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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241915, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315871

RESUMO

Women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) impedes progress in solving Africa's complex development problems. As in other regions, women's participation in STEM drops progressively moving up the education and career ladder, with women currently constituting 30% of Africa's STEM researchers. This study elucidates gender-based differences in PhD performance using new survey data from 227 alumni of STEM PhD programs in 17 African countries. We find that, compared to their male counterparts, sampled women had about one less paper accepted for publication during their doctoral studies and took about half a year longer to finish their PhD training. Negative binomial regression models provide insights on the observed differences in women's and men's PhD performance. Results indicate that the correlates of publication productivity and time to PhD completion are very similar for women and men, but some gender-based differences are observed. For publication output, we find that good supervision had a stronger impact for men than women; and getting married during the PhD reduced women's publication productivity but increased that of men. Becoming a parent during the PhD training was a key reason that women took longer to complete the PhD, according to our results. Findings suggest that having a female supervisor, attending an institution with gender policies in place, and pursuing the PhD in a department where sexual harassment by faculty was perceived as uncommon were enabling factors for women's timely completion of their doctoral studies. Two priority interventions emerge from this study: (1) family-friendly policies and facilities that are supportive of women's roles as wives and mothers and (2) fostering broader linkages and networks for women in STEM, including ensuring mentoring and supervisory support that is tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Política Organizacional , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Clín. salud ; 31(3): 147-153, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197170

RESUMO

Todos los estudiantes sufren el riesgo de ser víctima de conductas agresivas de bullying durante el transcurso de su vida. Sin embargo, existen colectivos con mayor riesgo de sufrir estas conductas, en especial, el colectivo LGTB. Este estudio tiene tres objetivos: (1) analizar la prevalencia de víctimas y agresores de bullying entre adolescentes de secundaria, (2) explorar diferencias en función del sexo y (3) conocer las diferencias en función de la orientación sexual. Una muestra compuesta por 1,748 adolescentes del País Vasco cumplimentó dos cuestionarios. Los resultados evidencian (1) un elevado porcentaje de víctimas (41.6% globales, 11% severas) y de agresores (28.5% globales, 2,7% severos), (2) que las chicas muestran mayor victimización y los chicos agresión y (3) que hay un mayor porcentaje de víctimas no-heterosexuales, en especial de gais y bisexuales. En conclusión, las personas LGTB muestran una mayor vulnerabilidad a sufrir acoso escolar, por lo que es necesario desarrollar e implementar programas antidiscriminatorios en la comunidad educativa


Every student is at risk of aggressive bullying behavior during their lifetime. However, there are groups with a higher risk of suffering these aggressive behaviors, especially the LGTB group. This study has three objectives: (1) to analyze the prevalence of victims and aggressors of bullying among high school adolescents; (2) to explore differences based on sex; and (3) to identify differences based on sexual orientation. A sample consisting of 1,748 adolescents from the Basque Country completed two questionnaires. The results show (1) a high percentage of victims (41.6% global, 11% severe), as well as aggressors (28.5% global, 2.7% severe); (2) that girls show greater victimization and boys show aggression; and (3) a higher percentage of non-heterosexual victims, especially gay and bisexual. In conclusion, LGTB people show greater vulnerability to suffer bullying and, therefore, the need to develop and implement anti-discrimination programs in the educational community


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underrepresentation of women in academic medicine at senior level and in leadership positions is well documented. Biomedical Research Centres (BRC), partnerships between leading National Health Service (NHS) organisations and universities, conduct world class translational research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the UK. Since 2011 BRCs are required to demonstrate significant progress in gender equity (GE) to be eligible to apply for funding. However, the evidence base for monitoring GE specifically in BRC settings is underdeveloped. This is the first survey tool designed to rank and identify new GE markers specific to the NIHR BRCs. METHODS: An online survey distributed to senior leadership, clinical and non-clinical researchers, trainees, administrative and other professionals affiliated to the NIHR Oxford BRC (N = 683). Participants ranked 13 markers of GE on a five point Likert scale by importance. Data were summarised using frequencies and descriptive statistics. Interrelationships between markers and underlying latent dimensions (factors) were determined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 36% (243 respondents). Respondents were more frequently female (55%, n = 133), aged 41-50 years (33%, n = 81), investigators (33%, n = 81) affiliated to the BRC for 2-7 years (39.5%, n = 96). Overall participants ranked 'BRC senior leadership roles' and 'organisational policies on gender equity', to be the most important markers of GE. 58% (n = 141) and 57% (n = 139) respectively. Female participants ranked 'organisational policies' (64.7%, n = 86/133) and 'recruitment and retention' (60.9%, n = 81/133) most highly, whereas male participants ranked 'leadership development' (52.1%, n = 50/96) and 'BRC senior leadership roles' (50%, n = 48/96) as most important. Factor analyses identified two distinct latent dimensions: "organisational markers" and "individual markers" of GE in BRCs. CONCLUSIONS: A two-factor model of markers of achievement for GE with "organisational" and "individual" dimensions was identified. Implementation and sustainability of gender equity requires commitment at senior leadership and organisational policy level.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Sexismo , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Direitos da Mulher/organização & administração , Direitos da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 386-399, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195654

RESUMO

La violencia filio-parental (VFP) es un tipo de violencia intrafamiliar que ha cobrado visibilidad social y científica en los últimos años. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar distintas formas de VFP y su relación con dos grupos de variables. Por un lado, el género, la edad, la estructura familiar, el curso, el rendimiento académico, el consumo de drogas, la frecuencia de dicho consumo y el diagnóstico de psicopatología. Por otro lado, la exposición a la violencia, el calor parental, el autoconcepto, el sexismo, el narcisismo y la psicopatía. Los participantes fueron 225 estudiantes de instituto, de 14 a 20 años, el 54.7% chicas. Las tasas de VFP fueron inferiores a las de estudios españoles previos pero semejantes a las de otros países. La mayoría de los participantes realizaron una sola conducta, insultar, y la conducta de pegar nunca apareció sola, sino en combinación con al menos otras dos conductas. El análisis de los datos mostró que la capacidad de las variables estudiadas para predecir la VFP varía para cada conducta específica. Los resultados se discuten proponiendo que los estudios futuros consideren la VFP como un problema social que trasciende la relación padres-hijos


Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is a type of domestic violence that has gained social and scientific visibility in recent years. The objective of this study is to analyze different forms of CPV and their relationship with two groups of variables. The first group includes gender, age, family structure, school year, academic performance, drug use, frequency of drug use and diagnosis of psychopathology. The second analyzes exposure to violence, parental warmth, self-concept, sexism, narcissism and psychopathy. The participants were 225 high school students from 14 to 20 years old, 54.7% of them girls. The CPV rates were lower than those of previous Spanish studies but similar to those in other countries. Most participants engaged in only one behavior, insulting, and hitting never appeared alone, but in combination with at least two other behaviors. The analysis of the data showed that the ability of the variables under study to predict CPV varies for each specific behavior. The results are discussed by proposing that future studies consider CPV as a social problem that goes beyond parent-child relations


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Autorrelato , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores de Referência , Desejabilidade Social , Comportamento Perigoso , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898854

RESUMO

In a cross-sectional study of youth ages 8-15, we examined implicit and explicit gender stereotypes regarding math and language abilities. We investigated how implicit and explicit stereotypes differ across age and gender groups and whether they are consistent with cultural stereotypes. Participants (N = 270) completed the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) and a survey of explicit beliefs. Across all ages, boys showed neither math nor language implicit gender biases, whereas girls implicitly favored girls in both domains. These findings are counter to cultural stereotypes, which favor boys in math. On the explicit measure, both boys' and girls' primary tendency was to favor girls in math and language ability, with the exception of elementary school boys, who rated genders equally. We conclude that objective gender differences in academic success guide differences in children's explicit reports and implicit biases.


Assuntos
Idioma , Matemática/educação , Autoimagem , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Aptidão , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estereotipagem
8.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1201-1209, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The critical question of racial and gender diversity in pediatric anesthesia training programs has not been previously explored. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate trends by race/ethnicity and gender in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship training programs in the United States for the years 2000 to 2018. METHODS: Demographic data on pediatric anesthesiology fellows and anesthesiology residents were obtained from the self-reported data collected for the Journal of the American Medical Association's annual report on Graduate Medical Education for the years 2000 to 2018. Diversity was assessed by calculating the proportions of trainees per year by gender and racial/ethnic groups in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship and anesthesiology residency programs. Logistic regression equations were developed to estimate the annual growth rate of each racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: The number of pediatric anesthesiology fellows increased from 57 trainees in 2000-2001 to 202 in 2017-2018 at an average rate of 9 fellows per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 8-10). These increases were primarily due to white trainees (54.4%-63.4%) as the proportions of black (7.0%-4.5%), Asian (26.3%-21.3%), and other minority (12.3%-10.9%) trainees have remained low. The number of anesthesiology residents increased from 3950 trainees in 2000-2001 to 5940 in 2017-2018 at an average rate of 99 residents per year (95% CI, 88-111). Within all anesthesiology trainees, these increases were due to white trainees (55.7%-61.3%) as the proportion of black (5.0%-6.0%), Asian (25.8%-24.1%), and other minority trainees (8.2%-8.5%) has remained fairly constant over the time period. Despite the overall lower proportion of female anesthesiology residents (range: 27.0%-37.5%), a steady increase in the number of women in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship programs has reversed the gender imbalance in this population as of 2010. CONCLUSIONS: While historic gains have been made in gender diversity in pediatric anesthesiology, there is persistent underrepresentation of black and Hispanic trainees in pediatric anesthesiology. It appears that their low numbers in anesthesiology residency programs (the reservoir) may be partly responsible. Efforts to increase ethnic/racial diversity in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship and anesthesiology residency training programs are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/educação , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Americanos Asiáticos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813685

RESUMO

Germinal studies have described the prevalence of sex-based harassment in high schools and its associations with adverse outcomes in adolescents. Studies have focused on students, with little attention given to the actions of high schools themselves. Though journalists responded to the #MeToo movement by reporting on schools' betrayal of students who report misconduct, this topic remains understudied by researchers. Gender harassment is characterized by sexist remarks, sexually crude or offensive behavior, gender policing, work-family policing, and infantilization. Institutional betrayal is characterized by the failure of an institution, such as a school, to protect individuals dependent on the institution. We investigated high school gender harassment and institutional betrayal reported retrospectively by 535 current undergraduates. Our primary aim was to investigate whether institutional betrayal moderates the relationship between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. In our pre-registered hypotheses (https://osf.io/3ds8k), we predicted that (1) high school gender harassment would be associated with more current trauma symptoms and (2) institutional betrayal would moderate this relationship such that high levels of institutional betrayal would be associated with a stronger association between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. Consistent with our first hypothesis, high school gender harassment significantly predicted college trauma-related symptoms. An equation that included participant gender, race, age, high school gender harassment, institutional betrayal, and the interaction of gender harassment and institutional betrayal also significantly predicted trauma-related symptoms. Contrary to our second hypothesis, the interaction term was non-significant. However, institutional betrayal predicted unique variance in current trauma symptoms above and beyond the other variables. These findings indicate that both high school gender harassment and high school institutional betrayal are independently associated with trauma symptoms, suggesting that intervention should target both phenomena.


Assuntos
Ética Institucional , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/ética , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Denúncia de Irregularidades/psicologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697775

RESUMO

States often seek to regulate the use of police force though citizen complaint systems. This paper examines these systems, specifically, whether patterns of bias found in other juridical contexts are mirrored in the adjudication of police assault. The analysis focuses on prosecutors as the first instance of adjudication who determine whether to move forward with investigation, effectively deciding the majority of cases. We ask whether prosecutor sex is associated with the probability that a police assault claim will be investigated. We leverage a natural experiment in Sweden where prosecutors are assigned through a modified lottery system, effectively randomizing appointment. Our findings suggest that prosecutor gender plays a role in judicial outcomes: women prosecutors are 16 percentage points more likely to investigate claims of police assault than their male counterparts. These findings have implications for scholars interested in state human rights abuses, democratic institutions, and judicial inequality.


Assuntos
Função Jurisdicional , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14073-14076, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513710

RESUMO

It is well known that far fewer men than women enroll in tertiary education in the United States and other Western nations. Developed nations vary in the degree to which men are underrepresented, but the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average lies around 45% male students. We use data from the OECD Education at a Glance statistical reports, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), and the World Values Survey to explain the degree to which men are underrepresented. Using a multiple regression model, we show that the combination of both the national reading proficiency levels of 15-y-old boys and girls and the social attitudes toward girls attending university can predict the enrollment in tertiary education 5 y later. The model also shows that parity in some countries is a result of boys' poor reading proficiency and negative social attitudes toward girls' education, which suppresses college enrollment in both sexes, but for different reasons. True equity will at the very least require improvement in boys' reading competencies and the liberalization of attitudes regarding women's pursuit of higher education. At this time, there is little reason to expect that the enrollment gap will decrease, given the stagnating reading competencies in most countries.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Profissionalizante/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Leitura , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365110

RESUMO

To address pervasive measurement biases in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research, our interdisciplinary team created an affirming, customizable electronic survey to measure experiences with contraceptive use, pregnancy, and abortion for transgender and gender nonbinary people assigned female or intersex at birth and cisgender sexual minority women. Between May 2018 and April 2019, we developed a questionnaire with 328 items across 10 domains including gender identity; language used for sexual and reproductive anatomy and events; gender affirmation process history; sexual orientation and sexual activity; contraceptive use and preferences; pregnancy history and desires; abortion history and preferences; priorities for sexual and reproductive health care; family building experiences; and sociodemographic characteristics. Recognizing that the words people use for their sexual and reproductive anatomy can vary, we programmed the survey to allow participants to input the words they use to describe their bodies, and then used those customized words to replace traditional medical terms throughout the survey. This process-oriented paper aims to describe the rationale for and collaborative development of an affirming, customizable survey of the SRH needs and experiences of sexual and gender minorities, and to present summary demographic characteristics of 3,110 people who completed the survey. We also present data on usage of customizable words, and offer the full text of the survey, as well as code for programming the survey and cleaning the data, for others to use directly or as guidelines for how to measure SRH outcomes with greater sensitivity to gender diversity and a range of sexual orientations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Sexismo/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia
14.
Vet Surg ; 49(5): 879-883, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether formality of introduction differed between male vs female speakers at the 2018 American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) scientific meeting and identify other variables that predisposed introducers or chairs to informal introduction. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Thirteen session chairs introducing 68 lectures (41 by females, 27 by males) by 63 speakers. METHODS: Observers recorded the session introducer, speaker, and whether speakers were introduced with a formal or informal title. Information evaluated included type of oral presentation; introducer gender, year, and country of graduation from veterinary school; speaker gender; whether the speaker was a resident; and speaker's year of graduation. RESULTS: Female speakers were introduced by their first name in 9 of 41 introductions compared to in 1 of 27 introductions for male speakers. This difference reached statistical significance when data independence was assumed (P = .043); however, this significance was narrowly lost when data clustering on session introducer was controlled for (P = .067). CONCLUSION: In this study, female speakers were more likely than male speakers to be introduced by their first and last names rather than with their professional title at a recent ACVS scientific meeting. IMPACT: Additional research is required to determine the effect of this type of subordinate language and gender bias in veterinary surgery.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Veterinária
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 669, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has the world's largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population. This study assessed the discrimination experienced by LGBT individuals in China in a comprehensive way, covering discrimination perpetrated by family, media, medical services, religious communities, schools, social services, and in the workplace. METHODS: The current study involved a national survey of 31 provinces and autonomous regions. Discrimination was measured both in terms of heterosexual participants' attitudes towards LGBT individuals, and LGBT participants' self-perceived discrimination. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the difference between heterosexual participants' attitudes towards LGBT individuals and LGBT participants' self-perceived discrimination. Linear regression was used to investigate the association between gross domestic product per capita and discrimination. RESULTS: Among 29,125 participants, 2066 (7.1%) identified as lesbian, 9491 (32.6%) as gay, 3441 (11.8%) as bisexual, 3195 (11.0%) as transgender, and 10,932 (37.5%) as heterosexual. Heterosexual people were generally friendly towards the LGBT community with a mean score of 21.9 (SD = 2.7, total scale score = 100) and the grand averaged score of self-perceived discrimination by LGBT participants was 49.9 (SD = 2.5). Self-perceived discrimination from family and social services is particularly severe. We created a series of provincial level choropleth maps showing heterosexual participants' acceptance towards the LGBT community, and self-perceived discrimination reported by members of the LGBT community. We found that a higher level of economic development in provinces was associated with a decrease in discrimination, and we identified that every 100 thousand RMB increase in per capita GDP lead to a 6.4% decrease in discriminatory events perpetrated by heterosexuals. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese LGBT groups consistently experience discrimination in various aspects of their daily lives. The prevalence of this discrimination is associated with the economic development of the province in which it occurs. In order to reduce discrimination, it is important for future studies to discover the underlying reasons for discrimination against LGBT individuals in China.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Transexualidade/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nurs Outlook ; 68(4): 476-483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the transgender population in the United States is greater than 1.4 million, health care experiences in this group are underaddressed. PURPOSE: To explore the health care experiences of transgender people in Texas. METHODS: This was an exploratory, sequential multimethod study. In Phase 1, to identify key health-related topics, a self-selected sample of 14 participants completed an online survey. In Phase 2, the focus was understanding care experiences for 12 participants using audio-recorded interviews and theme identification. NVivo software was used for data management. FINDINGS: In Phase 1, findings included needing to: educate providers (89%), correct care staff on pronoun use (75%), tolerate staff's refusal to use one's preferred pronoun (50%). In Phase 2, four themes emerged: discrimination, provider practices, challenges to navigating the health care system, and gender identity. DISCUSSION: Valuing transgender experiences is a first step in addressing care gaps. Change will require provider introspection and application of care guidelines.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348344

RESUMO

This study examines differences across demographic subgroups in the phenomenon of recent doctoral recipients seeking work but having no job offers for employment. Gender and race/ethnicity have been identified as two characteristics with considerable issues of representation in a number of science and engineering fields, particularly at the doctoral level. Using the NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates dataset, which includes over 298,000 respondents in the biological sciences, engineering, and physical sciences since 1977, we use logistic regression modelling to examine the likelihood of doctoral recipients having no offers at the time of graduation as a function of race, gender, family and funding variables. We find that across the fields of biology, engineering, and physical sciences, women and underrepresented minorities have a higher prevalence of having no job offers, but this relationship has notable interaction effects for family variables and doctoral program funding mechanism. Importantly, marital status accounts for differences in job offers between genders that deserves further exploration.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Engenharia/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
19.
Enferm. glob ; 19(58): 198-211, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195555

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar la violencia de género sufrida y ejercida en función de la cultura, edad y nivel educativo. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio transversal descriptivo con una muestra de 130 sujetos seleccionados aleatoriamente mediante el muestreo no probabilístico por cuotas en los países de España y Perú, siendo 53 hombres y 77 mujeres, sobre los que se aplicó un test de valoración de relaciones violentas de pareja, llamado el "semáforo de la violencia". RESULTADOS: Se encontraron asociaciones significativas según países en los ítems relacionados con el control de la vestimenta y de las salidas, el castigo mediante indiferencia, los celos, la sobreprotección y el control a través del móvil. Por otra parte, la educación formal genera una disminución de la violencia de género sufrida en mujeres. Respecto a la edad, los varones entre 25 y 30 años muestran un aumento significativo en la violencia verbal y la coacción sexual que ejercen. CONCLUSIÓN: Las normas culturales y tradicionales pueden afectar a las relaciones violentas de pareja. Por lo que han de ser tenidas en cuenta al educar en igualdad para elaborar nuevos constructos sociales, haciendo énfasis en las mujeres con baja educación formal por ser más vulnerables de sufrir violencia de género y en los hombres del grupo etario que más la ejerce


OBJECTIVE: To examine intimate partner violence in relation to culture, age and educational level of those involved. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional study involving a sample of 130 subjects, randomly selected through non-probabilistic sampling by quotas, in Spain and Peru (53 men and 77 women). An evaluation of violent intimate partner relationships was undertaken using a tool known as the "Traffic Light of Gender Violence". RESULTS: Significant association was found between countries and the items related to the control of dress and outings, punishment by indifference, jealousy, overprotection and control by means of the mobile phone. On the other hand, formal education generates a decrease in gender violence suffered in women. With regard to age, males between 25 and 30 years of age show a significant increase in verbal violence and sexual coercion. CONCLUSION: Cultural and traditional rules can affect intimate partner violence. Therefore, they should be considered when educating for equality in order to elaborate new social constructs, focusing particularly on women with low levels of formal education (because they are more vulnerable to gender violence) and on men of the age group that tends to use it more


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude/etnologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Violência contra a Mulher , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 179-185, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore university health science students' intimate partner violence tolerance and sexist attitudes and to examine their trend throughout the academic years. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of students of both sexes of the degrees of medicine, nursing, and psychology from three selected Spanish universities (n = 1,322). Data were collected anonymously using two validated scales: the Dating Violence Questionnaire (DVQ-R) and the Gender Role Attitudes Scale (GRAS). Logistic regressions were used to compare tolerance toward violence and sexist attitudes across the degrees. The evolution of these variables throughout different academic courses was assessed. RESULTS: Of the sample, 62.8% were tolerant towards intimate partner violence. The percentage of tolerant students was significantly higher in Psychology (75.9%) than in Nursing (57.7%) and Medicine Degrees (60.3%). A higher percentage of sexist students was also found in psychology students (80.8%) than in nursing (62.2%) and medicine students (62.7%).compared to the first-year students, female medicine students of the last courses were less tolerant to intimate partner violence (p-trend <0.001), and male medicine students had less sexist attitudes (p-trend = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Tolerance of intimate partner violence and sexist attitudes were very high, especially among psychology students. These indicators were significantly better among medicine students of higher courses, suggesting a positive effect of medical training. Intimate partner violence in the university education of the future health professionals should be addressed


OBJETIVO: Explorar la tolerancia de la violencia en la pareja y las actitudes sexistas en estudiantes universitarios/as de ciencias de la salud, y estudiar su tendencia a lo largo de los cursos. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal en estudiantes de ambos sexos de medicina, enfermería y psicología de tres universidades españolas (n = 1322). Se utilizaron dos escalas validadas y anónimas: Cuestionario de Violencia entre Novios-Revisado (DVQ-R) y Escala de Actitudes de Rol de Género (EARG). Mediante regresiones logísticas se compararon la tolerancia al abuso y las actitudes sexistas entre titulaciones, y se estudió su evolución a lo largo de la formación académica. RESULTADOS: El 62,8% se mostraron tolerantes ante la violencia en la pareja. El porcentaje de estudiantes tolerantes fue significativamente más elevado en psicología (75,9%) que en enfermería (57,7%) y medicina (60,3%). También se encontró un mayor porcentaje de estudiantes sexistas en psicología (80,8%) que en enfermería (62,2%) y medicina (62,7%). En comparación con estudiantes de nuevo acceso, las estudiantes de medicina de los últimos cursos fueron menos tolerantes a la violencia (p <0,001) y los estudiantes de medicina varones tuvieron menos actitudes sexistas (p = 0,002). CONCLUSIONES: La tolerancia de la violencia en la pareja y las actitudes sexistas fueron muy elevadas, especialmente en psicología. Estos indicadores fueron significativamente mejores en estudiantes de medicina de los cursos superiores, lo que sugiere un efecto positivo de la formación médica. Se debería mejorar el abordaje de la violencia en la pareja en la formación universitaria de los/las futuros/as profesionales sanitarios/as


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Permissividade , Violência contra a Mulher , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais
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