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2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 153-157, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: These last years adolescents in transition to young adulthood (ATYA) have become a new matter of research. This population encounter specific issues and challenges regarding their mental health particularly when they have attained age boundaries and deal with the issue of transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS). Many key questions regarding how to sustain continuity of mental health care for ATYA during transition remain. The aim of this paper is to review recent literature in the domain to identify dimensions that should be considered to improve ATYA transition from CAMHS to AMHS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A qualitative literature review was performed in Scopus-Elsevier database using the PRISMA method as reporting guidelines. Only papers discussing dimensions involved in the transition process from CAMHS to AMHS were considered. We restricted the review to researches published between 2010 and 2020. RESULTS: We identified 85 potential researches, after filtering; only 10 articles were finally included in the qualitative synthesis of the literature. Five main dimensions were identified: patient, professional, organization, policy, and ethic related. Those dimensions should be considered in order to improve ATYA transition process out of CAMHS to AMHS. CONCLUSION: This work contributes to identify principal dimensions that should be considered by mental health professionals and organizations in order to improve ATYA transition from CAMHS to AMHS.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
3.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 171-177, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) require diverse services to support their health, educational success, and family functioning. Rarely can the needs of young parents be met by a single school or service provider. This case study examines how one large school district funded through the pathways to success initiative was able to facilitate systems change to increase young parents' access to and use of supportive services. METHODS: Data sources include a needs and resources assessment, quarterly reports documenting grantee effort, sustainability plans, social network analysis, and capstone interviews. All data sources were systematically reviewed to identify the existing context prior to the start of the initiative, the changes that resulted from the initiative, and efforts that could potentially be maintained beyond the grant period. RESULTS: The community context prior to Pathways implementation was one of disconnected services and missed opportunities. The full-time program coordinator hired by the district focused on systems-level change and facilitated connections between organizations. This greater connectivity contributed to increased collaboration with the goal of producing lasting benefits for young parents. DISCUSSION: Promoting sustainable connections and collaboration at the systems level can help dismantle barriers to service access and benefit young parents.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Rede Social
4.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(3): 184-186, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734672

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has meant upheaval for child and adolescent mental health services and for children, young people and their families. We look at this disruption through the lens of values-based practice. We also briefly examine the concept of natural capital and the opportunity for 'Building Back Better' post-COVID. We suggest that as well as losses, there are also opportunities to rethink and reshape our practices to make them more value-based.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Humanos
5.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 125-131, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New Heights is a voluntary school-based program that provides a well-defined system of supports for expectant and parenting students in Washington, DC, and was found to be effective at improving educational outcomes. This study explores the program elements and practices that, when used together, improved academic outcomes for New Heights participants and define a possible roadmap for service providers interested in replicating the program's success. METHODS: The study team collected data through site visits, key informant interviews, staff surveys, program observations, case files, and program materials. RESULTS: The core design and implementation elements of the New Heights program are (1) placing a trained staff member in the school to provide advocacy, case management, education, and in-kind incentives; (2) bringing community-based service providers into the school; (3) giving trained staff autonomy and a strong grounding in local context; and (4) using a highly collaborative process to hire and support school-based coordinators. DISCUSSION: Staff and funders interested in improving outcomes for young parents in school could use the experience of New Heights and the key practices that were critical to its success as a guide: (1) ensure that the program is well defined but can be tailored to the needs of schools and students, (2) engage community partners to bring services to participants, (3) hire and train the right staff who are committed to "do whatever it takes," (4) actively cultivate a culture of collaboration among program staff, and (5) develop buy-in with school staff and illustrate program value.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Poder Familiar , Gravidez na Adolescência , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Adolescente , District of Columbia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social , Evasão Escolar
6.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(2): 172-178, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the first 30 days of rapid adolescent telehealth scale-up in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic at a single academic medical center and assess for disparities in visit completion rates by patient characteristics. METHODS: Visit outcome and patient demographic data were obtained via electronic health record (EHR) reports. Telehealth visit completion rates were compared by patient characteristics using the chi-square test and t-test. We used zip code data to generate latitude- and longitude-based maps of the range and density of service delivery. Patient cases highlighting challenges and opportunities for adolescent telehealth were summarized. RESULTS: Between March 16 and April 15, 2020, 392 telehealth visits were scheduled in 331 unique patients, with an 82% appointment completion rate. Video visits were conducted for eating disorders (39%), contraception/menstrual disorders (22%), gender-affirming care (17%), general adolescent medicine (15%), HIV treatment (6%), and substance abuse (1%). The majority of telehealth patients were female Caucasian minors with private insurance. There were no significant differences in telehealth visit completion rates by age, sex, gender, or insurance. Patients coded as non-white (African-American, Asian, or other) in the EHR had lower visit completion rates than white patients (p = .003). Telehealth patients were distributed across five states, with the highest concentration in the zip codes nearest to the clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid scale-up of telehealth for Adolescent Medicine was achieved at this large academic medical center. Future implementation research is needed to assure telehealth reaches adolescents without widening health disparities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adolescente , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(3): 175-177, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674222

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the need for remote technologies to be used in child and adolescent mental health services. With the UK being placed in lockdown one week before a scheduled 'face-to-face' low-intensity CBT training day due to COVID-19, there was a need for rapid adaptations to be made to the content, structure and format of a training day for practitioners in mental health services, to suit the online environment. The content covered the core areas of low-intensity CBT in children and adolescents. Findings showed that the one-day low-intensity training day increased knowledge and understanding in all key areas measured, and was positively received, providing further evidence for the effectiveness and acceptability of remote delivery. Given discussed benefits of remote delivery, as well as rapid developments in technologies helping to address some of the challenges raised, going forward, remote delivery could continue to be beneficial for increasing access to much needed evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Isolamento Social , Telemedicina
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among female adolescents. A greater risk is seen among adolescent mothers who become pregnant outside marriage and consider suicide as the solution to unresolved problems. We aimed to investigate the factors associated with suicidal behavior among adolescent pregnant mothers in Kenya. METHODS: A total of 27 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 8 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted in a rural setting (Makueni County) in Kenya. The study participants consisted of formal health care workers and informal health care providers (traditional birth attendants and community health workers), adolescent and adult pregnant and post-natal (up to six weeks post-delivery) women including first-time adolescent mothers, and caregivers (husbands and/or mothers-in-law of pregnant women) and local key opinion leaders. The qualitative data was analyzed using Qualitative Solution for Research (QSR) NVivo version 10. RESULTS: Five themes associated with suicidal behavior risk among adolescent mothers emerged from this study. These included: (i) poverty, (ii) intimate partner violence (IPV), (iii) family rejection, (iv) social isolation and stigma from the community, and (v) chronic physical illnesses. Low economic status was associated with hopelessness and suicidal ideation. IPV was related to drug abuse (especially alcohol) by the male partner, predisposing the adolescent mothers to suicidal ideation. Rejection by parents and isolation by peers at school; and diagnosis of a chronic illness such as HIV/AIDS were other contributing factors to suicidal behavior in adolescent mothers. CONCLUSION: Improved social relations, economic and health circumstances of adolescent mothers can lead to reduction of suicidal behaviour. Therefore, concerted efforts by stakeholders including family members, community leaders, health care workers and policy makers should explore ways of addressing IPV, economic empowerment and access to youth friendly health care centers for chronic physical illnesses. Prevention strategies should include monitoring for suicidal behavior risks during pregnancy in both community and health care settings. Additionally, utilizing lay workers in conducting dialogue discussions and early screening could address some of the risk factors and reduce pregnancy- related suicide mortality in LMICs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/economia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ; 66: 107-118, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527659

RESUMO

This article sets out the progress that has been made in reducing levels of adolescent childbearing and in meeting adolescent contraceptive needs, over the last 25 years, and also makes the public health, economic, and human rights rationale for continued attention to and investment in these areas. Using an analytic framework that covers the perspectives of both the use and the provision of contraception, it examines the factors that make it difficult for adolescents to obtain and use contraceptives to avoid unintended pregnancies, and outlines what could be done to address these factors, drawing from research evidence and programmatic experience. In doing this, the article provides concrete examples from low- and middle-countries that have made tangible progress in these areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Gravidez
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Mozambique, high adolescent fertility rates are a significant public health problem. Understanding the consequences of teenage pregnancies facilitates effective strategies for improving the quality of care of both mother and the newborn. AIMS: To identify the factors associated with adolescent motherhood in Tete (Mozambique). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 821 pregnant women (255 teenagers) admitted to the general maternity ward of the Provincial Hospital between March and October 2016. The survey included clinical data of the mother and newborn. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 31.8% (95% CI 27.9% - 34.2%). Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors associated with teenage motherhood were: number of pregnancies (OR 0.066; 95% CI 0.040-0.110), pregnancy follow-up (OR 0.29; CI 0.173-0.488) and previous abortions (OR 4.419; 95% CI 1.931-10.112). When the age of the mother was analysed as a continuous variable, positively associated factors were body mass index, arterial hypertension, HIV infection, previous abortions, pregnancy follow-up, and the weight of the newborn. Negatively associated factors were episiotomy and respiratory distress in the newborn. CONCLUSION: Teenage motherhood is a serious public health problem in Mozambique. Intensive sexual and reproductive health planning for adolescents is needed.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 2): S186-S194, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358210

RESUMO

As avid users of technology, adolescents are a key demographic to engage when designing and developing technology applications for health. There are multiple opportunities for improving adolescent health, from promoting preventive behaviors to providing guidance for adolescents with chronic illness in supporting treatment adherence and transition to adult health care systems. This article will provide a brief overview of current technologies and then highlight new technologies being used specifically for adolescent health, such as artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality, and machine learning. Because there is paucity of evidence in this field, we will make recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Realidade Aumentada , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Previsões , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Industrial/tendências , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Estados Unidos , Realidade Virtual
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376728

RESUMO

Children and adolescents who become involved with the justice system often do so with complex medical, mental health, developmental, social, and legal needs. Most have been exposed to childhood trauma or adversity, which both contribute to their involvement with the justice system and negatively impact their health and well-being. Whether youth are held in confinement or in their home communities, pediatricians play a critical role in promoting the health and well-being of justice-involved youth. Having a working knowledge of the juvenile justice system and common issues facing justice-involved youth may help pediatricians enhance their clinical care and advocacy efforts. This policy statement is a revision of the 2011 policy "Health Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System." It provides an overview of the juvenile justice system, describes racial bias and overrepresentation of youth of color in the justice system, reviews the health and mental health status of justice-involved youth, and identifies advocacy opportunities for juvenile justice reform.


Assuntos
Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(2): 164-171, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study describes the rapid implementation of telemedicine within an adolescent and young adult (AYA) medicine clinic in response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While there are no practice guidelines specific to AYA telemedicine, observations made during this implementation can highlight challenges encountered and suggest solutions to some of these challenges. METHODS: Over the course of several weeks in March, 2020, the Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine Clinic at the University of California San Francisco rapidly replaced most in-person visits with telemedicine visits. This required logistical problem-solving, collaboration of all clinic staff members, and continuous reassessment of clinical practices. This article describes observations made during these processes. RESULTS: Telemedicine visits increased from zero to 97% of patient encounters in one month. The number of visits per month was comparable with that one year prior. While there were limitations to the clinic's ability to carry out health supervision visits, many general health, mental health, reproductive health, eating disorders, and addiction treatment services were implemented via telemedicine. Providers identified creative solutions for challenges that arose to managing general confidentiality issues as well as specific challenges related to mental health, reproductive health, eating disorders, and addiction care. Opportunities to implement and expand high-quality AYA telemedicine were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is leading to widespread telemedicine implementation. While telemedicine seems to be feasible and acceptable for our clinic patients, unanswered questions remain regarding confidentiality, quality of care, and health disparities. Clinical guidelines are also needed to guide best practices for telemedicine in this patient population.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Difusão de Inovações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-05-15. (OPAS-W/BRA/COVID-19/20-062).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52176

RESUMO

Introdução: Até 15 de maio de 2020, mais de 4 milhões de casos confirmados da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19), incluindo mais de 285.000 mortes, foram relatados à OMS. O risco de doença grave e morte tem sido maior em idosos e pessoas com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), como hipertensão, cardiopatia, doença pulmonar crônica e câncer. Dados limitados descrevem manifestações clínicas da COVID-19 geralmente mais leves em crianças do que em adultos, mas também mostram que algumas crianças requerem hospitalização e cuidados intensivos. Foram relatados relativamente poucos casos de bebês com COVID-19 confirmado; aqueles infectados tiveram doença leve. Ainda faltam evidências robustas associando doenças preexistentes e gravidade da infecção em crianças. Em 345 crianças com confirmação laboratorial de COVID-19 e informações completas sobre doenças preexistentes, 23% apresentavam doença de base, e as relatadas com maior frequência foram doença pulmonar crônica (incluindo asma), doença cardiovascular e munossupressão. Porém, relatos recentes da Europa e da América do Norte descreveram grupos (clusters) de crianças e adolescentes que necessitaram de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva com uma condição inflamatória multissistêmica, com algumas características semelhantes às da doença de Kawasaki e da síndrome do choque tóxico. Relatos de casos e pequenas séries descreveram uma apresentação de doença aguda, acompanhada de uma síndrome hiperinflamatória, levando à falência múltipla de órgãos e choque. As hipóteses iniciais são de que essa síndrome possa estar relacionada à COVID-19, com base nos testes laboratoriais iniciais. As crianças foram tratadas com anti-inflamatórios, incluindo imunoglobulina parenteral e corticoides. É fundamental caracterizar essa síndrome e seus fatores de risco para entender a causalidade e descrever as intervenções terapêuticas. Ainda não está claro o espectro total da doença, e se a distribuição geográfica na Europa e na América do Norte reflete um padrão verdadeiro, ou se a doença simplesmente não foi reconhecida em outros lugares.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders and suicidality among adolescents have been identified as a major public health concern worldwide; however, they often do not get the necessary attention from parents, school and health professional, and therefore are left untreated. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with the use of mental health services among Australian adolescents aged 13-17 with mental disorders and/or suicidality. METHODS: Adolescents aged 13-17 (n = 2134) from Young Minds Matter (YMM): the Second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing were included in this study. The YMM is a cross-sectional nationwide survey, in which information was collected from both parents and adolescents (aged 13-17 years). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the factors that have an impact on the use of mental health services (outcome variable) in two subsamples: (1) adolescents with mental disorder and (2) adolescents with suicidality. RESULTS: Overall, 740 (34.7%) and 168 (7.9%) adolescents reported a mental disorder and/or suicidality, respectively. The incidence of seeking any service was higher among adolescents with suicidality (approximately 50%) compared to those with a mental disorder (about 30%). Girls, older age-group (15-17), adolescents living with disadvantaged families (lower-income, less educated and unemployed parents), those who had multiple mental disorders and history of substance use were most likely to use mental health services regardless of mental disorder and suicidality. Health services and online services were the most popular type of mental health service among adolescents aged 13-17 across two subgroups, while, school and telephone services were less utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents with mental disorders and/or suicidality do not use mental health services. The findings indicate differences in factors associated with the use of mental health services among adolescents with mental disorder and suicidality. Further research is needed to address the specific barriers that limit the use of the services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324835

RESUMO

An increasing number of original studies suggest the relevance of assessing mental health; however, there has been a lack of knowledge about the magnitude of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) in adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of CMD in adolescents, from the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Only studies composed by adolescents (10 to 19 years old) that evaluated the CMD prevalence according to the GHQ-12 were considered. The studies were searched in Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, Adolec, Google Scholar, PsycINFO and Proquest. In addition, the reference lists of relevant reports were screened to identify potentially eligible articles. Studies were selected by independent reviewers, who also extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Meta-analyses were performed to summarize the prevalence of CMD and estimate heterogeneity across studies. A total of 43 studies were included. Among studies that adopted the cut-off point of 3, the prevalence of CMD was 31.0% (CI 95% 28.0-34.0; I2 = 97.5%) and was more prevalent among girls. In studies that used the cut-off point of 4, the prevalence of CMD was 25.0% (CI 95% 19.0-32.0; I2 = 99.8%). Global prevalence of CMD in adolescents was 25.0% and 31.0%, using the GHQ cut-off point of 4 and 3, respectively. These results point to the need to include mental health as an important component of health in adolescence and to the need to include CMD screening as a first step in the prevention and control of mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-04-28.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52043

RESUMO

El abuso sexual, que abarca la agresión sexual o la violación, de niños y adolescentes es un grave problema de salud pública en todo el mundo y una violación de los derechos humanos que tiene muchas consecuencias para la salud a corto y a largo plazo. Las consecuencias físicas, sexuales, para la salud reproductiva y la salud mental de ese abuso son de amplio alcance y deben abordarse. Los datos recabados en diferentes entornos indican que los niños y adolescentes están representados desproporcionadamente entre los casos de abuso sexual que se llevan a la atención de los prestadores de atención de salud. En esta directriz se formulan recomendaciones dirigidas en especial a los prestadores de atención de salud que se encuentran en la primera línea de acción (por ejemplo, médicos generales, enfermeras, pediatras, ginecólogos), que atienden a niños y adolescentes hasta la edad de 18 años, que han sufrido, o podrían haber sufrido algún tipo de abuso sexual, como la agresión sexual o la violación. También puede ser útil para otros cuadros de prestadores especializados de atención de salud que tienen probabilidad de atender a niños o adolescentes. En la directriz, aunque es de alcance mundial, se asigna particular importancia a su aplicación en entornos de atención de salud de los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, teniendo en cuenta que allí los recursos de atención de salud son más limitados. Por consiguiente, en la redacción se tuvo en cuenta la factibilidad de poner en práctica las recomendaciones en entornos de escasos recursos... La directriz se formuló según las normas y los requisitos especificados en el manual de la OMS para la elaboración de directrices, segunda edición. El proceso incluyó: a) la determinación de las preguntas de investigación fundamentales y sus resultados; b) la recuperación de la evidencia, lo que incluyó la ejecución de revisiones sistemáticas; c) la síntesis de la evidencia; d) la evaluación de la calidad, efectuada por un Grupo de Elaboración de las Directrices (GED); y e) la formulación de recomendaciones con el GED y aportes de un Grupo de Revisión Externa. No se detectaron conflictos de intereses importantes para el GED ni el Grupo de Revisión Externa. El documento también comprende principios generales que sustentan la práctica clínica y que se derivan de normas internacionales éticas y de derechos humanos. Incluye enunciados de prácticas adecuadas que se basan tanto en los principios orientadores como en los valores y las preferencias de las personas sobrevivientes, sus cuidadores y los prestadores de atención de salud. Las recomendaciones se fundamentan en las recomendaciones vigentes de la OMS, así como en el nuevo contenido elaborado como parte de este proceso de formulación de directrices. A continuación, se resumen los principios orientadores, las recomendaciones y los enunciados de las prácticas adecuadas.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Violência de Gênero , Exposição à Violência , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Direitos Humanos , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde da Criança
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