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1.
Soins ; 66(852): 50-52, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750561

RESUMO

The presence of nurses within occupational health care teams is now mandatory. Their role, centred on prevention, health protection and employees' safety, is practised under the authority and in close collaboration with the occupational health doctor, within a multidisciplinary team. Over recent years, their scope of practice has been expanded to include the individual monitoring of employees' health. It could be further expanded in future.


Assuntos
Enfermagem do Trabalho , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142745

RESUMO

The paper describes the study design, research questions and methods of a large, international intervention project aimed at improving employee mental health and well-being in SMEs and public organisations. The study is innovative in multiple ways. First, it goes beyond the current debate on whether individual- or organisational-level interventions are most effective in improving employee health and well-being and tests the cumulative effects of multilevel interventions, that is, interventions addressing individual, group, leader and organisational levels. Second, it tailors its interventions to address the aftermaths of the Covid-19 pandemic and develop suitable multilevel interventions for dealing with new ways of working. Third, it uses realist evaluation to explore and identify the working ingredients of and the conditions required for each level of intervention, and their outcomes. Finally, an economic evaluation will assess both the cost-effectiveness analysis and the affordability of the interventions from the employer perspective. The study integrates the training transfer and the organisational process evaluation literature to develop toolkits helping end-users to promote mental health and well-being in the workplace.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Análise Multinível , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 70(5): 375-381, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been essential for occupational health services (OHS) providers to react rapidly to increased demand and to utilize resources in novel ways. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological well-being of staff is already identified as an area of high risk; therefore, providing timely access to psychological support may be vital, although limited evidence is available on how these risks are best managed. AIMS: To describe implementation and analysis of a psychology-led COVID-19 telephone support line in a National Health Service OHS. METHODS: Data from calls made to the support line were collected over the first 4 weeks of service implementation. Numerical data including frequency of calls and average waiting time were first considered. A content analysis was then conducted on call notes to identify prevalence of themes. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-five calls were received, and 362 notes included sufficient information for use within the content analysis. Frequency of calls peaked within the first week followed by a reduction in the number of calls received per day over time. Most calls included discussion around clarification of guidance (68%) with a smaller subset of calls offering support around anxiety (29%). Prevalence of themes did not appear to change over time. CONCLUSIONS: Clear and timely information is vital to support the well-being of healthcare staff. A psychologically informed telephone support line was a good use of occupational health service resources in the interim while more tailored advice and services could be established.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Linhas Diretas , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Apoio Social , Medicina Estatal , Telefone , Reino Unido
9.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 70(5): 359-363, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disasters, crises and pandemics are emergencies which impact on businesses severely. The COVID-19 pandemic reached its peak in mid-April 2020 in the UK. During this period, NHS Occupational Health Services (OHS) were stretched to their limit along with other health services. OHS may have had to change their pattern of operation, operating times, services offered, etc. to cope with the pandemic. Data about business model modifications, services offered by the OHS businesses during the pandemic could help in better utilization of OHS resources in the future. AIMS: To understand the behaviour of OHS in different parts of the country during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey link was sent to both accredited and unaccredited UK Occupational Health Physicians (OHPs). RESULTS: Sixty-two OHPs responded to the survey. In the current pandemic, 51% of the OHS (95% CI 0.38-0.62) offered weekend or out-of-hours (OOH) services, 21% had to employ extra staff (95% CI 0.13-0.33) and 54% had to change their working hours (95% CI 0.41-0.65). Ninety per cent of the OHS (95% CI 0.78-0.94) continued to offer routine services; however, there was a decline in offering vaccination services. Fifty-six per cent of the OHS (95% CI 0.42-0.67) offered a dedicated telephone line and 46% of the OHS (95% CI 0.32-0.56) started a dedicated COVID-19 queries inbox. CONCLUSIONS: There was a change in the behaviour of the OHS to cope with the pandemic. Having a dedicated helpline to manage the crisis situation seemed a logical step whilst offering routine services.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos
10.
Acad Med ; 95(9): 1354-1358, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324635

RESUMO

Occupational distress among clinicians and its impact on quality of care is a major threat to the health care delivery system. To address threats to clinician well-being, many institutions have introduced a new senior leadership position-the health care chief wellness officer (CWO). This role is distinct from CWOs or other wellness leadership positions that have historically existed outside of medicine. The health care CWO role was established to reduce widespread occupational distress in clinicians by improving the work environment rather than by promoting health behaviors to reduce health insurance costs. A complex array of system-level drivers has contributed to clinician distress. Developing and overseeing the execution of a strategy to address these challenges and working in partnership with other operational leaders to improve well-being require a correctly placed senior leader with the appropriate authority and resources, such as a CWO.Health care CWOs must focus primarily on improving their organizations' work environment and culture, not on developing individual-level interventions, such as personal resilience, mindfulness, and self-care offerings. The goal of this work is to address what is wrong with the practice environment, not to make individuals better able to tolerate a broken system. Metrics to evaluate organizational progress as well as the efficacy of the health care CWO and his or her team are discussed in this Perspective. Occupational distress in clinicians is widespread and has implications for quality of care. Vanguard organizations have begun to put into place the leaders, infrastructure, and improvement teams necessary to address this issue. The health care CWO plays a critical role in the effectiveness of these efforts.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Liderança , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
12.
Work ; 65(3): 607-615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employers are required to get expert advice whenever needed to ensure a safe work environment. Providers of Occupational Health Services (OHS) could be such experts, but their services are usually used to provide health-related support to individuals, not preventive Occupational Health and Safety Management (OHSM) or other group-focused interventions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how contracts with OHS providers in Sweden are established and implemented. METHODS: Written OHS contracts were reviewed, and follow-up interviews were conducted with Human Resource (HR) managers, management, safety representatives, and OHS professionals in seven organizations. RESULTS: Generally, the HR departments drew up the contracts with the OHS providers. The contracts were not integrated with the companies' occupational health and safety management. Managers lacked knowledge on how to utilize services offered by their OHS provider. Terms and conditions of contracts were found to be inconsistent with services actually utilized. CONCLUSIONS: The procurement and implementation process promotes reactive rather than preventive interventions. Employers should include managers and safety representatives in procurement- and implementation processes and define relevant and measurable goals regarding the collaboration.


Assuntos
Contratos , Indústrias/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Suécia
13.
Bull Cancer ; 107(4): 428-437, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204890

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An in-patient clinical service has been set up in March 2016 in the Occupational Diseases Center of Brest University Hospital, France, to seek for work-relatedness of diseases in patients hospitalized into the oncology and hematology departments. We present here data after two years of existence. METHODS: All cases of cancers or malignant hematological diseases (ICD-10 codes C00 to C97 and D37 to D48) seen between March 1, 2016, and March 1, 2018, have been identified. We present sociodemographic data, occupational exposures, occupation, business sector, and tobacco consumption. The causation level between the disease and each of the occupational exposures has been rated as strong, intermediate, weak or null by the occupational medicine specialist of the Occupational Diseases Center. RESULTS: Among the 196 patients encountered, there are 127 work-related diseases and 82 of these had one occupational exposure rated as strong or intermediate. The most frequent occupational hazards were asbestos (48 cases) and ionizing radiation (23 cases). The most frequent business sectors were metallurgy, mechanical engineering, and agriculture. Lung cancer was the most frequently reported disease (49 cases). DISCUSSION: . We identified well-known couples with occupational exposures and diseases, such as asbestos and lung cancer. We also identified a link between pesticides and leukemias. This in-patient clinical service is helpful to identify work-related exposures and in helping patients to get compensated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Feminino , França , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Linfoma/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Ocupações , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Radiação Ionizante , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(9): 589-596, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217755

RESUMO

Decreasing socioeconomic health inequalities is considered an important policy priority in many countries. Workplace health promotion programmes (WHPPs) have shown modest improvements in health behaviour. This systematic review aims to determine the presence and magnitude of socioeconomic differences in effectiveness and the influence of programme characteristics on differential effectiveness of WHPPs. Three electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews published from 2013 onwards and for original studies published from 2015 onwards. We synthesised the reported socioeconomic differences in effectiveness of WHPPs on health behaviours, and calculated effectiveness ratios by dividing the programme effects in the lowest socioeconomic group by the programme effects in the highest socioeconomic group. Thirteen studies with 75 comparisons provided information on the effectiveness of WHPPs across socioeconomic groups. Ten studies with 54 comparisons reported equal effectiveness and one study with 3 comparisons reported higher effectiveness for lower socioeconomic groups. Quantitative information on programme effects was available for six studies with 18 comparisons, of which 13 comparisons showed equal effectiveness and 5 comparisons showed significantly higher effect sizes among workers in low socioeconomic position. The differential effectiveness of WHPPs did not vary across programme characteristics. In this study no indications are found that WHPPs increase socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour. The limited quantitative information available suggests that WHPPs may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities. Better insight is needed on socioeconomic differences in effectiveness of WHPPs to develop strategies to decrease socioeconomic inequalities in health in the workforce.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Local de Trabalho , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos
15.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 322-334, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193325

RESUMO

Introduction and Objective: The current perspective of healthy workplaces implies reinventing new approaches to the relationships between health and work, emphasizing it as a health-promoting agent. Thus, welfare programmes have emerged that include best practices in occupational health. The aim of this study is to present the data gathered on the effectiveness of health promotion programmes in the workplace, through an integrative review. Methodology: Integrative review of the literature according to the Whittemore and Knafl methods, based on English and Portuguese literature published between 2010 and 2019 in the Medline (via PubMed) and EBSCO databases. Grey literature collection was based on searches in the Open Access Scientific Repositories of Portugal and Google Scholar. Studies with experimental, quasi-experimental and descriptive design were included. Results: A total of 57 studies were extracted, in which 98% of the programmes were included in the generation of well-being, namely programmes focused on disease management, treatment of chronic diseases, lifestyle management or prevention of chronic diseases. Most of the programmes showed positive results, since participants decreased body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol level, glycaemia, tobacco consumption, sedentarism and stress level, and increased the level of knowledge, confidence, physical activity, overall health and consumption of healthy food. Conclusion: The results of this study are of potential interest for health professionals and policy-makers, as they provide valuable information for the design of new strategies to promote the health of employees


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Programa de Saúde Ocupacional , Política de Saúde do Trabalhador , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle
16.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(1): 1-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work and related exposures may play a role in suicide and there has been evidence in the literature that some occupational factors may be associated with suicide. The identification of occupational risk factors of suicide mortality among employees affiliated to the French special agricultural social security scheme (MSA), an understudied population, appears important. The objective of this study was to identify the occupational factors associated with suicide mortality among French employees from the MSA working between 2007 and 2013. METHODS: The study population included all the employees affiliated to the MSA working between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2013, i.e. 1,699,929 men and 1,201,017 women. The studied occupational factors included: economic activity, skill level, and work contract. Survival analyses (Cox models) stratified on gender were performed using age as time scale and region and year of contract as adjustment variables. RESULTS: Among men, the factors associated with an elevated suicide risk were: economic activities of forestry, agriculture and related activities, and manufacture of food products and beverages (e.g. meat, wine), low-skilled level and working in the regions of Brittany, Burgundy Franche-Comté, Pays de la Loire, Normandy, Grand Est and Centre-Val-de-Loire. No association was observed among women. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that economic activity and low-skilled level may be associated with suicide among men affiliated to the MSA and may contribute to the implementation of prevention interventions. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand these associations.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Previdência Social , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agricultura/organização & administração , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/mortalidade , Emprego/classificação , Emprego/organização & administração , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Previdência Social/organização & administração , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int Marit Health ; 71(4): 229-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the aetiological factor of COVID-19 infection, poses problems in providing medical assistance at sea. Ships are in an isolated environment, and most of the merchant ships do not carry medical personnel or medical supplies. Telemedicine offers a real possibility to provide reasonable quality medical assistance to seagoing vessels. The fact that ships may touch ports in affected areas, the difficulties for seafarers to be assisted ashore due to quarantine measures and the crews' lack of turnover make medical assistance at sea difficult. This study has compared maritime telemedical assistance data before and during the COVID-19 pandemic to propose prevention measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was based on the data from medical records of Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (C.I.R.M.) database of seafarers assisted from January 1 to June 30, in the years 2017-2020. The data were collected separately for each year. Age, sex, rank, and pathologies affecting the assisted seafarers were considered. Common signs of COVID-19 infection such as fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, and other respiratory symptoms were analysed. RESULTS: From January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019, C.I.R.M. assisted 15,888 patients on board ships. During the first 6 months of the years under evaluation, C.I.R.M. assisted 2,419 patients in 2017, 2,444 patients in 2018, 2,694 patients in 2019, and 3,924 in 2020. The number of assisted cases almost doubled in the first 6 months (from January to June) of 2020 compared to the same period of the previous years. Gastrointestinal disorders, injuries/traumas, and dermatological pathologies were the first, second, and third most often reported causes of illness on board over the 4-year study period. A higher number of seafarers with fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath were assisted during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the coronavirus outbreak. Medical requests for fever increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same period from 2017 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The requests for medical advice for fever, sore throat, and shortness of breath were significantly more common during the coronavirus epidemic. Close follow-up, regular health education on preventing coronavirus transmission, personal protective equipment, adequate environmental hygiene, and applying other standard precautions could help minimise the risk factors for the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Navios/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Naval/organização & administração , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817658

RESUMO

This study developed and evaluated a health management program based on the participant-centered concept of action research to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among blue collar workers. Data from structured questionnaires completed by 32 workers in a small-to-medium sized workplace from September 2015 to October 2016 as well as participants' anthropometrical (weight and waist) and biological (blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol) data were analyzed using paired t-test and Fisher's exact test. To examine the longitudinal effect of the intervention, survival analysis and linear mixed model (LMM) were used. There was an improvement in participants' self-regulation in maintaining health-promoting behaviors, body weight, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol following the intervention. Furthermore, the effects of the health management program continued even after the program ended. These findings suggest that the health management program developed in this study could be effective in reducing CVD risk factors among workers in small-to-medium sized workplaces and should be applied to other small-to-medium sized workplaces to foster health-promoting behaviors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Local de Trabalho
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861424

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate facilitating and hindering factors when implementing a physical activity (PA)-promoting program among office workers moving to a flex office, by conducting a process evaluation. Additionally, we evaluated self-reported and perceived PA behaviors. With a mixed methods design, analyses were based upon data from interviews with 70 employees and repeated questionnaires from 152 employees. The PA-promoting program was fully implemented and supported by management. There was a strong health promoting culture, encouraging PA in the organization already at the start of the study. The lecture and the office design were rated as the most motivating program components. The use of stairs, breaks during meetings and social acceptance for standing and walking at work increased. Employees described a strive for variation, and how managers, the office environment, productivity and ergonomic aspects influenced sedentary behavior (SB) and PA. The need for the PA-promoting program was questioned, and the timing of the program was debated. To conclude, a strong organizational health culture combined with a facilitating physical environment can create sustainable positive PA behaviors in office settings. A thorough understanding of organizational needs and a participatory process are needed to tailor organizational interventions to decrease SB.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Ergonomia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Cultura Organizacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1668, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given today's high prevalence of common mental disorders and related sick leave among teachers, an urgent need exists for a more systematic approach to the management of social and organizational risk factors within schools. In 2015, we launched the first Swedish occupational health guideline to support a structured prevention of these risks at the workplace. The existence of guidelines does however not guarantee their usage, as studies show that guidelines are often underused. Knowledge is therefore needed on effective implementation strategies that can facilitate the translation of guidelines into practice. The primary aim of the randomized waiting list-controlled trial described in this study protocol is to compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy versus a single implementation strategy for implementing the Guideline for the prevention of mental ill-health at the workplace within schools. The effectiveness will be compared regarding the extent to which the recommendations are implemented (implementation effectiveness) and with regard to social and organisational risk factors for mental ill-health, absenteeism and presenteeism (intervention effectiveness). METHODS: The trial is conducted among primary schools of two municipalities in Sweden. The single implementation strategy is an educational strategy (an educational meeting). The multifaceted strategy consists of the educational meeting, an implementation team and a series of workshops. The outcome measure of implementation effectiveness is guideline adherence. The primary outcome of intervention effectiveness is exhaustion. Secondary outcomes include demands at work, work organization and job contents, interpersonal relations and leadership, presenteeism, work performance, recovery, work-life balance, work-engagement, self-reported stress, self-perceived health, sickness absence and psychosocial safety climate. Process outcomes as well as barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation process are assessed. Data will be collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months by mixed methods (i.e. survey, focus-group interviews, observation). DISCUSSION: The study described in this protocol will provide valuable knowledge on the effectiveness of implementation strategies for implementing a guideline for the prevention of common mental disorders within schools. We hypothesize that successful implementation will result in reductions in school personnel's perceived social and organizational risk factors, mental ill-health and sick-leave. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03322839 (trial registration: 09/19/2017).


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Cidades , Grupos Focais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
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