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1.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 18(1): 2156099, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conduct six systematic reviews investigating for-profit private sector roles in NCD prevention and management in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through our a priori framework's pillars. METHODS: Six systematic reviews and thematic syntheses were performed between March-August 2021, Six databases, websites of relevant organizations, and references lists of included studies were comprehensively searched. Studies published in English from 2000 onwards involving the pillar of interest, for-profit private sector, NCD prevention/management, and LMIC context were included. Results were synthesized using an inductive thematic synthesis approach. RESULTS: Ultimately, 25 articles were included in the PPP review, 33 in Governance and Policy, 22 in Healthcare Provision, 15 in Innovation, 14 in Knowledge Educator, and 42 in Investment and Finance. The following themes emerged: PPPs (coordination; financial resources; provision; health promotion; capacity building; innovation; policy); Governance/Policy (lobbying; industry perception; regulation); Healthcare Provision (diagnosis/treatment; infrastructure; availability/accessibility/affordability); Innovation (product innovation; process innovation; marketing innovation; research; innovation dissemination); Knowledge Educator (training; health promotion; industry framework/guideline formation); Investment and Finance (treatment cost; regulation; private insurance; subsidization; direct investment; collaborative financing; innovative financing; research). CONCLUSION: These findings will be instrumental for LMICs considering private sector engagement. Potential conflicts of interest must be considered when implementing private sector involvement.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Setor Privado , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Atenção à Saúde
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657808

RESUMO

This paper reviews the experience of six low-income and lower middle-income countries in setting their own essential packages of health services (EPHS), with the purpose of identifying the key requirements for the successful design and transition to implementation of the packages in the context of accelerating progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). The analysis is based on input from three meetings of a knowledge network established by the Disease Control Priorities 3 Country Translation Project and working groups, supplemented by a survey of participating countries.All countries endorsed the Sustainable Development Goals target 3.8 on UHC for achievement by 2030. The assessment of country experiences found that health system strengthening and mobilising and sustaining health financing are major challenges. EPHS implementation is more likely when health system gaps are addressed and when there are realistic and sustainable financing prospects. However, health system assessments were inadequate and the government planning and finance sectors were not consistently engaged in setting the EPHS in most of the countries studied. There was also a need for greater engagement with community and civil society representatives, academia and the private sector in package design. Leadership and reinforcement of technical and managerial capacity are critical in the transition from EPHS design to sustained implementation, as are strong human resources and country ownership of the process. Political commitment beyond the health sector is key, particularly commitment from parliamentarians and policymakers in the planning and finance sectors. National ownership, institutionalisation of technical and managerial capacity and reinforcing human resources are critical for success.The review concludes that four prerequisites are crucial for a successful EPHS: (1) sustained high-level commitment, (2) sustainable financing, (3) health system readiness, and (4) institutionalisation.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Setor Privado , Humanos , Programas Governamentais , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Pobreza
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657810

RESUMO

Many countries are adopting essential packages of health services (EPHS) to implement universal health coverage (UHC), which are mostly financed and delivered by the public sector, while the potential role of the private health sector (PHS) remains untapped. Currently, many low-income and lower middle-income countries (LLMICs) have devised EPHS; however, guidance on translating these packages into quality, accessible and affordable services is limited. This paper explores the role of PHS in achieving UHC, identifies key concerns and presents the experience of the Diseases Control Priorities 3 Country Translation project in Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan and Zanzibar. There are key challenges to engagement of the PHS, which include the complexity and heterogeneity of private providers, their operation in isolation of the health system, limitations of population coverage and equity when left to PHS's own choices, and higher overall cost of care for privately delivered services. Irrespective of the strategies employed to involve the PHS in delivering EPHS, it is necessary to identify private providers in terms of their characteristics and contribution, and their response to regulatory tools and incentives. Strategies for regulating private providers include better statutory control to prevent unlicensed practice, self-regulation by professional bodies to maintain standards of practice and accreditation of large private hospitals and chains. Potentially, purchasing delivery of essential services by engaging private providers can be an effective 'regulatory approach' to modify provider behaviour. Despite existing experience, more research is needed to better explore and operationalise the role of PHS in implementing EPHS in LLMICs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Setor Privado , Humanos , Setor Público , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Paquistão
4.
S Afr Med J ; 112(10): 806-811, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has the largest antiretroviral therapy programme in the world. While the majority of the country accesses healthcare in the public sector, 15.2% access private healthcare. In 2019, dolutegravir was introduced as first-line treatment for HIV. Dolutegravir has clinically significant interactions with numerous commonly used medicines, e.g. rifampicin and cation-containing medicines such as calcium and iron. They require dosage adjustments, detailed in public and private HIV guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To describe SA healthcare workers' guideline access, training and knowledge of dolutegravir's interactions, focusing on differences between the public and private sectors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was done using an online survey of healthcare workers in the field of HIV in SA, conducted by the National HIV and TB Healthcare Worker Hotline. Convenience sampling was used, with electronic dissemination to users of the hotline and by relevant HIV-focused organisations. Simple descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were used. RESULTS: A total of 1 939 surveys were analysed, with 22% from the private sector. Training on the dolutegravir guidelines was received by significantly fewer healthcare workers in the private sector v. the public sector: 42.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 37 - 48) v. 67.5% (95% CI I 65 - 70), respectively. Significantly fewer healthcare workers in the private sector had access to the guidelines (63.8%; 95% CI 59 - 69 v. 78.8%; 95% CI 77 - 81). When asked if they were aware that dolutegravir has interactions, just over half (56.9%) of healthcare workers in the private sector responded 'yes', 24.6% responded 'no' and 18.5% did not answer. Of those who were aware that dolutegravir has interactions, 48.9% knew that dolutegravir interacts with calcium, 44.6% with iron and 82.0% with rifampicin. Private sector knowledge of dosing changes was lower for all interacting drugs, with the difference only significant for calcium and iron. Private sector healthcare workers reported significantly lower levels of counselling on dolutegravir use in all appropriate situations. CONCLUSION: Private sector healthcare worker access to HIV training and guidelines requires attention. In a high-burden HIV setting such as SA, it is vital that healthcare workers across all professions, in both the public and private sector, know how to adjust antiretroviral dosing due to clinically significant interactions. Without these adjustments, there is a risk of treatment failure, increased mother-to-child transmission and morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Setor Privado , Feminino , Humanos , África do Sul , Estudos Transversais , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Ferro/uso terapêutico
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1040913, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530728

RESUMO

The Theory of Change (ToC) approach is one of the methodologies that the Lancet Citizens' Commission has chosen to build a roadmap to achieving Universal Healthcare (UHC) in India in the next 10 years. The work of the Citizens' Commission is organized around five workstreams: Finance, Human Resources for Health (HRH), Citizens' Engagement, Governance, and Technology. Five ToC workshops were conducted, one for each workstream. Individual workshop outputs were then brought together in two cross-workstream workshops where a sectoral Theory of Change for UHC was derived. Seventy-four participants, drawn from the Commission or invited for their expertise, and representing diverse stakeholders and sectors concerned with UHC, contributed to these workshops. A reimagined healthcare system achieves (1) enhanced transparency, accountability, and responsiveness; (2) improved quality of health services; (3) accessible, comprehensive, connected, and affordable care for all; (4) equitable, people-centered and safe health services; and (5) trust in the health system. For a mixed system like India's, achieving these high ideals will require all actors, public, private and civil society, to collaborate and bring about this transformation. During the consultation, paradigm shifts emerged, which were structural or systemic assumptions that were deemed necessary for the realization of all interventions. Critical points of consensus also emerged from the workshops, such as the need for citizen-centricity, greater efficiency in the use of public finances for health care, shifting to team-based managed care, empowerment of frontline health workers, the appropriate use of technology across all phases of patient care, and moving toward an articulation of positive health and wellbeing. Critical areas of contention that remained related to the role of the private sector, especially around financing and service delivery. Few issues for further consultation and research were noted, such as payment for performance across both public and private sectors, the use of accountability metrics across both public and private sectors, and the strategies for addressing structural barriers to realizing the proposed paradigm shifts. As the ToCs were developed in expert groups, citizens' consultations and consultations with administrative leaders were recommended to refine and ground the ToC, and therefore the roadmap to realize UHC, in people's lived reality.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde , Setor Privado , Responsabilidade Social
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1523, 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, the Medical Stores Department is the principal pharmaceutical provider to public health facilities throughout the country. However, growing demand from health facilities has proved difficult to satisfy and stock-outs at health facilities are frequent. The aim of the current study was to conduct a situation analysis of the procedures and practices of procuring medicines and medical supplies from private suppliers in the Dar es Salaam region when those commodities are unavailable at the Medical Stores Department. METHODS: A mixed-method approach including qualitative and quantitative methods was applied to understand procurement procedures and practices and private suppliers' performance at district level. Qualitative interviews with suppliers and district authorities, and a review of inventory documents at store level was conducted between February and March 2018. The quantitative approach included a review and analyses of relevant procurement documents from the 2016/2017 financial year to explore the funds used to procure health commodities from the private sector. The ten most frequently mandated private suppliers were assessed in more detail focusing on cost, quality and availability of medicines and lead times and delivery. RESULTS: A lack of consistency and written guidelines for procuring medicines and medical supplies from the private sector was observed. The procurement process was bureaucratic and lengthy requiring multiple steps between health facilities, suppliers and district authorities. A significant number of people were involved requiring a minimum of 13 signatures and 16 steps from order preparation to approval. Only 17 of 77 prequalified private suppliers received orders from public health facilities. The criteria for choosing which supplier to use were unclear. Completed orders amounted to USD 663,491. The bureaucratic process drove councils and healthcare facilities towards alternative ways to procure health commodities when Medical Stores Department stock-outs occurred. CONCLUSION: The procurement procedure outside the Medical Stores Department is inefficient and cumbersome, often circumventing government regulations. General lack of accountability renders the process susceptible to leakage of funds and medicines. Increasing the transparency and efficiency of procurement procedures from the private sector with a prime vendor system would help to better manage Medical Stores Department stock-outs and help improve health care services overall.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Setor Privado , Humanos , Tanzânia , Preparações Farmacêuticas
7.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e205, dic. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383652

RESUMO

En marzo de 2020 se confirma el primer caso de enfermedad por coronavirus en Uruguay, recomendándose un confinamiento social. La atención sanitaria se redujo a servicios de urgencia y emergencia (SE). Objetivo: analizar las características de las consultas pediátricas en los SE del subsector público y privado en Uruguay, durante los primeros 4 meses de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, multicéntrico. Resultados: participaron 23 SE de todas las regiones del país. Período 1 prepandemia: 14/03/19-29.07.19, período 2: 14/03/20-29/07/20 Consultas: período 1 n=121.116, período 2 n=33.099 (desciende 73%). Hospitalizaciones desde el SE: período 1 n= .6649 (tasa 5,5%). Período 2: n=2.948 (tasa 9,5%). Diagnósticos período 1: infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) alta 39.892 (33%), IRA baja 86.56 (7%), trauma menor 8.651 (7%), gastroenteritis 8.044 (6,6%), crisis asmática/CBO 7.974 (6,5%), lesiones 4.389 (3,6%), dolor abdominal 3.528 (3%), problemas de salud mental 859 (0,7%), convulsiones 758 (0,7%), patología social 678 (0,5%). Diagnósticos 2020: IRA alta 5.168 (16%), trauma menor 2.759 (8%), lesiones 2.652 (8%), dolor abdominal 1.494 (4,5%), gastroenteritis 1.296 (4%), asma/CBO 1.095 (3,3%), IRA baja 700 (2,1%), patología social 522 (1,6%), problemas de salud mental 471 (1,4%), convulsiones 408 (1,2%). Conclusiones: en los primeros meses de la pandemia hubo una reducción sostenida y significativo de consultas pediátricas en los SE. No hubo aumento en frecuencia absoluta de ninguno de los diagnósticos. Se registró un descenso histórico de las IRA bajas y las hospitalizaciones por esta causa en todo el país. Mantener una vigilancia de las consultas en los SE permitiría identificar e intervenir oportunamente si se produjeran cambios o situaciones de riesgo hasta el momento no detectadas.


In March 2020 the first case of coronavirus disease was confirmed in Uruguay, and lockdown was recommended. Health care services were reduced to Urgency and Emergency Services (ES). Objectives: to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric visits to the ES of the public and private subsector in Uruguay, during the first 4 months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: descriptive, retrospective. Results: 23 institutions participated. 2 periods were considered: 1) pre-pandemic, 03/14/19 to 07/29/19, 2) 03/14/20 to 07/29/20. Visits: period 1: n=121,116 (< 15 years), period 2: n=33.099 (73% decrease). Hospital admissions: period 1: n=6,649 (rate 5.5). Period 2: n=2.948 (rate 9,5). Diagnoses period 1: High acute respiratory infection 39,892 (33%), low acute respiratory infection 8,656 (7%), minor trauma 8,651 (7%), gastroenteritis 8,044 (6,6%), asthmatic crisis/CBO 7.974 (6,5%), injuries 4,389 (3,6%), abdominal pain (3,528) 3%, mental health problems 859 (0.7%), seizures 758 (0.7%), social pathology 678 (0.5% ). 2020 diagnoses: high acute respiratory infection 5.168 (16%), minor trauma 2,759 (8%), injuries 2,652 (8%), abdominal pain 1,494 (4.5%), gastroenteritis 1,296 (4%), asthma/CBO 1,095 (3,3%), low acute respiratory infection 700 (2,1%), social pathology 522 (1,6%), mental health problems 471 (1,4%), seizures 408 (1,2%). Conclusions: in the first months of the pandemic there was a sustained and significant reduction in pediatric consultations in ES. There was no increase in absolute frequency of any of the diagnoses. There was a historical decrease in low respiratory infections and hospitalizations due to this cause in the whole country. Maintaining a surveillance of the visits in the ES would enable practitioners to identify and take action in case of changes or previously undetected risk situations.


Em março de 2020, foi confirmado o primeiro caso de doença por coronavírus no Uruguai, recomendando o confinamento. A assistência à saúde foi reduzida a serviços de urgência e emergência (SE). Objetivo: analisar as características das consultas pediátricas no SE do subsetor público e privado no Uruguai, durante os primeiros 4 meses da pandemia de SARS-CoV-2. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, multicêntrico. Resultados: participaram 23 SEs de todas as regiões do país. Período pré-pandemia 1: 14/03/19-29/07/19, período 2: 14/03/20-29/07/20 Consultas: período 1 n=121.116, período 2 n=33.099 (redução de 73%) . Internações da SE: período 1 n= 0,6649 (taxa 5,5%). Período 2: n=2.948 (taxa de 9,5%). Diagnósticos do período 1: infecção respiratória aguda alta (IRA) 39.892 (33%), LRA baixa 86,56 (7%), trauma menor 8.651 (7%), gastroenterite 8.044 (6,6%), crise asmática/CBO 7.974 (6, 5% ), lesões 4.389 (3,6%), dor abdominal 3.528 (3%), problemas de saúde mental 859 (0,7%), convulsões 758 (0,7%), patologia social 678 (0,5%). Diagnósticos 2020: IRA alta 5.168 (16%), trauma leve 2.759 (8%), lesões 2.652 (8%), dor abdominal 1.494 (4,5%), gastroenterite 1.296 (4%), asma/CBO 1.095 (3, 3%), IRA baixa 700 (2,1%), patologia social 522 (1,6%), problemas de saúde mental 471 (1,4%), convulsões 408 (1,2%). Conclusões: nos primeiros meses da pandemia houve uma redução sustentada e significativa das consultas pediátricas no SE. Não houve aumento na frequência absoluta de nenhum dos diagnósticos. Foi registrado um decréscimo histórico de IRAs baixas e internações por essa causa em todo o país. A manutenção de uma vigilância das consultas no SE permitiria identificar e intervir atempadamente nos casos de alterações ou situações de risco que até agora não tinham sido detectadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Médicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudo Multicêntrico , Setor Público , Setor Privado , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
8.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(6)2022 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In India, more than 60% of hospital beds are in private facilities, yet several studies have observed suboptimal quality of care in private facilities. We aimed to understand the role of Manyata, a quality improvement initiative in private facilities focused on mentorship and clinical standards, to improve the knowledge and skills of health care providers, their adherence to key childbirth-related clinical practices, and health outcomes for women and newborns. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of Manyata program data collected from 466 private facilities across 3 states (Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh) in India from October 2016 to February 2019. We calculated means and 95% confidence intervals for knowledge and skills assessment, adherence to facility standards was analyzed by calculating the proportion of facilities passing a given quality standard at baseline and endline, and changes in pregnancy outcomes were assessed with autoregression modeling. RESULTS: From assessments conducted before and after training among providers in Manyata, we observed a significant increase in average knowledge score (6.3 vs. 13.2 of 20) and skill score (8.0 vs. 34.3 of 40). Overall, a significant increase occurred in adherence to clinical standards between baseline and endline assessments (29% vs. 93%). The standards with the greatest improvements were identification and management of eclampsia/preeclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, and neonatal resuscitation. There were no significant changes over time in absolute rate of reported complications; however, referral rates from private facilities for preeclampsia and newborn sepsis identification and management declined. CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates private facilities' adherence to quality standards and nurses' childbirth knowledge and practical skills increased during Manyata. Additional efforts are needed to ensure high-quality care during cesarean deliveries at private facilities. Future studies with rigorous design are required to evaluate the impact of this quality improvement initiative in improving pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Setor Privado , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Ressuscitação , Parto , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
10.
S Afr Med J ; 113(1): 13-16, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537541

RESUMO

In 2019, Discovery Health published a risk adjustment model to determine standardised mortality rates across South African private hospital systems, with the aim of contributing towards quality improvement in the private healthcare sector. However, the model suffers from limitations due to its design and its reliance on administrative data. The publication's aim of facilitating transparency is unfortunately undermined by shortcomings in reporting. When designing a risk prediction model, patient-proximate variables with a sound theoretical or proven association with the outcome of interest should be used. The addition of key condition-specific clinical data points at the time of hospital admission will dramatically improve model performance. Performance could be further improved by using summary risk prediction scores such as the EUROSCORE II for coronary artery bypass graft surgery or the GRACE risk score for acute coronary syndrome. In general, model reporting should conform to published reporting standards, and attempts should be made to test model validity by using sensitivity analyses. In particular, the limitations of machine learning prediction models should be understood, and these models should be appropriately developed, evaluated and reported.


Assuntos
Setor Privado , Risco Ajustado , Humanos , África do Sul , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Privados
11.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(nspe2): e228, dic. 2022. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1403322

RESUMO

Introducción: la creación de sistemas de traslado neonatal marcó una inflexión en cuanto a la reducción de morbimortalidad de los recién nacidos (RN). La Organización Panamericana de la Salud estima que 1% de los RN requerirá ingreso a la unidad de cuidados intensivos. El traslado ideal es intraútero, pero muchas veces esto no es posible, requiriendo un traslado neonatal. La regionalización de los sistemas de traslado, la capacitación de recursos humanos y la adquisición de materiales son elementos que han mejorado su calidad y disminuido su indicación. Objetivos: describir a los RN que requirieron traslado y valorar el impacto sobre ellos al adquirir materiales y recursos humanos capacitados. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y multicéntrico, incluyendo todos los RN que requirieron traslado en el período 2016-2019. Variables analizadas: número de nacimientos, número de traslados, edad gestacional (EG), edad al momento del traslado, peso al nacer, tiempo de estabilización, oxigenoterapia y métodos, medicación recibida, medio de transporte y recursos humanos. Resultados y discusión: se realizaron 101 traslados neonatales, 1,5% del total de nacimientos. Variación anual: 2% de los RN en el año 2016, 1,6% en el 2017, 1,4% en el 2018, 1.1% en el 2019. Sector público: 63,3%. La media de EG fue de 33 semanas (25-40), modo 31 semanas. Pretérminos extremos 4,17%, pretérminos severos 37,5%, pretérminos moderados 17,7%, pretérminos tardíos 15,6% y de término 25%. La media de peso al nacer fue de 2.102 gramos (710-4.160), modo 1.440 gramos. La media de días al momento del traslado fue de 2,1 (3 horas-26 días). Indicaciones de traslado: prematurez 39,6%, otros SDR 22,9%, patología quirúrgica 13,5%, shock séptico 10,4%, asfixia/convulsiones 8,3% y cardiopatías 3%. Tratamiento durante la estabilización: oxigenoterapia 87,1%. Intubación orotraqueal y asistencia ventilatoria mecánica 71%, CPAP 9,7%, catéter nasal 6,4%. Requirieron surfactante 58,5%, antibióticos 77,4%, inotrópicos 26,6%, prostaglandinas 3,3%, aminofilina 3,3%. La media de tiempo de estabilización fue de 10,5 horas (3-36 horas). Destino: 64,3% Montevideo, 30,6% Tacuarembó, 3% Salto, 1% Canelones y 1% Minas. Medio de transporte: terrestre 95% y aéreo 5%. Fallecidos 1%. Recursos humanos disponibles: en 2016 un neonatólogo y seis pediatras. En 2019 tres neonatólogos, dos posgrados en neonatología, un pediatra intensivista, nueve pediatras (que se capacitaron en la estabilización del RN) y un supervisor docente y referente. Concomitante creación de unidades neonatales de estabilización con capacitación continua del personal de enfermería. Conclusiones: la principal causa de traslado fue la prematurez severa. Con la adquisición de recursos materiales adecuados y humanos capacitados se logró un descenso de casi 50% de los traslados. La regionalización ha ido en aumento pero se debe enfatizar, sobre todo en los RN menores a 1.000 gramos.


Introduction: the creation of neonatal transport systems showed a landmark regarding reduced morbidity and mortality of newborns (NB). The Pan-American Health Organization estimates that 1% of NBs require admission to an Intensive Care Unit. The ideal transport system would be intrauterine; however, many times this is not possible and neonatal transport services are needed. The regionalization of transport services, the training of human resources and the acquisition of materials have improved and therefore the need for transport services has decreased. Objectives: to describe the situation of newborns who required transport services and assess the impact on these services when acquiring materials and skilled human resources. Methodology: descriptive, retrospective and multicenter study, including all newborns who required transport services in 2016-2019. Variables analyzed: number of births, number of transfers, gestational age (GA), age at the time of transfer, birth weight, stabilization time, oxygen therapy and methods, medication received, means of transport and human resources. Results and discussion: 101 neonatal transfers were carried out, 1.5% of all births. Annual variation: 2% of newborns in 2016, 1.6% in 2017, 1.4% in 2018, 1.1% in 2019. Public sector: 63.3%. The mean GA was 33 weeks (25-40), mode 31 weeks. Extreme pre-terms 4.17%, severe pre-terms 37.5%, moderate pre-terms 17.7%, late pre-terms 15.6% and term newborns 25%. The mean birth weight was 2102 grams (710-4160), mode 1440 grams. The mean number of days at the time of transfer was 2.1 (3 hours-26 days). Transport main indications: prematurity 39.6%, other RDS 22.9%, surgical pathology 13.5%, septic shock 10.4%, asphyxia/seizures 8.3%, and heart disease 3%. Treatment during stabilization: Oxygen therapy: 87.1%. Orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation assistance 71%, CPAP 9.7%, nasal catheter 6.4%. 58.5% required surfactant, 77.4% antibiotics, 26.6% inotropes, 3.3% prostaglandins, 3.3% aminophylline. The mean stabilization time was 10.5 hours (3-36 hours). Destination: 64.3% Montevideo, 30.6% Tacuarembó, 3% Salto, 1% Canelones and 1% Minas. Means of transport: land 95% and air 5%. Deceased 1%. Available human resources: in 2016, 1 neonatologist and 6 pediatricians. In 2019, 3 neonatologists, 2 post graduated doctors in neonatology, 1 intensivist pediatrician, 9 pediatricians (who were trained in NB stabilization) and an academic supervisor and referent. Simultaneous neonatal stabilization units with continuous training of the nursing staff were created. Conclusions: the main cause of neonatal transport was severe prematurity. With the acquisition of adequate material and trained human resources, a decrease of almost 50% of these transfers was achieved. Regionalization has been rising even though it should be strengthened, especially in newborns weighing less than 1000 grams.


Introdução: a criação dos sistemas de transporte neonatal marcou uma virada na redução da morbimortalidade de recém-nascidos (RN). A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde estima que 1% dos RNs necessitarão de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. O transporte ideal é intrauterino, más muitas vezes isso não é possível, sendo necessário o transporte neonatal. A regionalização do transporte neonatal, a formação de recursos humanos e a aquisição de materiais, tem melhorado a qualidade e diminuído a indicação do transporte neonatal. Objetivos: descrever a situação dos recém-nascidos que necessitaram de transporte e avaliar o impacto da aquisição de materiais e recursos humanos capacitados sobre os resultados. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo e multicêntrico, incluindo todos os recém-nascidos que necessitaram de transporte no período 2016-2019. Variáveis analisadas: número de partos, número de transportes, idade gestacional (IG), idade no momento do transporte, peso ao nascer, tempo de estabilização, oxigenoterapia e métodos, medicação recebida, meio de transporte e recursos humanos. Resultados e discussão: foram realizados 101 transportes neonatais, 1,5% de todos os nascimentos. Variação anual: 2% dos recém-nascidos em 2016, 1,6% em 2017, 1,4% em 2018, 1,1% em 2019. Setor público: 63,3%. A média de IG foi de 33 semanas (25-40), moda de 31 semanas. Pré-termos maduros extremos 4,17%, pré-termos graves 37,5%, pré-termos moderados 17,7%, pré-termos tardios 15,6% e recém-nascidos a termo 25%. O peso médio ao nascer foi de 2.102 gramas (710-4.160), moda 1.440 gramas. O número médio de dias no momento do traslado foi de 2,1 (3 horas-26 dias). Indicações de transporte: prematuridade 39,6%, outras SDR 22,9%, patologia cirúrgica 13,5%, choque séptico 10,4%, asfixia/convulsões 8,3% e cardiopatia 3%. Tratamento durante a estabilização: Oxigenoterapia: 87,1%. Intubação orotraqueal e assistência à ventilação mecânica 71%, CPAP 9,7%, cateter nasal 6,4%. 58,5% necessitaram de surfactante, 77,4% de antibióticos, 26,6% de inotrópicos, 3,3% de prostaglandinas, 3,3% de aminofilina. O tempo médio de estabilização foi de 10,5 horas (3-36 horas). Destino: 64,3% Montevidéu, 30,6% Tacuarembo, 3% Salto, 1% Canelones e 1% Minas. Meios de transporte: terrestre 95% e aéreo 5%. Falecidos 1%. Recursos humanos disponíveis: em 2016, 1 neonatologista e 6 pediatras. Em 2019, 3 neonatologistas, 2 pós-graduados em neonatologia,1 pediatra intensivista, 9 pediatras (treinados em estabilização de RN) e uma supervisora e referente académica. Simultaneamente se criaram unidades de estabilização neonatal com treinamento contínuo da equipe de enfermagem. Conclusões: a principal causa de transporte neonatal foi a prematuridade grave. Com a aquisição de material adequado e recursos humanos capacitados, conseguiu-se uma diminuição de quase 50% dos traslados. A regionalização vem aumentando, mas deve ser reforçada, principalmente para os casos de recém-nascidos com menos de 1.000 gramas de peso.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Avaliação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Uruguai , Estudos Retrospectivos , Setor Público , Setor Privado , Estudo Observacional
12.
Global Health ; 18(1): 102, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36494851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare services is an expanding international market with which national healthcare systems engage, and from which they benefit, to greater and lesser degrees. This study examines the case of the China-England engagement in healthcare services as a vehicle for illuminating the way in which such market relationships are constructed. FINDINGS: China and England have different approaches to the international healthcare services market. Aware of the knowledge and technology gaps between itself and the leading capitalist nations of the West in healthcare, as in other sectors, the Chinese leadership has encouraged a variety of international engagements to facilitate the bridging of these gaps including accessing new supply and demand relationships in international markets. These engagements are situated within an approach to health system development based on establishing broad policy directions, allowing a degree of local innovation, initiating and evaluating pilot studies, and promulgating new programmatic frameworks at central and local levels. The assumption is that the new knowledge and technologies are integrated into this approach and implemented under the guidance of Chinese experts and leaders. England's healthcare system has the knowledge resources to provide the supply to meet at least some of the China demand but has yet to develop fully the means to enable an efficient market response, though such economic engagement is supported by the UK's trade related departments of state. As a result, the development of China-England commercial relationships in patient care, professional education and hospital and healthcare service development has been led largely by high status NHS Trusts and private sector organisations with the entrepreneurial capacity to exploit their market position. Drawing on their established international clinicians and commercial teams with experience of domestic private sector provision, these institutions have built trust-based collaborations sufficiently robust to facilitate demand-supply relationships in the international healthcare services market. Often key to the development of relations required to make commercial exchange feasible and practicable are a range of international brokers with the skills and capacity to provide the necessary linkage with individual healthcare consumers and institutional clients in China. Integral to the broker role, and often supplied by the broker itself, are the communication technologies of telemedicine to enable the interaction between consumer and healthcare provider, be this in patient care, professional education or healthcare service development. CONCLUSIONS: Although England's healthcare system has the knowledge required to respond to China's market demand and such economic engagement is supported and actively encouraged by the UK's trade related departments of state, the response is constrained by multiple domestic demands on its resources and by the limits of the NHS approach to marketisation in healthcare.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Setor Privado , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais , Políticas
13.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279465, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapidly spreading nature of Covid-19 virus associated with its high mortality and mortality rate is triggering an unprecedented public health crisis. The study assessed the availability, price, and affordability of medicines used in the management of Covid-19 in health facilities of Dessie town. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study design was employed in the health facilities of Dessie town from September 1 to September 20, 2021. Data was collected using a standard checklist adopted from the Logistics Indicator Assessment Tool and WHO/HAI. WHO/HAI methodology was applied to select the surveyed health facilities (30) and medicines (44). The daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker is used to estimate affordability. RESULTS: Fifteen and five medicines were not found at all public and private health facilities, respectively. The originator brand (OB) and lowest price generic (LPG) availability in private health facilities was 2.03% and 51.33%, respectively. In the public sector, the availability of OB and LPG was 0% and 34.44%, respectively. In public and private health facilities, the mean number of stock-outs was 2.25 and 2.91, and the mean number of stock-out days was 177.83 and 106.16 days, respectively. Eight and one LPG medicines were out of stock in public and private health facilities, respectively. Eight (33.33%) and 6 (28.57%) had higher prices than international prices in private and public health facilities, respectively. The median price ratio in public and private health facilities ranged from 0.02 and 3.05 and 0.04 to 2.70, respectively. Eighty percent of the products were unaffordable in both sectors. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of medicines was low. One-third of the medicines had higher prices than international prices. Eighty percent of the products were unaffordable. The regular supply of these medicines is crucial for better management of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicamentos Essenciais , Humanos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Setor Privado , Instalações de Saúde , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Genéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 984385, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36483244

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, first-food systems have changed and breastfeeding has decreased due to the increased growth in commercial breast milk substitute (BMS) consumption, which includes both follow-up and toddler formulas. These products are manufactured by a small number of corporate leaders in international BMS sales. Discussions for global regulation of these products take place in the Codex Alimentarius and are permeated by the strong participation of these corporations in the Codex committees. Objective: In the present study, the participation of the baby food industry in the review of the follow-up formula standard in the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) was analyzed. Methods: The analysis of the CCNFSDU documents was based on the period from 2009 to 2019 and used quantitative and qualitative approaches. Compositional and participation data from country delegations and observer organizations on the representative profiles of the involved institutions and the baby food industry's involvement in this process were established systematically. Results: In total, 134 out of the 189 Codex Alimentarius member countries engaged in the standard review process, of which 28% were involved in the entire process. The private sector was present in 81% of the most assiduous member state delegations to the meetings. Furthermore, ~60% of the observer organizations involved in the review process were business associations representing industry interests. Moreover, the International Special Dietary Foods Industries was the only business association with observer status in the CCNFSDU that was specifically dedicated to representing the baby food industryduring the review process. Conclusion: These research results expand the body of evidence confirming the expressive and disproportionate participation of baby food industries and their representatives in the discussion processes within the scope of the CCNFSDU. However, studies investigating the Codex and the public documents of its respective committees are limited. Thus, this was the first study to analyze the influence of the baby food industry on BMS global regulatory compliance.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Setor Privado , Lactente , Humanos , Alimentos Infantis
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1002975, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407994

RESUMO

Objectives: To achieve universal health coverage, adequate geographic access to quality healthcare services is vital and should be characterized periodically to support planning. However, in Kenya, previous assessments of geographic accessibility have relied on public health facility lists only, assembled several years ago. Here, for the first time we assemble a geocoded list of public and private health facilities in 2021 and make use of this updated list to interrogate geographical accessibility to all health providers. Methods: Existing health provider lists in Kenya were accessed, merged, cleaned, harmonized, and assigned a unique geospatial location. The resultant master list was combined with road network, land use, topography, travel barriers and healthcare-seeking behavior within a geospatial framework to estimate travel time to the nearest (i) private, (ii) public, and (iii) both (public and private-PP) health facilities through a travel scenario involving walking, bicycling and motorized transport. The proportion of the population within 1 h and outside 2-h was computed at 300 × 300 spatial resolution and aggregated at subnational units used for decision-making. Areas with a high disease prevalence for common infections that were outside 1-h catchment (dual burden) were also identified to guide prioritization. Results: The combined database contained 13,579 health facilities, both in the public (55.5%) and private-for-profit sector (44.5%) in 2021. The private health facilities' distribution was skewed toward the urban counties. Nationally, average travel time to the nearest health facility was 130, 254, and 128 min while the population within 1-h was 89.4, 80.5, and 89.6% for the public, private and PP health facility, respectively. The population outside 2-h were 6% for public and PP and 11% for the private sector. Mean travel time across counties was heterogeneous, while the population within 1-h ranged between 38 and 100% in both the public sector and PP. Counties in northwest and southeast Kenya had a dual burden. Conclusion: Continuous updating and geocoding of health facilities will facilitate an improved understanding of healthcare gaps for planning. Heterogeneities in geographical access continue to persist, with some areas having a dual burden and should be prioritized toward reducing health inequities and attaining universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Setor Público , Quênia/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Setor Privado
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277896, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians' dual practice (simultaneous practice in both public and private sectors) may be challenging for achieving universal health coverage. The purpose of this review is to identify the types of available evidence in physicians' dual practice in Iran and define the research agenda for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of the literature using Arksey and O'Malley's approach. We searched Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science core collection, as well as internal databases including the National Magazine Database (Magiran) and the Scientific Information Database (SID) until August 3, 2020. Studies published in Persian or English and investigating physicians' dual practice in the health system of Iran were included. Each step of the study was performed by two of the present researchers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) recommendations were used to conduct this study and report the findings. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included in the current review. The findings were categorized and synthesized into five themes including the forms of dual practice, the extent of dual practice, the motivators and factors affecting dual practice, the policy options, and the consequences of dual practice. There were limited evidence on the nature, types, and prevalence of this phenomenon for different provinces and medical specialties and on health policy options in Iran. There seems to be a methodological gap (a gap in the type of study and its method) in the subject area. Most studies have only used quantitative or qualitative study methods and based on the self-report of research samples in most of the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: More research is required at national level on the nature, types, and prevalence of this phenomenon, focusing on clarifying the root causes of this phenomenon and on the effects of dual practice on the indicators of accessibility to health services, especially for vulnerable populations, the quality of care provided, and equity, and on complex policy research on health policy options in Iran. The research questions proposed in the present study can help to bridge the knowledge gap in this area. Additional studies should address issues related to the quality of data collection in physicians' dual practice.


Assuntos
Médicos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Política de Saúde , Irã (Geográfico) , Setor Privado
17.
Malar J ; 21(1): 347, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is an infectious disease which has been globally targeted for elimination in at least 35 of 90 endemic countries by 2030. Most successful malaria elimination country programmes have engaged the private health sector in an effort to identify, document, investigate, provide effective treatment, and follow-up cases. However, there has been limited rigorous research showing evidence of adherence among healthcare providers of the formal private health sector to national malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines in Ethiopia, starting from malaria control to elimination phases. The aims of this study were to investigate and explain the level of adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare providers working in formal private health facilities in north-western Ethiopia. METHODS: An explanatory sequential mixed method design was conducted in the West Gojjam Zone of Ethiopia. Quantitative data were extracted from 1650 medical records of adult uncomplicated malaria outpatients served in 11 private-for-profit health facilities. In addition, using a qualitative approach, 33 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with healthcare providers were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using eight steps. RESULTS: Of 1650 suspected malaria cases in adult outpatients, 80.6% (1330/1650) were screen tested using microscopy and the remainder 19.4% (320/1650) were tested using multispecies rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs). Hence, the results revealed that private healthcare providers universally adhered to diagnosis guidelines. In addition, after following-up and excluding other causes of fever, 4.1% (56/1376) patients were clinically diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria. Despite this, the proportion of private healthcare provider adherence with confirmed malaria case treatment guidelines was 20.9% (69/330). In addition, 1320 (95.9%) of adult outpatients with negative laboratory results were not treated. Some of the identified determinant factors for sub-optimal adherence of healthcare providers to malaria guidelines were interruptions in supply and lack of availability of recommended anti-malarial drugs, lack of availability of quality assured laboratory supplies, and poor knowledge of the recommendations of the national standards. CONCLUSIONS: Private healthcare providers adhered to universal parasitological diagnosis, providing comprehensive counseling, and linking patients with community health workers. In addition, almost all laboratory negative patients were not treated with anti-malarial drugs. However, only one-fifth of confirmed patients were treated in line with national guideline recommendations. Malaria control and elimination efforts across Ethiopia could be improved through establishing a collaborative function of a win-win public private mix partnership model. In addition, including the data of the private health sector in the health information system could show real malaria burden and use the information to improve the adherence to malaria diagnosis, treatment, and reporting standards within the targeted era of elimination. Therefore, building the capacity of private healthcare providers and ensuring the availability of all nationally recommended drugs and supplies in private health sector facilities is recommended to improve the quality of services.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Adulto , Humanos , Setor Privado , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Administração de Caso , Etiópia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20126, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418853

RESUMO

To help advance exchanges between science and policy, a useful first step is to examine the questions which policymakers pose to scientists. The style of a question indicates what the asker is motivated to know, and how they might use that knowledge. Therefore, the aggregate pattern of typical policy inquires can help scientists anticipate what types of information policy audiences desire. A dataset (n = 2972) of questions from policymakers collected over 10 years (2011-2021)-by the Centre for Science and Policy at the University of Cambridge-was classified into one of seven classes. In the main, the most popular questions posed by policymakers-within the public and private sectors-were those whose answers inform how to achieve specific outcomes-whether directly, or by providing a causal analysis which is instrumental to this process. Moreover, this seems to be a general aspect of policymakers' inquiries, given that it is preserved regardless of the policy issue considered (e.g., Artificial Intelligence, Economy, or Health). Thus, maximizing the usefulness of the information that policymakers receive when engaging with scientists requires informing how to achieve specific outcomes-directly, or by providing a useful causal analysis.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Médicos , Humanos , Políticas , Conhecimento , Setor Privado
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277730, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395150

RESUMO

Financial inclusion is critical to inclusive growth, proffering policy solutions to eradicate the barriers that exclude individuals from financial markets. This study explores the effects of financial inclusion on economic growth in a global perspective with a large number of panels classified by income and regional levels from 2002-2020. The analysis begins with the development of a comprehensive composite financial inclusion index comprised of penetration, availability, and usage of financial services and the estimation of heterogeneous panel data models augmented with well-known variables. The results obtained from the panel cointegration test support a long-run relationship between economic growth, financial inclusion, and the control variables in the full panel, income-level, and regional-level economies. Furthermore, the study employs a GMM (generalized method of moment) approach using System-GMM estimators to examine the effects of financial inclusion and the control predictors on economic growth. The results of the GMM model clearly indicate that financial inclusion has a significantly positive impact on economic growth across all panels, implying that financial inclusion is an effective tool in fostering rapid economic growth in the world. Finally, the study delves into the causality relationship between the predictors and provides statistical evidence of bidirectional causality between economic growth and financial inclusion, whereas it only supports unidirectional causality relationships from credit to the private sector, foreign direct investment, inflation rate, the rule of law, school enrollment ratio, and trade openness with no feedback causality. Moreover, the study fails to provide causality evidence from the age dependency ratio and population to economic growth.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Investimentos em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Setor Privado
20.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(11): E1034-1039, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342485

RESUMO

Many Americans face high cost-sharing demands from their health insurers. While there is hope that prices for health services are becoming more and more transparent, even increased availability of price information will not always translate into optimal, equitable health and financial outcomes for patients. This commentary on a case argues why transparent pricing is an ethical imperative and identifies steps that health sector stakeholders should take to help patients and clinicians use pricing information to inform health decision making.


Assuntos
Médicos , Setor Público , Humanos , Setor Privado , Custos e Análise de Custo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
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