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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9323

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to light the shortcomings of health systems worldwide and the need to address the factors underpinning these flaws. In this webinar, we discuss the role of private sector and commercial determinants of health (#CDoH) in this global health crisis. Through their different perspectives, the panelists explore the role of private sector in the pandemic, the relationship between CDoH and COVID-19 on national and global levels and discuss the implications for global health. TIMESTAMPS: 00:00 | Welcome and Objective 02:35 | Opening Remarks 07:00 | COVID-19 as Commercial Determinant of Health 19:58 | Unhealthy Commodity Industries' Response to COVID-19 38:00 | Moderated Discussion and Q&A


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/economia , Sistemas Públicos de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Capitalismo , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Racismo , Equidade em Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena , Grupos de Risco , Teste para COVID-19 , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Promoção da Saúde , Setor Privado/economia , Indústria do Tabaco
2.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv54-iv58, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751360

RESUMO

In this article, we examine what the role of the private sector in times of crises is and whether the private sector is, and can be held to be, accountable. COVID-19 has amplified the difficulties with public-private partnerships and this article addresses several aspects concerning business enterprises, in particular transnational corporations, human rights and health sector activities, highlighting the key aspects to understand and address accountability issues. The article also explores accountability for the private sector, the processes to ensure accountability, and the relevance of regulation and self-regulation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Setor Privado , Parcerias Público-Privadas , SARS-CoV-2 , Responsabilidade Social
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 7)(11): S57-S63, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Combination of beneficiary and supply side factors for determining what influences Postpartum family planning use in Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. METHODS: A facility-based survey was conducted among 1690 married women of reproductive age (MWRA - i.e. married women between the ages of 15 and 49 years) visiting public facilities in six districts across Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. RESULTS: Half (53%) of the interviewed women used postpartum contraceptives. Participants who used PPFP were: 55% more likely to be from Punjab than Sindh, 39% more likely to be between 25 to 34 year of age than under 25 years. After adjusting for all variables in the model, women who delivered in the private sector remained to have lower odds of PPFP use compared to those who delivered in public facilities. Women who had four or more sons were nearly 20 time more likely to use PPFP compared to women with no sons, and the PPFP use increases with the number of sons. On the contrary, women who had four or more daughters were 16 times less likely to use PPFP compared with women with no daughters. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum women are among those with the greatest unmet need as a result of a combination of beneficiary and supplier side factors. The health system's response to meet the contraceptive needs of postpartum women should work along the continuum of care from pregnancy to postpartum, with expanded method choice and alternative service delivery outlets.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Setor Privado , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 7)(11): S78-S82, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the uptake, satisfaction, and quality of family planning services in the clients of a private sector organisation during Covid-19 in Pakistan and compare it with the situation before Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: This paper is based on the client exit interview data collected before and then after the outbreak of Covid-19, using a structured questionnaire. Clients were chosen at the exit of the social franchise (SF) clinics, situated in rural and peri-urban areas, and beneficiaries of the outreach services delivery channel in the remote rural area. Descriptive analysis was carried out in SPSS, and frequencies and percentages were computed. RESULTS: All respondents were married women of reproductive age (MWRA) with an average age of 30 years, with either no or very low literacy levels. During the pandemic, overall utilization of the intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) declined, while the condom remained popular. Client satisfaction remained high in both service delivery channels during a pandemic. However, some results varied vis-à-vis the residence of the client. CONCLUSIONS: All respondents were married women of reproductive age (MWRA) with an average age of 30 years, with either no or very low literacy levels. During the pandemic, overall utilization of the intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) declined, while the condom remained popular. Client satisfaction remained high in both service delivery channels during a pandemic. However, some results varied vis-à-vis the residence of the client.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Setor Privado , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 50, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795830

RESUMO

Introduction: in Burkina Faso, work-related stress is a public health problem. The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors of stress among formal private sector employees in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods: we conducted a survey using the 26-item scale derived from Karasek and the 23-item scale derived from Siegrist. Validated Karasek and Siegrist´s models as well as SPSS software were used to analyze data. Results: we surveyed 223 employees (186 men and 37 women) with an average age of 36.70 years ± δ = 33.25. In addition, 70,40% of employees had job strain; 50,22% iso strain and 52,02% effort-reward imbalance. Post-hoc analyses showed the following stress factors: great efforts and poor decision-making ability. Conclusion: this study confirms the presence of stress among private sector employees and highlights the importance of combining Karasek and Siegrist's questionnaires in the study of stress factors.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Setor Privado , Saúde Pública , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(10): 1007-1015, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766327

RESUMO

Background: Recent information on regulation of the pharmaceutical sector in Iraq is scarce. Aims: This report summarizes the regulations governing pharmaceutical products in Iraq, assesses the challenges faced and makes recommendations to tackle these issues. Methods: The Iraq pharmaceutical country profile 2020, prepared by the Iraqi Ministry of Health in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2020, was the main source of information. Results: Despite all the efforts by the Ministry of Health to provide adequate and safe medicines, the Iraqi pharmaceutical sector has several challenges, including inadequate budget allocated to the ministry, shortages in essential medicines, underutilization of electronic technologies in the management of regulation-related work, a large number of substandard and falsified medications in the private sector and a stagnant national pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion: The Ministry of Health needs more financial support from the federal government to fund its activities and technical support from international health organizations to provide training and resources.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Iraque , Setor Privado
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1119, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policymakers are faced with the challenge of balancing patient's access for effective and affordable medicines to sustain the rising healthcare costs. In a mixed healthcare market such as Malaysia, coverage decisions of new medicines are different: public funded health system has a formulary listing process whereas for private sector, which is a market-based economy, depends on patient's willingness to pay and insurance coverage. There is little overlap between public and private healthcare service delivery with access to new innovative medicines, as differentiated by sources of funding. The objectives of this study were to examine the diffusion of New Chemical Entities (NCEs) into the public and private healthcare market between 2010 and 2014, and determine the factors explaining the diffusion. METHODS: We matched medicines from the product registration database by medicine formulation to medicines in IQVIA National Pharmaceutical Audit database for each year. The price per Defined Daily Dose (DDD), market concentration and generic utilization share variables were calculated. A panel fixed effect model was performed to measure diffusion of NCEs for each year and test possible determinants of diffusion of NCEs for overall market and sector specifics. RESULTS: The utilization of NCEs was larger in the private sector compared to the public sector but the speed of diffusion over time was higher in the public sector. Price per DDD was negatively associated with diffusion of NCEs, while generic utilization share was significantly regressive in the public sector. Market concentration was negatively associated with utilization of NCEs, however result tends to be mixed according to sector and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) category. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding key aspects of sectoral variation in diffusion of NCEs are crucial to reduce the differences of access to new medicines within a country and ensure resources are used on cost effective treatments.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Medicamentos Genéricos , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Setor Privado , Setor Público
11.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636615

RESUMO

Four family physicians, who received their specialty training at Amoud University in Somaliland, organised a practice together that uses informal public-private partnerships to optimise their clinical care and teaching. Their experience offers insights into public-private partnerships that could strengthen the country's healthcare system.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Setor Privado , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Parcerias Público-Privadas
12.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 294-301, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666970

RESUMO

This review of the government's policy during the pandemic flags a number of ethical concerns. The private healthcare sector's treatment of Covid-19 patients has generated mistrust and anger. However, the government has not held it accountable and instead commercialisation has subverted the pandemic needs. Government hospitals weakened by decades of cuts are exposed to internal reorganisation of services through the public-private partnership mechanism, a neoliberal policy that has persisted through the pandemic. There is a need to re-examine the government's policy reliance on scaling-up coverage through the private sector in the pandemic and after.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Setor Privado , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The control of tuberculosis (TB) in India is complicated by the presence of a large, disorganised private sector where most patients first seek care. Following pilots in Mumbai and Patna (two major cities in India), an initiative known as the 'Public-Private Interface Agency' (PPIA) is now being expanded across the country. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of scaling up PPIA operations, in line with India's National Strategic Plan for TB control. METHODS: Focusing on Mumbai and Patna, we collected cost data from implementing organisations in both cities and combined this data with models of TB transmission dynamics. Estimating the cost per disability adjusted life years (DALY) averted between 2014 (the start of PPIA scale-up) and 2025, we assessed cost-effectiveness using two willingness-to-pay approaches: a WHO-CHOICE threshold based on per-capita economic productivity, and a more stringent threshold incorporating opportunity costs in the health system. FINDINGS: A PPIA scaled up to ultimately reach 50% of privately treated TB patients in Mumbai and Patna would cost, respectively, US$228 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 159 to 320) per DALY averted and US$564 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 409 to 775) per DALY averted. In Mumbai, the PPIA would be cost-effective relative to all thresholds considered. In Patna, if focusing on adherence support, rather than on improved diagnosis, the PPIA would be cost-effective relative to all thresholds considered. These differences between sites arise from variations in the burden of drug resistance: among the services of a PPIA, improved diagnosis (including rapid tests with genotypic drug sensitivity testing) has greatest value in settings such as Mumbai, with a high burden of drug-resistant TB. CONCLUSIONS: To accelerate decline in TB incidence, it is critical first to engage effectively with the private sector in India. Mechanisms such as the PPIA offer cost-effective ways of doing so, particularly when tailored to local settings.


Assuntos
Setor Privado , Tuberculose , Análise Custo-Benefício , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
14.
Natl Med J India ; 34(2): 100-106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599123

RESUMO

Background: . Implementation of healthcare regulatory policies, especially in low- and middle-income countries where the private health sector is predominant, is challenging. Karnataka, a southern state in India, enacted the Karnataka Private Medical Establishments Act (KPMEA) with an aim to ensure quality of care in the private healthcare establishments. After more than a decade the implementation of KPMEA is suboptimal. Methods: . We used a case study design. The case was 'implementation of KPMEA'. The case study site was Bengaluru Urban district in Karnataka. Data from key informant interviews, focus group discussions held at the state, district and subdistrict levels and key policy documents, minutes of the meetings, data from the State Department of Health and Family Welfare, district level KPMEA data and litigations at the High Court of Karnataka were analysed using a framework. Results: . The policy (KPMEA) content is inadequate and requires clarity in certain provisions of the Act. There was a lack of coordination between the implementing agencies. Workforce shortages were evident. Factors that impede the enforcement of the Act include poor knowledge and lack of competency of the officials on the content and the implementation mechanics of the policy, insufficient policy oversight from the state on the districts, corruption, political interference and lack of support from the local public, especially during raids on illegal establishments. Conclusions: . A regulatory policy such as KPMEA needs a clear, comprehensive content and directions for operationalization. However, improving the content of the policy is not easy as some aspects of the policy remain contentious with the private healthcare providers/ establishments. Addressing health governance issues at all levels is key to effective enforcement.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Setor Privado
15.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(10): 1426-1437, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of ambulation, cardiomyopathy, respiratory insufficiency, and early mortality. Few data are available that describe the direct medical costs among patients with DMD in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics, comorbidity burden, and direct monthly costs of care among patients with DMD with Medicaid and with commercial insurance coverage. METHODS: IBM MarketScan Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid claims (2013-2018) were used to identify males aged 30 years or under with diagnostic codes for muscular dystrophy or DMD; additional exclusion criteria were applied to identify those with probable DMD. Baseline characteristics and comorbidities were tabulated. The frequency of health care resource use and median (interquartile range [IQR]) monthly costs (in 2018 USD) were estimated from those with at least 12 months of continuous follow-up. RESULTS: Median (IQR) baseline ages were similar between the Medicaid (14 [9-20] years; n = 2,007) and commercial (15 [9-21] years; n = 1,964) DMD cohorts. The frequency of comorbidities over the period was slightly higher with those on Medicaid. The median duration of follow-up was 3.1 years among members of the Medicaid DMD cohort and 1.7 years among the commercial DMD cohort. Median monthly resource use was generally higher among the Medicaid DMD cohort; nonetheless, median (IQR) monthly costs were similar at $1,735 ($367-$5,281) for the Medicaid DMD cohort vs $1,883 ($657-$6,796) for the commercial DMD cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The demographic characteristics and median direct medical costs were similar between patients with commercial vs Medicaid coverage, even though patients with Medicaid coverage had higher resource use. Despite challenges in definitively identifying DMD patients using claims data, these findings help characterize contemporary DMD populations in the United States and the related direct economic burden to the payer. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc. Klimchak and Gooch are employees of Sarepta Therapeutics Inc. Szabo, Qian, and Popoff are employees of Broadstreet HEOR, which received funds from Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc., for work on this study. Iannaccone has received research funding or consulting fees from Avexis, Biogen, Fibrogen, Mallinkrodt, Regeneron, Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc., Scholar Rock, PTC Therapeutics, Pfizer, MDA, CureSMA, NIH, Genentech-Roche, and BCBS. Publication of the study results was not contingent on the sponsor's approval or censorship of the manuscript. Information from this study was presented, in part, at the AMCP Virtual Annual Meeting, April 21-24, 2020.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Medicaid/economia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/economia , Setor Privado , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e24200, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of government health data for secondary purposes, such as monitoring the quality of hospital services, researching the health needs of populations, and testing how well new treatments work, is increasing. This increase in the secondary uses of health data has led to increased interest in what the public thinks about data sharing, in particular, the possibilities of sharing with the private sector for research and development. Although international evidence demonstrates broad public support for the secondary use of health data, this support does not extend to sharing health data with the private sector. If governments intend to share health data with the private sector, knowing what the public thinks will be important. This paper reports a national survey to explore public attitudes in Australia toward sharing health data with private companies for research on and development of therapeutic drugs and medical devices. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore public attitudes in Australia toward sharing government health data with the private sector. METHODS: A web-based survey tool was developed to assess attitudes about sharing government health data with the private sector. A market research company was employed to administer the web-based survey in June 2019. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 2537 individuals residing in Australia. Between 51.8% and 57.98% of all participants were willing to share their data, with slightly fewer in favor of sharing to improve health services (51.99%) and a slightly higher proportion in favor of sharing for research and development (57.98%). There was a preference for opt-in consent (53.44%) and broad support for placing conditions on sharing health information with private companies (62% to 91.99%). Wide variability was also observed in participants' views about the extent to which the private sector could be trusted and how well they would behave if entrusted with people's health information. In their qualitative responses, the participants noted concerns about private sector corporate interests, corruption, and profit making and expressed doubt about the Australian government's capacity to manage data sharing safely. The percentages presented are adjusted against the Australian population. CONCLUSIONS: This nationally representative survey provides preliminary evidence that Australians are uncertain about sharing their health data with the private sector. Although just over half of all the respondents supported sharing health data with the private sector, there was also strong support for strict conditions on sharing data and for opt-in consent and significant concerns about how well the private sector would manage government health data. Addressing public concern about sharing government health data with the private sector will require more and better engagement to build community understanding about how agencies can collect, share, protect, and use their personal data.


Assuntos
Atitude , Setor Privado , Austrália , Governo , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634094

RESUMO

The unprecedented growth of educated workforce following the economic development and diversity in workplace has widened the career choices of young people in Bangladesh. However, it intensifies a dilemma among the job seekers about determining their career goals, because career goals are often influenced by certain socio-demographic and cultural aspects. Hence, this cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the career choices of university students in Bangladesh and to identify its determinants. Administering a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), data were collected from 422 students at a public university using the multistage stratified sampling. Data were analyzed by bivariate (chi-square) and multivariate (exploratory factor analysis and binary logistic regression) analyses. Findings suggest that the career choices of students vary regarding their gender, religion, and academic track. For example, female (AOR: 0.281; 95% CI: 0.144 to 0.547) and Muslim (AOR: 3.648; 95% CI: 1.765 to 7.542) students preferred public jobs, whereas students of commerce (AOR: 0.344; 95% CI: 0.144 to 0.820) went for private ones. Among socioeconomic issues, only the father's occupation had a substantial effect on career decisions (AOR: 0.347; 95% CI: 0.144 to 0.820). The career choice was also determined by the job prospects (AOR: 1.251; 95% CI: 1.161 to 1.347), preference of family (AOR: 1.238; 95% CI: 1.099 to 1.394), as well as job diversity (AOR: 0.879; 95% CI: 0.795 to 0.972). Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government should address the trends and patterns of career choices of students through empirical research when formulating future educational and career-related policies in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Estudantes , Universidades , Bangladesh , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
18.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 281-285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666965

RESUMO

The thematic track on accountability of the private and corporate healthcare sectors during the COPASAH Global Symposium aimed to analyse the emergence of the global trend of commercialisation of health systems, and the transition of healthcare from being a public good to a marketable commodity, at the cost of publicly funded healthcare in developing countries. It examined the implications of the lack of state regulation and oversight which has enabled the profit driven private healthcare sector to exploit vulnerable people through overcharging, malpractices and violations of patient's rights. Finally, the session addressed challenges in advocacy of patients' rights and showcased effective campaign strategies used by health activists in different countries to promote accountability of the private healthcare sector. Putting together learnings and insights from this track will help in contributing towards a powerful global counter-narrative, while providing activists with the tools to create awareness and engage with this critical issue.


Assuntos
Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Setor Privado , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258200, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624035

RESUMO

The diversified management ability of the non-family members in the top management teams (TMTs) can significantly increase the research and development (R&D) investment of the family firms. However, existing studies focus on family characteristics. To bridge the gap, this study explored the R&D investment propensity for family firms from the perspective of non-family members' participation in TMTs. Based on the upper echelons and the socioemotional wealth theory, this paper incorporated the non-economic goals that influence strategic decisions on family firms into the analytical framework. According to the questionnaire data of Chinese private enterprises, the Tobit regression model was used to analyze the influence of family members on R&D investment decisions under non-economic goal orientations. The results indicated that the preference for control and influence among family members weakens the positive effect of non-family managers on R&D investment, while the preferences for status perception and social responsibility strengthen the positive effect.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/organização & administração , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/organização & administração , China , Família , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Responsabilidade Social , Estatística como Assunto
20.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(8): 764-771, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486712

RESUMO

Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) occurring outside of health facilities are underestimated because there are a lack of structured preventive organization and absence of epidemiological surveillance. HCAI prevalence is likely to grow with the increase in patient care outside of health institutions. Aims: To set up a situational analysis of good hygiene practices among private general practitioners (GPs) to better organize HCAI prevention in this sector. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2017 and March 2018, using a self-administered questionnaire among all GPs in Sousse City, Tunisia. Results: Participation rate was 93.1%. There was a predominance of male GPs (63%), with a sex ratio of 1.7:1. Up-to-date vaccination status was reported by 82 (75.9%) of GPs. Fifty-six (51.3%) GPs used hydroalcoholic solutions, 13 (12.1%) adopted autoclaving, and 106 (98.1%) wore gloves during invasive care. Blood exposure accidents (BEAs) were reported by 38 (35.2%; declared in 26.3% of cases) and were more prevalent in the group aged > 50 years who used significantly more reusable equipment. BEAs were primarily due to needle-stick injuries (86.8%). Conclusion: We identified the priority axes to be considered in organizing HCAI prevention in the private sector, which allows guidance of GPs, avoiding their isolation and compensating for their lack of training and information. This requires willingness and a culture of improving the quality and safety of care in this sector. Committed involvement of several stakeholders at different levels of decision-making in health care is needed.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Setor Privado , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Tunísia/epidemiologia
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