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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119214

RESUMO

The efficiency of quality control of medical care in medical organizations providing medical care in out-patient conditions is inadequate. The purpose of the study is to identify main problems of ensuring quality of medical care in private medical organizations providing medical care in out-patient conditions and to develop suggestions for their elimination. The assessment of medical care quality in private medical organizations network was carried out using expertise technique (n = 1070), intra-organizational attestation (n = 47), questionnaire survey of administrative (n = 28) and medical personnel (n = 241). The total number of medical care defects made up to 4,822, and 97.3% of them were related to diagnosis and treatment. A full justification of diagnosis was recorded in 65.8% of cases. The cases of insufficient and excessive examination have been identified. The non-compliance with duration of treatment and frequency of visits have been established. The inadequate medical efficiency (67.6%) reliably effected on low compliance of patients, recorded in 18.9% of cases (p < 0.05). The main problems of ensuring medical care quality are related to organization of internal control system, involvement and motivation of medical personnel and development and maintenance of necessary organizational culture. In the private health care sector, quality issues can be solved solely by means of material resources. It is necessary to improve of medical personnel management, internal quality control of medical care and management of organizational culture.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Setor Privado , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional
4.
World Neurosurg ; 135: e716-e722, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a commonly performed surgical procedure for the management of degenerative lumbar spine pathologic entities. Despite an increasing number of ALIFs performed nationally, to the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the costs associated with the 90-day episode of care postoperatively. METHODS: The 2007-2016 Humana Administrative Claims data set, a national database of commercial and Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries, was queried using Current Procedural Terminology code 22558 for patients who had undergone single-level ALIF. The 90-day costs were defined using the following categories: facility, surgeon, anesthesia, other hospitalization costs and services, radiology, office visits, physical therapy/rehabilitation, emergency department visits, and readmissions. RESULTS: A total of 365 ALIF procedures (MA, n = 244; commercial, n = 121) were included in the analysis. The average 90-day cost of single-level ALIF was $25,568 and $51,741 for the MA and commercial enrollees, respectively. The major proportion of 90-day costs was attributable to facility reimbursement (74%-76%), followed by surgeon costs (9%-11%). Postacute care (i.e., office visits and physical therapy/rehabilitation) was not a major driver of the 90-day costs, consisting of only 0.7%-1.3% of the total 90-day reimbursement. Of patients who had required readmission, the costs of the readmission increased the average 90-day costs by 65%-66%. CONCLUSIONS: Facility costs were the major drivers of a stipulated 90-day reimbursement for patients undergoing single-level ALIF. Health policy makers and providers can use these data to better understand the distribution of costs in a stipulated bundled-payment model for ALIFs and allow them to identify areas in which cost reduction strategies can be performed.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Cuidado Periódico , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/economia , Medicare/economia , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Setor Privado/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/economia , Cirurgiões/economia , Estados Unidos
5.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 17, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a successful push towards parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Africa, mainly with rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), which has reduced over-prescribing of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to malaria test-negative patients. The effect on prescribing for test-positive patients has received much less attention. Malaria infection in endemic Africa is often most dangerous for young children and those in low-transmission settings. This study examined non-prescription of antimalarials for patients with malaria infection demonstrated by positive mRDT results, and in particular these groups who are most vulnerable to poor outcomes if antimalarials are not given. METHODS: Analysis of data from 562,762 patients in 8 studies co-designed as part of the ACT Consortium, conducted 2007-2013 in children and adults, in Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda, in a variety of public and private health care sector settings, and across a range of malaria endemic zones. RESULTS: Of 106,039 patients with positive mRDT results (median age 6 years), 7426 (7.0%) were not prescribed an ACT antimalarial. The proportion of mRDT-positive patients not prescribed ACT ranged across sites from 1.3 to 37.1%. For patients under age 5 years, 3473/44,539 (7.8%) were not prescribed an ACT, compared with 3833/60,043 (6.4%) of those aged ≥ 5 years. The proportion of < 5-year-olds not prescribed ACT ranged up to 41.8% across sites. The odds of not being prescribed an ACT were 2-32 times higher for patients in settings with lower-transmission intensity (using test positivity as a proxy) compared to areas of higher transmission. mRDT-positive children in low-transmission settings were especially likely not to be prescribed ACT, with proportions untreated up to 70%. Of the 7426 mRDT-positive patients not prescribed an ACT, 4121 (55.5%) were prescribed other, non-recommended non-ACT antimalarial medications, and the remainder (44.5%) were prescribed no antimalarial. CONCLUSIONS: In eight studies of mRDT implementation in five African countries, substantial proportions of patients testing mRDT-positive were not prescribed an ACT antimalarial, and many were not prescribed an antimalarial at all. Patients most vulnerable to serious outcomes, children < 5 years and those in low-transmission settings, were most likely to not be prescribed antimalarials, and young children in low-transmission settings were least likely to be treated for malaria. This major public health risk must be addressed in training and practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Reported in individual primary studies.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Prescrições , Setor Privado , Tanzânia , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 72-76, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971934

RESUMO

Infants are at increased risk for pertussis-associated morbidity and mortality, and pregnant women and their infants are more likely than other patient populations to experience severe influenza-related illness (1,2). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during each pregnancy, preferably during the early part of gestational weeks 27-36 (3). ACIP also recommends that women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive the inactivated influenza vaccine at any time during pregnancy (4). Despite these recommendations, coverage with Tdap and influenza vaccines during pregnancy has been low, with approximately one half of women receiving each vaccine and only one third receiving both, based on a survey during March-April 2019 (5). Data obtained through a retrospective chart review of randomly selected pregnant women who delivered at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital in Gainesville, Florida, from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, were analyzed to assess vaccination coverage by insurance type. Because the Florida Medicaid policy at that time did not cover these vaccines during pregnancy, the hospital system offered Tdap and influenza vaccines at no additional cost to mothers during the immediate postpartum hospital stay. Among 341 women, 68.6% of privately insured and 13.4% with Medicaid received Tdap during pregnancy, and among 316 women, 70.4% of privately insured and 35.6% with Medicaid received influenza vaccine during pregnancy. Many women, especially those with Medicaid, were vaccinated in the immediate postpartum period, when vaccination was available at no cost, increasing Tdap vaccination rates to 79.3% for privately insured and 51.7% for women with Medicaid; influenza vaccination rates rose to 72.0% for privately insured and 43.5% for women with Medicaid. These data suggest that the state Medicaid policy to not cover these vaccines during pregnancy might have significantly reduced coverage among its enrollees.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800913

RESUMO

We analyzed data from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) carried out in Brazil in 2015 (n = 102,072 adolescents) to estimate how much of the individual variance in the prevalence of health behaviors is attributable to the school level. Multilevel logistic regression models were calculated to estimate the variance partitional coefficient (VPC) of the use of drugs, intake of unhealthy food, leisure physical activity and weight-related behaviors. The between-schools variance was significant in all tested models. The highest VPCs were observed when the use of drugs was analyzed (15%-20% of the total variance of smoking and use of illegal drugs). Lower, but still significant, values were observed in the other outcomes. The school context plays an important role in the adolescents' health and should be considered in the design of public policies and actions in public health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(6): 461-467, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829948

RESUMO

Treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may differ according to the health system coverage. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic characteristics of patients with ACS assisted in public sector institutions compared to the non-public sector of Argentina, as well as the therapeutic and its relationship with the resources of each sector. We analyzed patients hospitalized in institutions of a national, voluntary, prospective and multicenter registry. Between March 2006 and May 2016, 11 072 ACSs were registered in 64 institutions, 39% public (44% have hemodynamic laboratory) and 61% non-public (82% with hemodynamic). Public centers presented less structure and assisted a higher proportion of ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS). (52.5% vs. 36.1%, p < 0.001). Public sector patients were younger, more frequently men, smokers, and less dyslipemics. The proportion of patients reperfused in the STE-ACS was similar in both sectors. The use of coronary angiography in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) was higher in the public sector, whose patients presented more frequently electrocardiographic changes and biomarker elevation. Considering all ACS, 80.2% of patients in public and 90.1% in non-public institutions were incorporated by haemodynamic centers. The availability of hemodynamics was the variable most associated with reperfusion in NSTE-ACS, and invasive treatment in NSTE-ACS. This research demonstrates the complexity of a comparative analysis of health sectors, due to the relevance acquired by the level of resources installed and the demographic differences of the inpatient population, above the simple difference of belonging to the public or non-public system.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
S Afr Med J ; 109(12): 934-940, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), the National Department of Health has developed an Antimicrobial Resistance National Strategy Framework document to manage antimicrobial resistance (AMR). One of the strategic objectives is to optimise surveillance and early detection of AMR. At the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), an analysis of selected organisms and antimicrobial agents from both the public and the private sectors was conducted. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of surveillance for AMR is increasingly recognised in the light of global action plans to combat resistance. In this report, we present an overview of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.) organisms and Escherichia coli reported from public and private sector laboratories in SA for the period 2016 - 2017. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) profiles on selected ESKAPE organisms and E. coli isolated from blood cultures from the public and private sectors in 2016 and 2017 were analysed. AST data were extracted from a web-based electronic platform created by the NICD. Drug-bug combinations following the World Health Organization's Global Antimicrobial Surveillance System guidelines were included in the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 28 920 ESKAPE organisms and E. coli were reported in 2016 and 32 293 in 2017 across the two health sectors. Proportions of some organisms differed between the two health sectors, such as E. coli (19% in the public sector and 36% in the private sector), A. baumannii (14% public and 4% private), P. aeruginosa (7% public and 11% private) and S. aureus (27% public and 17% private). Susceptibility data indicated changing patterns in both sectors towards an increase in non-susceptibility to carbapenems in K. pneumoniae (p<0.01). However, we demonstrated an increase in susceptibility to cloxacillin in S. aureus (p<0.01) in both sectors. CONCLUSIONS: The key clinically important finding is the rapidly decreasing carbapenem susceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae reported in SA, irrespective of sector. In addition, the analysis provides information that could be used to monitor the effectiveness of interventions implemented at a national level under the guidance and direction of the national AMR framework.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Vigilância da População , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemocultura , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , África do Sul , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 973, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Lebanon and Qatar. When lifestyle modifications prove insufficient, medication becomes a cornerstone in controlling such diseases and saving lives. Price, availability, and affordability hinder the equitable access to medicines. The study aimed to assess prices, availability, and affordability of essential cardiovascular disease medicines in relation to pricing strategies in Qatar and Lebanon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using a variant of the World Health Organization and Health Action International (WHO/HAI) methodology as outlined in "Measuring medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components" (2008), second edition, was adopted. Prices and availability of 27 cardiovascular medicines were collected from public and private dispensing outlets. For international comparison, prices were adjusted to purchasing power parity. Data was analyzed across multiple sectors, within and across countries. RESULTS: A total of 15 public and private outlets were surveyed in each country. Prices were more uniform in Qatar than in Lebanon. In the public sector, medicines were free-of-charge in Lebanon and priced lower than the international reference prices in Qatar. The ratio of medicine unit price to international reference price in the private sectors surveyed are significantly higher than the acceptable threshold of 4. This ratio of originator brands and lowest priced generics in Qatar were up to two and five times those in Lebanon, respectively, even after adjusting for purchasing power parity. However, prices of lowest priced generics in the private sector were at least 35% cheaper in Qatar and 65% cheaper in Lebanon than their comparative originator brands. Medicines were more available in the private sector in Lebanon than in Qatar, but only the originator brand availability in the public sector in Qatar exceeded the WHO target of more than 80%. While affordable in the public sector in Qatar, four out of thirteen medicines exceeded the threshold in all private sectors covered. Hence, only the public sector in Qatar had a satisfying level of availability and affordability. CONCLUSIONS: Except for the Qatari public sector, medicine prices, availability, and affordability are falling short from targets. Key policy decisions should be implemented to improve access to medicines.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/economia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/provisão & distribução , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Líbano , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Catar , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 533-570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866676

RESUMO

Aquatic animal disease outbreaks affect both the public (represented by the government) and the private sector (represented by the aquaculture and fisheries industry). However, all too often, the responsibilities and costs of responding to an outbreak may not be shared. Without a mechanism for public and private sectors to work together, the outcomes of an emergency response may not be ideal, or of common benefit to all potentially affected parties. In Australia, a mechanism is being developed for public and private sectors to share the responsibilities and costs of responding to aquatic animal disease outbreaks, through an industry- government aquatic emergency animal disease response agreement. The agreement provides an approach for both public and private sectors to share the responsibilities and costs of responding to a disease outbreak and to coordinate disease prevention activities to reduce their shared risk. The key elements of the agreement include provisions to incentivise faster notification of disease outbreaks, facilitate a faster response, share decision-making and costs (including compensation for affected businesses), clarify the responsibilities of all parties and, most importantly, strengthen risk mitigation activities. This paper describes how the draft agreement has been developed among 18 industry and government parties, how key elements of the agreement may contribute to improved aquatic animal health outcomes, and the principles which could be applied by other OIE Member Countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Aquicultura/normas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Pesqueiros/normas , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Austrália , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Setor Privado , Setor Público
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 971, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better quality of care around the time of childbirth can significantly improve maternal and newborn survival. In countries like India, where the private sector contributes to a considerable proportion of institutional deliveries, it is important to assess the quality of maternity care offered by private sector healthcare facilities. This study seeks to fill that information gap by analysing baseline assessments conducted for the Manyata program, which aims to improve the quality of maternity care at private facilities. METHODS: An observation checklist based on 16 clinical standards endorsed by the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI) was used to assess 201 private sector healthcare facilities in Maharashtra, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh. Data on facility characteristics came from profiles completed when facilities enrolled in Manyata. Differences in the mean number of standards met were analysed by facility characteristics and the availability of essential supplies. RESULTS: Around half (47.1%) of all nursing staff engaged in maternity care services at these private healthcare facilities were under qualified. The mean number of clinical standards met by facilities was 3.2 (SD 2.4). Facilities with a monthly delivery load between 20 and 50 met a significantly higher number of standards, as did facilities that had more than 70% of essential supplies available. Both these factors were also significant in a multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality of maternity care in private healthcare facilities is poor in all three states, especially for clinical standards related to management of complications.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Cuidado do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Setor Privado
14.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 424: 121-128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667598

RESUMO

By definition, Global Catastrophic Biological Risks (GCBRs) are "beyond the collective capability of national and international governments and the private sector to control". Implicit in this definition is that no single country, sector, or entity can effectively mitigate risk and impact of GCBRs and that doing so requires public-private cooperation. This short commentary offers five trends suggesting that conditions for cooperation are favorable, along with three gaps to be addressed, and five high-level recommendations to strengthen public-private cooperation to mitigate risk and impact of GCBRs.


Assuntos
Desastres/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Gestão de Riscos , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Setor Privado
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 16, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762885

RESUMO

Introduction: Do health facilities (HF) have basic resources needed to manage malaria? The purpose of our study was to analyze the operational capacity (OC) of first-line health facilities in Ivory Coast in the management of malaria. Methods: SARA methodology was used to conduct a descriptive cross-sectional study from 10 to 30 July 2016. The operational capacity in the management showed an average availability of 9 identification tracers divided in 3 areas: (i) staff and guidelines; (ii) capacity of diagnosis; (iii) drugs and products. This operational capacity was assessed through the calculation of an index and then compared with the health facilities according to the management authority and the geographical area using Chi-square test with p-values α fixed at 0.05. Results: Out of 818 HFs, 651(79.6%) were in the public sector and 487(59.5%) were located in the rural area. The operational capacity of first line health facilities was 74.5%. This OC was higher in the public sector (81.3%) than in the private sector (48.8%) (p < 10-3) as well as in the rural area (82.7%) compared to the urban area (62.9%) (p < 10-3). Conclusion: In 2016, first line health facilities in Ivory Coast had basic resources needed to manage malaria. It is necessary to focus on the need to strengthen health facility services in addition to prevention.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/terapia , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Costa do Marfim , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762925

RESUMO

Introduction: Approximately two-thirds of the world's population has no access to diagnostic imaging. Basic radiological services should be integral to universal health coverage. The World Health Organization postulates that one basic X-ray and ultrasound unit for every 50000 people will meet 90% of global imaging needs. However, there are limited country-level data on radiological resources, and little appreciation of how such data reflect access and equity within a healthcare system. The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of licensed Zimbabwean radiological equipment resources. Methods: The equipment database of the Radiation Protection Authority of Zimbabwe was interrogated. Resources were quantified as units/million people and compared by imaging modality, geographical region and healthcare sector. Zimbabwean resources were compared with published South African and Tanzanian data. Results: Public-sector access to X-ray units (11/106 people) is approximately half the WHO recommendation (20/106 people), and there exists a 5-fold disparity between the least- and best-resourced regions. Private-sector exceeds public-sector access by 16-fold. More than half Zimbabwe's radiology equipment (215/380 units, 57%) is in two cities, serving one-fifth of the population. Almost two-thirds of all units (243/380, 64%) are in the private sector, routinely accessible by approximately 10% of the population. Southern African country-level public-sector imaging resources broadly reflect national per capita healthcare expenditure. Conclusion: There exists an overall shortfall in basic radiological equipment resources in Zimbabwe, and inequitable distribution of existing resources. The national radiology equipment register can reflect access and equity in a healthcare system, while providing medium-term radiological planning data.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiografia/instrumentação , Humanos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Zimbábue
17.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(2): 174-185, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779744

RESUMO

Within South Africa and on the African continent, the various reports of the KING Committees on Corporate Governance have become guiding principles for organisations in both the public and private sector. This paper focuses on the KING IV report and discusses its relevance to the different but interrelated fields of business continuity, organisational resilience and risk management. The paper suggests that organisations seeking to comply with KING IV will need to familiarise themselves with ISO 22301 and the BCI Good Practice Guidelines, as well as ISO 31000.


Assuntos
Comércio , Planejamento em Desastres , Organizações , Setor Privado , Gestão de Riscos
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 875, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vouchers are increasingly used as a demand-side subsidy to reduce financial hardship and improve quality of services. Elderly Healthcare Voucher Scheme has been introduced by the Hong Kong Government since 2009 to provide subsidy to elderly aged 65 and above to visit ten different types of private primary care providers for curative, preventive and chronic disease management. Several enhancements have been made over the past few years. This paper (as part of an evaluation study of this unique healthcare voucher scheme) aims to assess the long term impact of the voucher scheme in encouraging the use of primary care services. METHODS: Two rounds of cross-sectional survey among elderly in Hong Kong were conducted in 2010 and 2016. Propensity score matching and analysis were used to compare changes in perception and usage of vouchers over time. RESULTS: 61.5% of respondents in 2016 agreed "the scheme encourages me to use more private primary care services", a significant increase from 36.2% in 2010. Among those who agreed in 2016, the majority thought the voucher scheme would encourage them to use acute services (90.3%) in the private sector, rather than preventive care (40.3%) and chronic disease management (12.2%). Respondents also reported that their current usual choice of care was visiting "both public and private doctors" (61.9%), representing a significant increase (up from 48.4%) prior to their use of voucher. CONCLUSIONS: The voucher scheme has encouraged the use of more private care services, particularly acute services rather than disease prevention or management of chronic disease. However, there needs to be caution that the untargeted and open-ended nature of voucher scheme could result in supply-induced demand which would affect long term financial sustainability. The dual utilization of health services in both the public and private sector may also compromise continuity and quality of care. The design of the voucher needs to be more specific, targeting prevention and chronic disease management rather than unspecified care which is mainly acute and episodic in order to maximize service delivery capacity as a whole for equitable access in universal health coverage and to contribute to a sustainable financing system.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Idoso , Doença Crônica/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Financiamento Governamental/organização & administração , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pontuação de Propensão , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
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