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1.
BMJ ; 367: l6721, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the proportional representation of healthcare workers in receipt of New Year honours (NYHs) with workers in other industries and to determine whether the NYH system has gender or geographical biases. DESIGN: Observational study of the UK honours system with a comparative analysis of proportional representation of the UK workforce and subgroup analyses of gender and geographical representations. PARTICIPANTS: Recipients of NYHs from 2009 to 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute risk of receiving an NYH based on industry, gender, or region of the UK. Relative risk of receiving an NYH for services to healthcare compared with other industries. RESULTS: 10 989 NYHs were bestowed from 2009 to 2018, 47% of which were awarded to women. 832 awards (7.6%) were for services to healthcare. People working in sport and in the arts and media were more likely to receive NYHs than those working in healthcare (relative risks of 22.01 (95% confidence interval 19.91 to 24.34) and 5.84 (5.31 to 6.44), respectively). There was no significant difference between the rate of receiving honours for healthcare and for science and technology (P=0.22). 34% (3741) of awards were issued to people living in London and in the southeast of England, and only 496 of 1447 (34%) higher order awards (knighthoods, damehoods, companions of honour, and commanders of the order of the British empire) were received by women. CONCLUSIONS: In relation to the size of its workforce, a career in healthcare is not as "honourable" as careers in certain other industries. Geographical and gender biases might exist in the honours system.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Geografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
4.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1389-1398, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe survey methods used to examine reported experiences of discrimination against African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Americans, women, and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) adults. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data came from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey of 3453 US adults, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We examined the survey instrument, sampling design, and weighting of the survey, and present selected survey findings. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Examining reported discrimination experienced by multiple groups in a telephone survey requires attention to details of sampling and weighting. In health care settings, 32 percent of African Americans reported discrimination, as did 23 percent of Native Americans, 20 percent of Latinos, 18 percent of women, 16 percent of LGBTQ adults, and 13 percent of Asian Americans. Also, 51 percent of LGBTQ adults, 42 percent of African Americans, and 38 percent of Native Americans reported identity-based violence against themselves or family members; 57 percent of African Americans and 41 percent of women reported discrimination in pay or promotions; 50 percent of African Americans, 29 percent of Native Americans, and 27 percent of Latinos reported being discriminated against in interactions with police. CONCLUSIONS: Even the small selection of results presented in this article as examples of survey measures show a pattern of substantial reported discrimination against all six groups studied.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Discrimination based on sexual orientation can influence vulnerability to HIV, increasing exposure to risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVES: To analyze data using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify groups of individuals with specific patterns of discrimination based on sexual orientation (DSO). METHODS: Cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. LCA was used to characterize discrimination among MSM based on 13 variables in the survey questionnaire. The proportions of men reporting DSO and other variables of interest were estimated using Gile's Successive Sampling estimator. RESULTS: Most MSM were young, single, had a religion, had a high school or college degree, black or brown skin color, and socioeconomic status classified as average. More than half of the participants reported that they had been discriminated against during the last 12 months due to their sexual orientation (65%), more than a third said they had felt afraid of walking in public places during the past 12 months, and about one-fifth of participants reported having been victims of physical or sexual assault due to DSO. DSO was classified into four latent classes: "very high", "high", "moderate" and "low", with estimates of 2.2%, 16.4%, 35.1%, and 46.19%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We observed a high proportion of discrimination against MSM in this study. The use of LCA differentiated parsimoniously classes of discrimination.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Autorrelato , Sexismo/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1442-1453, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine reported experiences of gender discrimination and harassment among US women. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey of 1596 women, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percentages of women reporting gender discrimination and harassment in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to examine variation in experiences among women by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation/gender identity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sizable fractions of women experience discrimination and harassment, including discrimination in health care (18 percent), equal pay/promotions (41 percent), and higher education (20 percent). In adjusted models, Native American, black, and Latina women had higher odds than white women of reporting gender discrimination in several domains, including health care. Latinas' odds of health care avoidance versus whites was (OR [95% CI]) 3.69 (1.59, 8.58), while blacks' odds of discrimination in health care visits versus whites was 2.00 [1.06, 3.74]. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) women had higher odds of reporting sexual harassment (2.16 [1.06, 4.40]) and violence (2.71 [1.43, 5.16]) against themselves or female family members than non-LGBTQ women. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that discrimination and harassment are widely experienced by women across multiple domains of their lives, particularly those who are a racial/ethnic minority or LGBTQ. Further policy and programmatic efforts beyond current legal protections for women are needed to meaningfully reduce these negative experiences, as they impact women's health care and their lives overall.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Sexismo , Assédio Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Sexismo/etnologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/etnologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
9.
Anaesthesia ; 74(11): 1432-1438, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373389

RESUMO

More than 50% of medical students and 45% of practising doctors are female in the UK. In the specialty of anaesthesia, 32% of consultants are female. However, compared with males, females are under-represented as authors of articles published in high-impact journals. We investigated the proportion of female first authors by examining the case reports submitted to Anaesthesia Cases since its inception in 2013. We defined authors by their sex (male or female), that is, biological characteristics, rather than their gender. There were a total of 802 submissions to Anaesthesia Cases over 4.5 years. Sixteen submissions were excluded and of the remaining 786 submissions, 279 were accepted and 507 rejected, an acceptance rate of 35.5%. Twenty (2.5%) authors' sex could not be identified. The overall proportion of female first authors was 37.1%. The proportion of female first authors of accepted case reports was 42.1% and females were first authors of rejected case reports in 34.4%. We found that, compared with previous studies on female sex and gender bias in publishing, there was a relatively high proportion of female first authors publishing in Anaesthesia Cases and female first authors were more likely to be accepted than male first authors. Authorship is considered to reflect career success and there continues to be sex/gender inequity that must be tackled at all levels, from application to medical school, through research funding, journals and Editorial Boards.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia , Autoria , Políticas Editoriais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357386

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between gender discrimination in the workplace and pregnancy planning/childbirth experiences among working women in South Korea. Methods: We analyzed data from the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families (KLoWF) for the years 2007 to 2016. The study population consisted of 7996 working women, between the ages of 19 and 45. Gender discrimination was measured through the 6-item Workplace Gender Discrimination Scale, evaluating discrimination in terms of recruitment, promotions, pay, deployment, training and lay-offs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to measure the association between gender discrimination and the pregnancy planning/childbirth experience. Results: Compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing low [odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.99] or medium (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.89) levels of discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning. Likewise, individuals scoring low (OR: 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92), medium (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92), or high (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.80) levels of discrimination also had decreased odds of childbirth experience when compared to the no-experience group. When stratified by income, compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing gender discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning for low income (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; medium OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.52-0.97; high OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.87), medium income (medium OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.77; high OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14-0.63), and high income groups (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.84; medium OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92). Conclusions: The present study finds that gender discrimination in the workplace is associated with decreased odds of pregnancy planning/childbirth experience among working South Korean women. Furthermore, low and medium income groups were especially more likely to be affected by the level of gender discrimination in the workplace when planning pregnancy.


Assuntos
Parto/psicologia , Gravidez/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
World Neurosurg ; 130: 516-522.e1, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large gender gap exists in industry funding for academic neurosurgeons. Selection criteria for funding distribution remain unclear. However, academic rank, scholarly productivity, and experience have been suggested as determining factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of industry payments to US academic neurosurgeons. We used online faculty listings to determine academic rank and gender, then used the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payment Database to identify industry contributions. Details were collected on H-index and length of time in practice was used as a proxy for experience. RESULTS: Of the 1481 academic neurosurgeons included, men were in the majority (91% vs. 9%, P = 0.0001). Relative to their male colleagues, female assistant and associate professors received fewer payments (4 vs. 8, P = 0.0040; 2 vs. 7, P = 0.0067) at lower median values ($409 vs. $437, P = 0.0490; $163 vs. $260, P = 0.0089). H-index was more strongly associated with general payment receipt for women academic neurosurgeons (r = 0.20, P = 0.0201) than men academic neurosurgeons (r = 0.06, P = 0.0301). Experience trended toward a significant association with industry funding in men (r = 0.05, P = 0.0601). After adjustment for scholarly productivity and experience, gender-based funding inequalities became insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: In academic neurosurgery, substantial gender disparities exist in industry payments and metrics of academic success. There may be an industry selection bias toward recruitment of key opinion and thought leaders, as identified by scholarly productivity and experience. Despite the objective gender inequalities, industry funding to academic neurosurgeons appears to be equitable when metrics of academic success are considered.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgiões/economia , Neurocirurgia/economia , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216497, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine cross-sectional and prospective associations between perceived discrimination in daily life (based on a range of attributes), sexual orientation discrimination, and health and wellbeing in middle-aged and older lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people. METHODS: Data were from 304 LGB men and women aged 41-85 years participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Perceived discrimination in daily life was reported in 2010/11. Participants could attribute their discrimination experience to characteristics including age, sex, race, physical disability, and sexual orientation. Self-rated health, limiting long-standing illness, depressive symptoms, quality of life, life satisfaction and loneliness were assessed in 2010/11 and 2016/17. Analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, partnership status and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Perceived discrimination in daily life was reported by 144 (47.4%) participants. Cross-sectionally, perceived discrimination in daily life was associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.21), loneliness (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.60 to 7.10) and lower quality of life (B = -3.31, 95% CI -5.49 to -1.12). Prospectively, perceived discrimination in daily life was associated with increased odds of loneliness (OR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.08 to 8.99) and lower quality of life (B = -2.08, 95% CI -3.85 to -0.31) and life satisfaction (B = -1.92, 95% CI -3.44 to -0.39) over six-year follow-up. Effect sizes were consistently larger for participants who attributed experiences of discrimination to their sexual orientation compared with those who attributed experiences of discrimination to other reasons (e.g. age, sex, race). CONCLUSION: These results provide cross-sectional and prospective evidence of associations between perceived discrimination in daily life and health and wellbeing outcomes in middle-aged and older LGB adults in England.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sexismo/psicologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091292

RESUMO

Student evaluations of teaching are widely believed to contain gender bias. In this study, we conduct a randomized experiment with the student evaluations of teaching in four classes with large enrollments, two taught by male instructors and two taught by female instructors. In each of the courses, students were randomly assigned to either receive the standard evaluation instrument or the same instrument with language intended to reduce gender bias. Students in the anti-bias language condition had significantly higher rankings of female instructors than students in the standard treatment. There were no differences between treatment groups for male instructors. These results indicate that a relatively simple intervention in language can potentially mitigate gender bias in student evaluation of teaching.


Assuntos
Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Linguagem , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Ensino/normas , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes
17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(5): 999-1008, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women remain underrepresented at all levels within the field of radiation oncology. We sought to study current female residents' experiences and concerns to inform interventions to promote gender equity. Furthermore, we evaluated interest in a professional society specifically for women radiation oncologists. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An anonymous 76-item survey was designed and distributed to current women residents in radiation oncology in 2017-2018. Analyses describe personal, program, and family characteristics and experiences before and after joining the field. RESULTS: Of 170 female residents surveyed, 125 responded (74% response rate). Over one-quarter were in programs with ≤2 female residents (29%) and ≤2 female attendings (29%). One-third (34%) reported having children. Over half (51%) reported that lack of mentorship affected career ambitions. Over half (52%) agreed that gender-specific bias existed in their programs, and over a quarter (27%) reported they had experienced unwanted sexual comments, attention, or advances by a superior or colleague. Only 5% reported no symptoms of burnout. Almost all (95%) agreed that radiation oncology is perceived as family friendly; however, only 52% agreed that it actually is. An overwhelming majority (90%) expressed interest in joining a professional group for women in radiation oncology. CONCLUSIONS: In the first study to our knowledge to focus specifically on the experiences of women residents in radiation oncology, a number of areas for potential improvement were highlighted, including isolation and underrepresentation, mentorship needs, bias and harassment, and gender-based obstacles such as need for support during pregnancy and motherhood. These findings support the organization of groups such as the Society for Women in Radiation Oncology, which seeks to target these needs to promote gender equity.


Assuntos
Gestão de Mudança , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/organização & administração , Sexismo , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(3): 545-551, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033334

RESUMO

Introduction: Objective: differences have been shown between males and females in terms of the prevalence of malnutrition in different parts of the world, which point to discrimination against females, including with respect to full breastfeeding. Therefore, the objective was to show that exclusive breastfeeding is less common for females in a population of medium-low and low socioeconomic strata. Methods: this was a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 mother-infant dyads according to type of feeding (74 full breastfeeding, 57 partial breastfeeding and 39 human milk substitutes) at the Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara. Dependent variables according to type of feeding: full breastfeeding (exclusive and/or predominant), partial breastfeeding, and human milk substitutes. Independent variables: demographic data, schooling, occupation of mothers and/or parents, and family income. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests and odds ratio were used. Results: the probability of full breastfeeding was 3.8 times lower in females than in males. In a non-significant way, the likelihood of full breastfeeding was lower than that of partial breastfeeding, and full breastfeeding was lower than the combination of partial breastfeeding and human milk substitutes in females. Full breastfeeding and partial breastfeeding were lower than human milk substitutes, and partial breastfeeding was lower than human milk substitutes in females. Conclusion: there is a differentiated character in the privilege of full breastfeeding; it is four times lower in females than in males.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Civil , México/epidemiologia , Mães , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(3): 264-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939594

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: This article evaluates gender bias in the published clinical trials of new long-acting antipsychotics. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a review of controlled clinical trials of the new prolonged-release antipsychotics (aripiprazole, risperidone, or paliperidone) for the treatment of schizophrenia published in MEDLINE over the last 10 years and available in full text in English. The study followed the corresponding international recommendations. RESULTS: We identified 132 trials, and of these, 40 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We found that only 36.41% of the total patients were women. The separate analysis of the main variable between the subpopulations of men and women was carried out in only 6 of the 40 works included. In contrast, in 15 trials, this analysis was performed on secondary variables, generally related to safety. Only 3 of the 40 trials discussed the results separately according to sex. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical trials of long-acting atypical antipsychotic drugs show a far-from-negligible gender bias. Women are underrepresented, and the main and secondary variables are not analyzed separately according to gender. This is despite international recommendations establishing these criteria as part of a package of minimum requirements for meeting scientific validity and making results apt to extrapolate to the general population of patients.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aripiprazol/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palmitato de Paliperidona/administração & dosagem , Risperidona/administração & dosagem , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
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