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1.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127812, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822947

RESUMO

In this study, a systematic multi-spectroscopic analysis of microplastics (MPs) sampled from a metropolitan area of Seoul was undertaken to elevate understanding of the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in eliminating suspended contaminants including MPs before releasing the effluent water into the environment. We analyzed pollutants in influent and effluent samples from a WWTP in Seoul, South Korea. Spectroscopic and microscopic methods were used to analyze MPs. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in the wavenumber region between 4000 and 715 cm-1 was employed to estimate the abundance of MPs in wastewater. Stereomicroscope images and Nile red staining were used to facilely identify MPs in both influents and effluents to compare the results with those of FT-IR data. Hyperspectral imaging could identify MPs in the influent sample with the reflection method at 400-900 nm. Our preliminary results indicate that the most observed MPs after the wastewater were filtered by a 45 µm stainless steel mesh filter were polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). The total number of the prevalent MPs in influent samples decreased significantly. Nanostructure particles could be found by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Our combined multi-spectroscopic study should be helpful to provide a guideline for the rapid spectroscopic analysis of freshwater in the Han River, Seoul, South Korea.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , República da Coreia , Seul , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322715

RESUMO

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2020 has significantly affected the information environment as well as the daily life of individuals across the world, with information about COVID-19 dominating all media channels. The information provided at the time of a health crisis like COVID-19 is critical in helping people learn about the disease and the recommendations to prevent infection. However, studies have shown that when people are overwhelmed by too much information (referred to as 'information overload'), this leads to adverse effects. This study examined the antecedents and consequences of information overload in the context of COVID-19. A survey was conducted among 627 residents in Seoul, South Korea, one of the earliest affected countries in the global outbreak. The results showed that cognitive capacity and the frequency of online news use and interpersonal communication were significant predictors of information overload. Information overload influenced how information is processed; it was associated with the tendency toward greater heuristic processing and less systematic processing. In addition, people were more likely to enact prevention behaviors when the information was processed systematically, as opposed to heuristically. The results are discussed considering both the theoretical and practical implications.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação , Pandemias , Comunicação , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Humanos , Seul
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(40): e367, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the disaster of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) established a patient facility for mild condition patients other than hospital. This study was conducted to investigate the operation and necessary resources of a community treatment center (CTC) operated in Seoul, a metropolitan city with a population of 10 million. METHODS: To respond COVID-19 epidemic, the SMG designated 5 municipal hospitals as dedicated COVID-19 hospitals and implemented one CTC cooperated with the Boramae Municipal Hospital for COVID-19 patients in Seoul. As a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, retrospective medical records review was conducted for patients admitted to the Seoul CTC. The admission and discharge route of CTC patients were investigated. The patient characteristics were compared according to route of discharge whether the patient was discharged to home or transferred to hospital. To report the operation of CTC, the daily mean number of tests (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and chest X-ray) and consultations by medical staffs were calculated per week. The list of frequent used medications and who used medication most frequently were investigated. RESULTS: Until May 27 when the Seoul CTC was closed, 26.5% (n = 213) of total 803 COVID-19 patients in Seoul were admitted to the CTC. It was 35.7% (n = 213) of 597 newly diagnosed patients in Seoul during the 11 weeks of operation. The median length of stay was 21 days (interquartile range, 12-29 days). A total of 191 patients (89.7%) were discharged to home after virologic remission and 22 (10.3%) were transferred to hospital for further treatment. Fifty percent of transferred patients were within a week since CTC admission. Daily 2.5-3.6 consultations by doctors or nurses and 0.4-0.9 tests were provided to one patient. The most frequently prescribed medication was symptomatic medication for COVID-19 (cough/sputum and rhinorrhea). The next ranking was psychiatric medication for sleep problem and depression/anxiety, which was prescribed more than digestive drug. CONCLUSION: In the time of an infectious disease disaster, a metropolitan city can operate a temporary patient facility such as CTC to make a surge capacity and appropriately allocate scarce medical resource.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(5): 764-771, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular surgeons can be useful in non-vascular surgery cases, especially in oncology where complete resection is important. Such activity has been quantified at least locally, but maybe not adequately reported in a systematic manner, or studied prospectively. This study aimed to describe the roles of vascular surgeons in oncovascular surgery (OVS) and non-vascular surgery (NVS), and to analyse the yearly trends of consult surgery, early mortality and morbidity and risk factors for poor outcomes. METHODS: This study was a five year retrospective review of the role of vascular surgeons in various settings at a tertiary hospital. Electronic medical records and images were reviewed retrospectively. Between January 2014 and December 2018, the vascular surgery registry data of Seoul National University Hospital were reviewed for OVS or NVS assisted by vascular surgeons and operations primarily done by vascular surgeons. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, operative data, vascular related data and operative outcomes were collected. The operations were classified into primary surgery or consult surgery. Consult procedures were divided into planned or unplanned surgery. RESULTS: Of 564 cases, vascular surgeons performed 74 OVS as primary surgery, and retroperitoneal tumour was the most frequent diagnosis (n = 34). There were 490 intra-operative requests for a vascular surgeon's assistance, of which 109 were emergency calls. Total intra-operative consultations increased by 115.9% over five years, and the proportion of unplanned operations also increased. Unplanned assistance was most commonly requested for bleeding, whereas node dissection was the most common reason for planned surgery. The mortality rate was not different between the planned and unplanned surgery groups, but the latter showed worse outcomes in total operating time, length of hospital stay, post-operative consultations, and post-operative vascular related complications. CONCLUSION: Vascular surgeons have an essential role to play in the modern practice of cancer surgery. Oncovascular surgery enables gross resection of a tumour even in the presence of major vessel invasion. Emergency unplanned surgery had worse outcomes; therefore, pre-operative vascular consultation and multidisciplinary management are highly recommended for better patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Papel Profissional , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Duração da Cirurgia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 4354759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042223

RESUMO

To investigate whether specific time series patterns for blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and sympathetic tone are associated with metabolic factors and the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). A total of 989 patients who underwent simultaneous 24-hour ambulatory BP and Holter electrocardiogram monitoring were enrolled. The patients were categorized into sixteen groups according to their circadian patterns using the consensus clustering analysis method. Metabolic factors, including cholesterol profiles and apolipoprotein, were compared. The 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated based on the Framingham risk model. Overall, 16 significant associations were found between the clinical variables and cluster groups. Age was commonly associated with all clusters in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), HR, and sympathetic tone. Metabolic indicators, including diabetes, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein, were associated with the four sympathetic tone clusters. In the crude analysis, the ASCVD risk increased incrementally from clusters 1 to 4 across SBP, DBP, HR, and sympathetic tone. After adjustment for multiple variables, however, only sympathetic tone clusters 3 and 4 showed a significantly high proportion of patients at high risk (≥7.5%) of 10-year ASCVD (odds ratio (OR) = 5.90, 95% confidential interval (CI) = 1.27-27.46, and P value = 0.024 and OR = 15.28, 95% CI = 3.59-65.11, and P value < 0.001, respectively). Time series patterns of BP, HR, and sympathetic tone can serve as an indicator of aging. Circadian variations in sympathetic tone can provide prognostic information about patient metabolic profiles and indicate future ASCVD risk.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervação , Ritmo Circadiano , Frequência Cardíaca , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 669, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006646

RESUMO

We examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of tropical nights (TNs) in Seoul to determine whether land use factors increase the frequency of TN. The number of TN was derived using data from 23 Automatic Weathering Stations (AWS) in Seoul for 1998-2006, and 26 AWS in Seoul and nine Gangnam-gu stations for 2007-2013. The results show that the number of TN recorded in the Seoul Automatic Synoptic Observation System (ASOS) gradually increased from 1971 to 2013. TN occurred most frequently in early August, followed by mid-August, late July, late August, mid-July, early July, early September, and mid-September. The largest annual average difference occurred between Gangnam Station and Yeomgokdong, in spite of the short physical distance (4.5 km) between two stations at Gangnam-gu. There were more TNs at high-rise buildings and commercial business district (CBD) areas with low sky view factors (SVF) than in mountain foothill areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Seul
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(36): 45965-45973, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078356

RESUMO

South Korea is pursuing an energy transition policy (ETP) of expanding the use of renewable energy and natural gas and decreasing that of nuclear energy and coal in total generation. An investigation of whether the public is for or against the ETP is needed by the government. This article explores the public preference toward the ETP employing the data collected through a survey of 1000 individuals. They were asked to reveal their preference for the ETP on a five-point scale in the survey. Overall, there are more advocates of the ETP than those who opposed it. For the purpose of analyzing the determinants of advocacy and opposition of the ETP, an ordered probit model is employed. The results suggest that people living in the Seoul Metropolitan area think that the environment is more important than new jobs, or know the renewable energy 100% campaign before the survey is more favorable to the ETP than others. However, people who use electricity for heating tend to be negative about the ETP. As the age increases, people approve of the ETP, but when age goes beyond a certain level, they oppose it.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Energia Renovável , Humanos , Política Pública , República da Coreia , Seul
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867037

RESUMO

Seoul, the most populous city in South Korea, has been practicing social distancing to slow down the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and other air pollutants measured in Seoul over the two 30 day periods before and after the start of social distancing are analyzed to assess the change in air quality during the period of social distancing. The 30 day mean PM2.5 concentration decreased by 10.4% in 2020, which is contrasted with an average increase of 23.7% over the corresponding periods in the previous 5 years. The PM2.5 concentration decrease was city-wide and more prominent during daytime than at nighttime. The concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) decreased by 16.9% and 16.4%, respectively. These results show that social distancing, a weaker forcing toward reduced human activity than a strict lockdown, can help lower pollutant emissions. At the same time, synoptic conditions and the decrease in aerosol optical depth over the regions to the west of Seoul support that the change in Seoul's air quality during the COVID-19 social distancing can be interpreted as having been affected by reductions in the long-range transport of air pollutants as well as local emission reductions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Seul
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899954

RESUMO

To improve urban adolescents' dietary behaviors and health, factors that influence them to buy meals in convenience stores with regard to urban food environments must be determined. This study investigated the factors which influence adolescents' substitution of meals with convenience store meals and its impact on their health in Seoul (South Korea). Multilevel analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national health survey with a representative sample of Korean adolescents. Among 17,624 teenagers who responded to surveys in 2017 and 2019, 30.5% of them substituted meals with convenience store meals more than three times a week. Girls and students with a lower family economic level were more likely to frequently consume food from convenience stores. Unhealthy lifestyles and poor mental health status also influenced their decisions to substitute meals with convenience store food. Those who frequently consumed meals from convenience stores were more likely to have unhealthy lifestyles, featuring bad diets, smoking, drinking, and sedentary behaviors. They also reported significantly poorer self-rated health and mental health. To promote healthy lifestyles among adolescents, efforts to raise awareness and develop supportive environments for healthy diets are strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Seul , Meio Social , População Urbana
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127367, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947676

RESUMO

Due to their important roles in salt-producing acid-base reactions, new particle formation (NPF), and as precursors in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) producing reactions, the atmospheric concentrations of particulate volatile amines (dimethylamine (DMA), ethylamine, diethylamine (DEA), propylamine, and butylamine) at Seoul were analyzed and evaluated. To quantify the presence of volatile amines in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to a nominal 2.5 µm (PM2.5), an efficient and rapid analytical method based on in-matrix ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was developed and validated using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The annual mean concentration of the total 5 target amines was 5.56±2.76 ng/m3 and the seasonal difference was small. The concentrations of particulate amines measured in this study were lower than those observed in Zongludak, Turkey, Nanjing, China, and Jeju, Korea but slightly higher than that reported in Kobe, Japan. The concentrations of the nitrosamines (nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)), and of the nitramines (dimethylnitramine (DMN) and diethylnitramine (DEN)) measured along with those of the target amines were used in a simple linear regression analysis. It indicates the contribution of DMA to the formation of NDMA in all seasons (except the fall) and DEA to the formation of NDEA in the summer, while DMA and DEA did not significantly contribute to the formation of nitramines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aminas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Dietilnitrosamina , Dimetilaminas , Dimetilnitrosamina/análise , Etilaminas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Nitrosaminas/análise , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia , Seul , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947940

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the structural relationship between health perceptions, sports participation, and health promoting behavior in adolescents. A total of 507 adolescents living in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in 2020, participated in this study. This study was conducted using a preliminary survey and a main survey. In the preliminary survey, the reliability and validity of the scales used in this study were analyzed, and in the main survey, the relationships between individual variables were verified. Specifically, descriptive statistical analysis, path analysis, and mediating effect analysis were conducted in the main survey. The results of the study are as follows: first, health perceptions were found to have a positive effect on sports participation (p < 0.001). Furthermore, health perceptions were found to have no direct effect on health promoting behavior (p = 0.554), while sports participation was found to have a positive effect on health promoting behavior (p < 0.001). Additionally, sports participation completely mediated the relationship between health perceptions and health promoting behavior. Based on the results of this study, suggestions are presented on how to enhance health perceptions in adolescents who are in a critical period for forming healthy life habits, and to prepare measures to encourage sports participation.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Esportes , Adolescente , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Seul , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 774-779, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are rare hematologic tumors. This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic features of the entire spectrum of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, including clinicopathological variables and patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We comprehensively reviewed 274 patients who were diagnosed with histiocytic and dendritic neoplasms at Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea between 1995 and 2018. RESULTS: The most common neoplasm was Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), followed by dermal xanthogranuloma. Among non-LCH sarcomas, histiocytic sarcoma (HS) showed a relatively high prevalence, followed by follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS). Disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma (DJG), Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), indeterminate dendritic cell tumor (IDCT), and interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) rarely occurred. Generally, these tumors presented in childhood, although the non-LCH sarcoma (HS/FDCS/IDCS/IDCT) group of tumors and ECD occurred in late adulthood. Multiorgan involvement and advanced Ann-Arbor stage, as well as recurrence and death of disease, were not uncommon. The non-LCH sarcoma group had the worst overall survival, compared to the DJG, ECD, and LCH groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms exhibit heterogeneous epidemiologic characteristics and that some patients may have unfavorable outcomes, especially those with non-LCH sarcoma.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/patologia , Histiócitos/patologia , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/patologia , Sarcoma Histiocítico/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/epidemiologia , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/patologia , Feminino , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/epidemiologia , Sarcoma Histiocítico/epidemiologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Seul , Xantogranuloma Juvenil/epidemiologia , Xantogranuloma Juvenil/patologia
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(33): e311, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830472

RESUMO

Serosurveillance studies reveal the actual disease burden and herd immunity level in the population. In Seoul, Korea, a cross-sectional investigation showed 0.07% anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 antibody seropositivity among 1,500 outpatients of the university hospitals. Low seroprevalence reflects well-implemented social distancing. Serosurveillance should be repeated as the pandemic progresses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Seul/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 3612607, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774458

RESUMO

Introduction: Severe hypoglycemia can be life-threatening; therefore, it is important to identify the characteristics of the hypoglycemic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the type and characteristics of diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited an emergency room. Methods: We included diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited the emergency room of St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul from January 2009 to August 2018 in the study. Hypo_S group patients visited the emergency room once whereas Hypo_M group patients visited twice or more. We also compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease between the groups within 5 years after hypoglycemia. Results: A total of 843 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 71 ± 14 years and average glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 6.7 ± 1.4%. For patients with hypoglycemia, lower body mass index, lower HbA1c, shorter diabetes duration, and lower glomerular filtration rate have a statistically significant relationship with patient characteristics in the emergency room group (all p < 0.001). Hypoglycemia symptoms were most frequently observed between 6:00 and 12:00 am (p < 0.001). Cardiovascular diseases within 5 years after discharge were more frequent in the Hypo_S group than in the Hypo_M group; however, there was no statistical significance. The frequency of aneurysms was significantly higher in patients with hypoglycemia than in other patients in the emergency room (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively thin older patients with a diabetes duration shorter than 10 years and good blood sugar control showed higher frequency of visits to the emergency room due to hypoglycemia. For these patients, medical staff should always be mindful of their susceptibility to hypoglycemia when prescribing insulin or OHA and educate them on the prevention of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824855

RESUMO

This study investigated people's attitudes towards noise inside their homes. Online questionnaire surveys were conducted in Seoul, London, and São Paulo. The questionnaire was designed to assess annoyance caused by noise from neighbours and environmental noise (transportation). Information was also collected on situational, personal, and socio-demographic variables. Respondents that were more annoyed by outdoor noise inside their dwelling reported higher neighbour noise annoyance. In Seoul, neighbour noise was found to be more annoying than outdoor noise, and those with higher noise sensitivity reported higher annoyance towards neighbour noise. However, neighbour noise and outdoor noise was found to be equally annoying in London and São Paulo. For neighbour noise, the average percentage of respondents hearing structure-borne sources compared to airborne sources differed in each city. Most neighbour noise sources in São Paulo gave rise to higher annoyance ratings than Seoul and London. Education and income levels had a limited effect on annoyance and coping strategy. Annoyance with indoor noise from neighbours was found to have stronger relationships with cognitive and behavioural coping strategies than outdoor noise annoyance.


Assuntos
Atitude , Ruído dos Transportes , Criança , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Seul , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our hospital experienced the first healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak in Seoul at the time the first COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Korea. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a hospital personnel who was in charge of transferring patients inside our hospital. To contain the virus spread, we shutdown our hospital, and tested all inpatients, medical staff members, and employees. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the results of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing according to the contact history, occupation, and presence of respiratory symptoms. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) was reviewed in the presence of an epidemiologist to identify individuals who came into contact with confirmed COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 3,091 respiratory samples from 2,924 individuals were obtained. Among 2,924 individuals, two inpatients, and one caregiver tested positive (positivity rate, 0.1%). Although all confirmed cases were linked to a general ward designated for pulmonology patients, no medical staff members, medical support personnel, or employees working at the same ward were infected. Contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases was frequent among inpatients and medical support personnel. The most common contact area was the general ward for pulmonology patients and medical support areas, including clinical and imaging examination rooms. Finally, the total number of hospital-associated infections was 14, consisting of four diagnosed at our hospital and ten diagnosed outside the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The robust control of the COVID-19 outbreak further minimized the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hospital and local communities. However, there was also a debate over the appropriate period of hospital shutdown and testing of all hospital staff and patients. Future studies are required to refine and establish the in-hospital quarantine and de-isolation guidelines based on the epidemiological and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Hospitais Universitários , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quartos de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Seul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(3): H694-H704, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795182

RESUMO

Since mitral valve (MV) complex (MVC) longitudinally bridges left ventricular (LV) base end and its middle, insufficient MVC longitudinal tissue length (TL) elongation relative to whole LV myocardial longitudinal TL elongation could limit LV-base-longitudinal-TL elongation, leading to predominant LV-base-transverse-TL elongation, constituting LV spherical remodeling. In 30 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 30 with aortic regurgitation (AR), and 30 controls, LV sphericity, LV-apex- or base-transverse- and longitudinal-TL, MVC-longitudinal-TL, and whole-LV-longitudinal-TL were measured by three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. Ratio of each measure versus mean normal value (i.e., LV-apex-transverse-TL ratio) was considered to express the directional and regional tissue elongation. [LV-base-longitudinal-TL ratio/global-LV-TL ratio] and [MVC-longitudinal-TL ratio/whole-LV-longitudinal-TL ratio] were obtained as the degree of LV-base-longitudinal-TL or MVC-longitudinal-TL elongation relative to the whole LV elongation. LV-apex-transverse-, LV-apex-longitudinal-, and LV-base-transverse-TL ratios were significantly increased (1.27 to 1.42, P < 0.01) in both DCM and AR, while the LV-base-longitudinal-TL ratio was not increased in DCM [1.04 ± 0.19, not significant (ns)] and only modestly increased in AR (1.12 ± 0.21, P < 0.01). Whole-LV-longitudinal-TL ratio was significantly increased in both DCM and AR (1.22 ± 0.18 and 1.20 ± 0.16, P < 0.01), while MVC-longitudinal-TL ratio was not or only modestly increased in both groups (1.07 ± 0.15, ns, and 1.12 ± 0.17, P = 0.02, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that LV sphericity was independently related to a reduced [LV-base-longitudinal-TL ratio/global-LV-TL ratio] (standard ß = -0.42, P < 0.01), which was further related to a reduced [MVC-longitudinal-TL ratio/whole-LV-longitudinal-TL ratio] (standard ß = 0.72, P < 0.01). These are consistent with the hypothesis that relatively less MVC-longitudinal-TL elongation in the process of primary LV myocardial tissue elongation may limit LV-base-longitudinal-TL elongation, contributing to LV spherical remodeling.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Left ventricular (LV) spherical remodeling is associated with poor prognosis and less-effective cardiac performance, which commonly develops in dilated cardiomyopathy. However, its mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized and subsequently clarified that less mitral valve complex (MVC) tissue longitudinal elongation relative to whole LV myocardial tissue longitudinal elongation is related to disproportionately less LV base longitudinal versus transverse myocardial tissue elongation, constituting spherical remodeling. This study suggests modification of MVC tissue elongation could be potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seul , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141327, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758989

RESUMO

Few studies have assessed the cumulative effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS1) in relation to children's neurobehavioral problems over time. We assessed the longitudinal associations between ETS exposure at age 5 and behavioral problems at ages 5, 7, and 9 using the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, in Seoul, Korea. Children with available urinary cotinine levels at age 5 and one or more behavioral problem scores measured with the Korean Version of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL2) at age 5, 7, and 9 were included in the study. Those whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were excluded, and a total of 179 children were included in the analysis. A linear mixed-model analysis using a REPEATED statement was conducted to assess whether ETS exposure was associated with the total, internalizing, and externalizing behavioral problem scores of the CBCL. The group with higher levels of cotinine showed continuously higher total and external behavioral problem scores from ages 5 to 9, which was seen after adjusting for preterm birth, father's education level, and television watching time. In addition, the difference in the total and external behavioral problem scores between the higher and lower cotinine groups at age 5 was statistically significant after a Bonferroni correction (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively), even though the fixed effect of cotinine level was almost but not statistically significant (p = 0.07 and 0.08, respectively). The results of this longitudinal cohort study provide evidence regarding the negative effects of ETS exposure in early childhood and their behavioral problems over time. This study supports the strengthening of anti-smoking policies used in educational interventions for parents, in order to reduce early ETS exposure in children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Seul
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141261, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745866

RESUMO

Although injury is a leading cause of death worldwide, the association between ambient temperature and injury has received little research attention compared to the association of temperature with mortality and morbidity from non-external causes. With current climate change and increases in weather extremes, assessing the association between temperature and injury is important for determining public health priorities. Therefore, the present study examined the association between ambient temperature and injury risk with a focus on the intentions and mechanisms of injury. Using the national emergency database, we identified a total of 703,503 injured patients who had visited emergency departments in Seoul, South Korea from 2008 to 2016. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study using a conditional Poisson regression model, and applied a distributed lag nonlinear model to explore possible nonlinear and delayed effects of daily mean temperature on injury risk. Injury risk was significantly associated with ambient temperature, and temperature-injury association curves markedly differed with respect to intentions and mechanisms of injury. Although unintentional injuries increased significantly at both high and low temperatures, intentional injuries - including self-harm and assault - significantly increased only at high temperatures. The mechanism-specific analyses showed that injuries caused by traffic accidents and burns significantly increased at both high and low temperatures. However, injuries caused by all other mechanisms (i.e., fall, blunt object, machinery, penetration, and poisoning) significantly increased only at high temperatures, while injury due to slipping increased at low temperatures. Our study provides evidence that ambient temperature is associated with risk of injury, and this association differs depending on the intentions and mechanisms of injury. Overall, our findings help foster a more comprehensive understanding of the association between temperature and injury that can be used to establish appropriate public health policies and targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Intenção , Dinâmica não Linear , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Seul , Temperatura
20.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(7): 1479164120945910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of interarm blood pressure difference on the development of diabetic retinopathy, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease remains unknown. We investigated to determine the impact of interarm blood pressure difference on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study included 563 patients with diabetes, who were evaluated with a simultaneous bilateral blood pressure measurement. The cutoff values for interarm blood pressure difference were 5, 10 and 15 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relation between interarm blood pressure difference and diabetic retinopathy, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: Diabetic patients with systolic interarm blood pressure difference ⩾5, ⩾10 and ⩾15 mmHg showed an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy [adjusted odds ratio = 1.48 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.18), odds ratio = 1.80 (95% confidence interval = 0.99-3.22), odds ratio = 2.29 (95% confidence interval = 1.00-5.23)] after adjustment. There were significant associations between interarm blood pressure difference ⩾5 and ⩾10 mmHg and proteinuria [odds ratio = 1.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.44), 1.89 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-3.37)]. CONCLUSION: The association between interarm blood pressure difference and the presence of diabetic retinopathy emerged even for systolic interarm blood pressure difference ⩾5 mmHg without interaction of systolic blood pressure. Systolic interarm blood pressure difference should be considered a surrogate marker for vascular complication in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Proteinúria/diagnóstico , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Proteinúria/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia
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