the health professions. The current global coronavirus pandemic has significantly impacted health professions education (HPE) and has been of particular consequence for routine face-to-face (F2F) skill education for health professionals and clinical students worldwide. What is being experienced on an unprecedented scale parallels a problem familiar to regional, rural and remote health professionals and students: the learners are willing, and the educational expertise exists, but the two are separated by the tyranny of distance. This article considers how the problem of physical distance might be overcome, so that quality skill education might continue. ISSUES: Psychomotor skills are undeniably easier to teach and learn F2F, and training schedules in tertiary, in-service and accredited professional courses reflect this. This aspect of HPE is therefore at significant risk in the context of social distancing and physical isolation. Psychomotor skills are much more complex than the physical motor outputs alone might suggest, and an F2F skill session is only one way to build the complementary aspects of new skill performance. This article argues that educators and course designers can progress with psychomotor skill education from a physical distance. LESSONS LEARNED: Videos can be used to either passively present content to learners or actively engage them. It is the design of the educational activity, rather than the resource medium itself, that enables active engagement. Furthermore, while many training schedules have been adapted to accommodate intensive F2F skill training once it is safe to do so, distributed practice and the need for reflection during the acquisition and development of new skills may challenge the pedagogical effectiveness of this approach. Skill development can be fostered in the absence of F2F teaching, and in the absence of a shared physical space. Embracing the creative licence to do so will improve equitable access to regional, rural and remote clinicians and students well beyond the resolution of the current pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Educação a Distância/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Desempenho Psicomotor , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Humanos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) launched a guideline in 2015 for managing Possible Serious Bacterial Infection (PSBI) when referral is not feasible in young infants aged 0-59 days. This guideline was implemented across 303 Basic Health Unit (BHU) Plus primary health care (PHC) facilities in peri-urban and rural settings of Sindh, Pakistan. We evaluated the implementation of PSBI guideline, and the quality of care provided to sick young infants at these facilities. METHODS: Thirty (10%) out of 303 BHU Plus facilities were randomly selected for evaluation. A survey team visited each facility for one day, assessed the health system support, observed the management of sick young infants by health care providers (HCP), validated their management, interviewed HCPs and caretakers of sick infants. HCPs who were unable to see a young infant on the day of survey were evaluated using pre-prepared case scenarios. RESULTS: Thirty (100%) BHU Plus facilities had oral amoxicillin, injectable gentamicin, thermometers, baby weighing scales and respiratory timers available; 29 (97%) had disposable syringes and needles; 28 (93%) had integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)/PSBI chart booklets and job aids and 18 (60%) had a functional ambulance. Each facility had at least one HCP trained in PSBI, and 21 (70%) facilities had been visited by a supervisor in the preceding six months. Of 42 HCPs, 19 (45.3%) were trained within the preceding 12 months. During the survey, 26 sick young infants were identified in 18 facilities. HCPs asked about history of breastfeeding in 23 (89%) infants, history of vomiting in 17 (65%), and history of convulsions in 14 (54%); weighed 25 (97%) infants; measured respiratory rate in all (100%) and temperature in 24 (92%); assessed 20 (77%) for movement and 14 (54%) for chest indrawing. HCPs identified two infants with fast breathing pneumonia and managed them correctly per IMCI/PSBI protocol. HCPs identified six (23%) infants with clinical severe infection (CSI), two of them were referred to a higher-level facility, only one accepted the referral advice. Only one CSI patient was managed correctly per IMCI/PSBI protocol at the outpatient level. HCPs described the PSBI danger signs to eight (31%) caretakers. Caretakers of five infants with CSI and two with pneumonia were not counselled for PSBI danger signs. Five of the six CSI cases categorized by HCPs were validated as CSI on re-examination, whereas one had pneumonia. Similarly, one of the two pneumonia patients categorized by HCPs had CSI and one identified as local bacterial infection was classified as CSI upon re-examination. CONCLUSION: Health system support was adequate but clinical management and counselling by HCPs was sub-optimal particularly with CSI cases who are at higher risk of adverse outcomes. Scaling up PSBI management is potentially feasible in PHC facilities in Pakistan, provided that HCPs are trained well and mentored, receive refresher training to appropriately manage sick young infants, and have adequate supplies and counselling skills.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/provisão & distribução , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Am Surg ; 86(11): 1485-1491, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rural access to surgical care has reached crisis level. Practicing in rural America offers unique challenges with limited resources and specialists. Most training programs do not provide enough exposure to the endoscopic or the surgical subspecialty skills to prepare a resident for an isolated rural environment. As awareness has increased, many programs have modified curriculum to address this need. The Advisory Council on Rural Surgery (ACRS) of the American College of Surgeons set out to delineate important components of rural training programs and measure to what degree the existing heterogeneous programs contain these components. STUDY DESIGN: The ACRS identified 4 essential components of rural surgical training based on literature and expert opinion. These components included rotations in a rural setting, broad exposure to surgical specialties, endoscopy experience, and lack of competing specialty learners. A list of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education programs from a prior publication was updated with the 2019 Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database self-identified "rural track" programs, reviewed, and categorized. RESULTS: We identified 39 programs that self-identified as having a rural emphasis. Depending on the extent of which 4 essential components were included, programs were categorized as either "Broad" (12 programs), "Basic" (20 programs), or "Indeterminate" (7 programs). CONCLUSION: The ACRS described the optimal components of a rural surgical training program and identified which components are present in those surgical residencies which self-identified as having a rural focus. This information is valuable to students planning a future in rural surgery and benefits programs hoping to enhance their curriculum to meet this critical need.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
15.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(5): 17-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064639

RESUMO

Before the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) started sweeping across the United States, it began on the coasts. The first known case was reported in a county just outside of Seattle, WA, with other cases quickly cropping up in California and in the greater New York City region. As the virus lingered on the periphery of the country, doctors and physicians working in inland, rural communities worried about what might happen if the virus hit their homes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Criatividade , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , População Rural , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Voluntários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065989

RESUMO

Preconception care (PCC) aims to improve maternal and fetal health outcomes, however, its utilization remains low in developing countries. This pilot study assesses the level and determinants of PCC in an urban and a rural health facility in Kenya. Unselected pregnant women were recruited consecutively at the Mother and Child Health (MCH) clinics in Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUH, N-urban) and Maragua Level Four Hospital (MLFH-rural). The utilization of PCC was defined as contact with any health care provider before current pregnancy and addressing pregnancy planning and preparation. A cross-sectional approach was employed and data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. 194 participants were recruited (97 in each setting) of whom, 25.8% received PCC. Age, marital status, education, parity and occupation were significant determinants of PCC uptake. There was also a significant difference in PCC uptake between the rural (16.5%) and urban (35.1%) participants (p < 0.01), OR of 0.3 (0.19-0.72, 95% CI). The low level of PCC in Kenya revealed in this study is consistent with the low levels globally. However, this study was not powered to allow firm conclusions and analyze the true effects of PCC determinants. Therefore, further research in the field is recommended in order to inform strategies for increasing PCC utilization and awareness in Kenya.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105382, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stroke rehabilitation was seriously inadequate in rural regions of China. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel nurse-trained, family member-delivered rehabilitation model for disabled stroke patients in rural southwest China. METHODS: A single-center randomized controlled trial was conducted at a rural county hospital in Chongqing, China. Eligible stroke patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or to a control group. In the intervention group, patients and their caregivers received stroke rehabilitation training focusing on mobility, self-care, and toileting delivered by trained nurses before discharge, and 3 post-discharge telephone calls at 2nd, 4th, and 8th week. The control group received routine care. The primary outcome was functional independence indicating by Barthel Index (BI) scores, and secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D) and caregiver burden (Caregiver Burden Inventory, CBI). Outcome assessment was carried out at pre-discharge, 3- and 6-months after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 61 stroke patients were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=31) or the control group (n = 30). Compared with that in the control group, BI increased more at 3 months and decreased less at 6 months in the intervention group, there was a significant difference in mean BI scores across the three time points (F = 21.96, p = 0.0001), but no significant between-group difference (F = 0.94, p = 0.3371). In the intervention group, BI scores at 3-and 6-months post-discharge were higher than that before discharge (t = 8.38, p = 0.0001; t = 4.14, p = 0.0003). In the control group, BI scores at 3 months were higher than that before discharge (t = 5.29, p = 0.0001), but no significant difference at 6 months. At 6 months post-discharge, the intervention group and the control group had similar EQ-5D scores (p = 0.91), and similar CBI scores (3.67 vs 3.68, p = 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the novel nurse-trained, family member-delivered rehabilitation model improved physical recovery indicated by BI scores without increasing caregiver burden, compared to usual care, for rural stroke patients in southwest China.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Telerreabilitação , Idoso , Telefone Celular , China , Avaliação da Deficiência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 8(3): 396-412, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008854

RESUMO

This article assesses the CORE Group Polio Project (CGPP) experience over a 20-year period in 5 countries. It examines how a program designed to provide social mobilization to eradicate one disease, and which did so effectively, functioned within the general framework of community health workers (CHWs). Vertical health programs often have limited impact on broader community health. CGPP has a 20-year history of social mobilization and effective program interventions. This history provided an opportunity to assess how CGPP community mobilizers (CMs) functioned in polio and maternal and child health. The Updated Program Functionality Matrix for Optimizing Community Health Programs tool of the CHW Assessment and Improvement Matrix (AIM) was used to examine CGPP CM roles across different contexts. The analysis determined that CGPP CMs met the basic level of functioning (level 3) for 6 of the 10 components of the AIM tool. This cross-country descriptive analysis of the CGPP demonstrates the importance of embracing the full range of CHW AIM components, even in a vertical program. Use of data, community involvement, local adaptation, and linkage with the health system are especially critical for success. This general lesson could be applied to other community mobilization and disease/epidemic control initiatives, especially as we face the issues of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Rural , África , Ásia , Humanos , População Rural
19.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E396-E408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scope of practice of general surgeons in Canada is highly variable. The objective of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics of general surgeons in Canada and compare surgical procedures performed across community sizes and specialties. METHODS: Data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's National Physician Database were used to analyze fee-for-service (FFS) care provided by general surgeons and other providers across Canada in 2015/16. RESULTS: Across 8 Canadian provinces, 1669 general surgeons provided FFS care. The majority of the surgeons worked in communities with more than 100 000 residents (71%), were male (78%), were aged 35-54 years (56%) and were Canadian medical graduates (76%). Only 7% of general surgeons practised in rural areas and 14% in communities with between 10 000 and 50 000 residents. Rural communities were significantly more likely to have surgeons who were international medical graduates or who were older than 65 years. The surgical procedures most commonly performed by general surgeons were hernia repairs, gallbladder and biliary tree surgery, excision of skin tumours, colon and intestine resections and breast surgery. Many general surgeons performed procedures not listed in their Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada training objectives. CONCLUSION: Canadian general surgeons provide a wide array of surgical services, and practice patterns vary by community size. Surgeons practising in rural and small communities require proficiency in skills not routinely taught in general surgery residency. Opportunities to acquire these skills should be available in training to prepare surgeons to meet the care needs of Canadians.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Âmbito da Prática/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Canadá , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/economia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/tendências , Cirurgiões/economia , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação
20.
Am Heart J ; 230: 54-58, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950462

RESUMO

Community engagement and rapid translation of findings for the benefit of patients has been noted as a major criterion for NIH decisions regarding allocation of funds for research priorities. We aimed to examine whether the presence of top NIH-funded institutions resulted in a benefit on the cardiovascular and cancer mortality of their local population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the annual NIH funding of every academic medical from 1995 through 2014, the top 10 funded institutes were identified and the counties where they were located constituted the index group. The comparison group was created by matching each index county to another county which lacks an NIH-funded institute based on sociodemographic characteristics. We compared temporal trends of age-standardized cardiovascular mortality between the index counties and matched counties and states. This analysis was repeated for cancer mortality as a sensitivity analysis. From 1980 through 2014, the annual cardiovascular mortality rates declined in all counties. In the index group, the average decline in cardiovascular mortality rate was 51.5 per 100,000 population (95% CI, 46.8-56.2), compared to 49.7 per 100,000 population (95% CI, 45.9-53.5) in the matched group (P = .27). Trends in cardiovascular mortality of the index counties were similar to the cardiovascular mortality trends of their respective states. Cancer mortality rates declined at higher rates in counties with top NIH-funded medical centers (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular mortality rates have decreased with no apparent incremental benefit for communities with top NIH-funded institutions, underscoring the need for an increased focus on implementation science in cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/provisão & distribução , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Financiamento Governamental , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Rural/provisão & distribução , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/provisão & distribução
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