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5.
FASEB J ; 34(10): 13085-13090, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373164

RESUMO

The representation of women and scientists from underrepresented groups (URGs), including Black/African Americans, Hispanic/Latinx, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians, diminishes as individuals advance in their careers from training to senior leadership positions. Correcting this imbalance requires integrated strategies to achieve inclusive excellence within the scientific workforce reflected by creating and sustaining environments, in which diverse talent thrives. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Scientific Workforce Diversity office has led the charge to develop and implement evidence-informed interventions toward achieving this goal that undergirds NIH's mission to improve the nation's health. Past and current efforts aiming to enhance workforce diversity but targeted to individuals are necessary but insufficient for lasting change. Thus, NIH-funded institutions should develop and prioritize integrated, systems-targeted efforts as foundational components of a well-supported, productive workforce. At the heart of these endeavors is institutional accountability that ties progress toward inclusive excellence to institutional values and reward systems.


Assuntos
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/normas , Política Organizacional , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241915, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315871

RESUMO

Women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) impedes progress in solving Africa's complex development problems. As in other regions, women's participation in STEM drops progressively moving up the education and career ladder, with women currently constituting 30% of Africa's STEM researchers. This study elucidates gender-based differences in PhD performance using new survey data from 227 alumni of STEM PhD programs in 17 African countries. We find that, compared to their male counterparts, sampled women had about one less paper accepted for publication during their doctoral studies and took about half a year longer to finish their PhD training. Negative binomial regression models provide insights on the observed differences in women's and men's PhD performance. Results indicate that the correlates of publication productivity and time to PhD completion are very similar for women and men, but some gender-based differences are observed. For publication output, we find that good supervision had a stronger impact for men than women; and getting married during the PhD reduced women's publication productivity but increased that of men. Becoming a parent during the PhD training was a key reason that women took longer to complete the PhD, according to our results. Findings suggest that having a female supervisor, attending an institution with gender policies in place, and pursuing the PhD in a department where sexual harassment by faculty was perceived as uncommon were enabling factors for women's timely completion of their doctoral studies. Two priority interventions emerge from this study: (1) family-friendly policies and facilities that are supportive of women's roles as wives and mothers and (2) fostering broader linkages and networks for women in STEM, including ensuring mentoring and supervisory support that is tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Política Organizacional , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 20(80): 539-551, dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198571

RESUMO

La concepción cultural del deporte como una actividad predominantemente masculina ha dificultado la participación de algunos grupos sociales como mujeres, personas trans o intersexuales. El carácter sexuado del deporte se apoya en las diferencias fisiológicas entre mujeres y hombres, y una supuesta desventaja de las mujeres. Por ello, se establecen pruebas de sexo para las mujeres y el acceso de las personas trans e intersexuales se ve obstaculizado. En este estudio reconstruimos, a partir de las normativas y el contexto socio-histórico internacional, la evolución de la participación de personas trans e intersexuales en el deporte competitivo contemporáneo. Asimismo, se profundiza en la aplicación y gestión de dichas normas en el contexto español, apoyado en tres casos de deportistas trans e intersexuales españoles. La discriminación y humillación que han sufrido estas personas obliga a mantener una visión crítica de las políticas deportivas creadas hasta la actualidad


The cultural conception of sport as a predominantly male activity has hindered the participation of some social groups such as women, transsexual or intersex people. The sexed nature of sport is based on physiological differences between women and men, and a supposed women disadvantage. Thus, sex controls are established for women and then trans and intersex people's access to sport is hampered. In this study we reconstruct, based on the regulations and the international socio-historical context, the evolution of the participation of transsexual and intersex people in contemporary competitive sport. Likewise, the application and management of these norms in the Spanish context is deepened, supported by three cases of Spanish transsexual and intersex athletes. The discrimination and humiliation suffered by these persons enforce to maintain a critical vision of the sports policies hitherto created


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XX , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/complicações , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Pessoas Transgênero/legislação & jurisprudência , Sexismo/ética , Equidade em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Transexualidade/epidemiologia , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Esportes/história
11.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Sch Psychol ; 35(4): 227-232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673051

RESUMO

School Psychology is an outlet for research on children, youth, educators, and families that has scientific, practice, and policy implications. The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly disrupted K-12 schooling as well as university training, impacting educational attainment and highlighting longstanding inequality. Furthermore, the killing of Breonna Taylor and George Floyd has precipitated worldwide protests against antiblack racism, white supremacy, and police brutality. In this editorial, we highlight the potential impacts to our field, including prioritizing research related to educational equity, identifying new research questions related to technology, and utilizing new research methods. We also consider the impact of gender and racial disparities in publications during this time. Finally, given these events, we discuss how best our editorial team can serve the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Políticas Editoriais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/prevenção & controle
19.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 252-260, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment of female physicians are well documented. The #MeToo movement has brought renewed attention to these problems. This study examined academic emergency physicians' experiences with workplace gender discrimination and sexual harassment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of emergency medicine (EM) faculty across six programs. Survey items included the following: the Overt Gender Discrimination at Work (OGDW) Scale; the frequency and source of experienced and observed discrimination; and whether subjects had encountered unwanted sexual behaviors by a work superior or colleague in their careers. For the latter question, we asked subjects to characterize the behaviors and whether those experiences had a negative effect on their self-confidence and career advancement. We made group comparisons using t-tests or chi-square analyses, and evaluated relationships between gender and physicians' experiences using correlation analyses. RESULTS: A total of 141 out of 352 (40.1%) subjects completed at least a portion of the survey. Women reported higher mean OGDW scores than men (15.4 vs 10.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-6.8). Female faculty were also more likely to report having experienced gender-based discriminatory treatment than male faculty (62.7% vs 12.5%; 95% CI, 35.1%-65.4%), although male and female faculty were equally likely to report having observed gender-based discriminatory treatment of another physician (64.7% vs 56.3%; 95% CI, 8.6%-25.5%). The three most frequent sources of experienced or observed gender-based discriminatory treatment were patients, consulting or admitting physicians, and nursing staff. The majority of women reported having encountered unwanted sexual behaviors in their careers, with a significantly greater proportion of women reporting them compared to men (52.9% vs 26.2%, 95% CI, 9.9%-43.4%). The majority of unwanted behaviors were sexist remarks and sexual advances. Of those respondents who encountered these unwanted behaviors, 22.9% and 12.5% reported at least somewhat negative effects on their self-confidence and career advancement. CONCLUSION: Female EM faculty perceived more gender-based discrimination in their workplaces than their male counterparts. The majority of female and approximately a quarter of male EM faculty encountered unwanted sexual behaviors in their careers.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/educação , Docentes , Médicas , Sexismo , Assédio Sexual , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicas/ética , Médicas/psicologia , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 56, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data is available on sexual discrimination and subjective perceptions of equal opportunity in medical education for many countries. Surveys focussing on sexual harassment have not yet been conducted at German medical schools. METHODS: A student initiative surveyed all medical students at the Hannover Medical School (MHH) using an anonymous online questionnaire on equal opportunity and sexual discrimination to identify potential problems in education. RESULTS: A total of 343 students (15%) participated in the survey. Over 50% reported having either witnessed sexual harassment or experienced it themselves. Female students indicated having experienced sexual harassment three times more often than their male peers; verbal forms of sexual discrimination predominate. These observations and experiences of sexual harassment demonstrated significant influences on many perceptions regarding equal opportunity and equal treatment in the MHH undergraduate medical education at MHH. CONCLUSION: This blind spot in medical education in the German-speaking countries should be scrutinized more closely. The experience of sexism in the context of undergraduate medical education, which has negative effects on students, should no longer be ignored in empirical education research.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Direitos Civis , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Percepção , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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