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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873-879, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600183

RESUMO

Correct and consistent condom use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are protective against sexual transmission of HIV (1,2). The incidence of HIV infection among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States is increasing (3). HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino MSM differs based on their place of birth and years of U.S. residence (4). Data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS)* for 2011-2017 were analyzed to assess changes in sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino MSM by place of birth and years of U.S. residence. Overall, condomless anal sex during the previous 12 months increased from 63% in 2011 to 74% in 2017, and PrEP use during the previous 12 months increased from 3% in 2014 to 24% in 2017. Regardless of place of birth, nearly 75% of Hispanic/Latino MSM reported condomless anal sex during 2017. However, because of PrEP use, <60% of non-U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM and <50% of U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM reported unprotected anal sex (condomless anal sex and no PrEP use) during 2017. Results indicate that PrEP can be a vital tool for reducing HIV transmission among Hispanic/Latino MSM, especially those who have condomless anal sex. Interventions to prevent HIV acquisition, including increasing PrEP uptake, could address cultural and linguistic needs of Hispanic/Latino MSM, as well as other barriers to prevention of HIV infection typically faced by all MSM.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17071, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574806

RESUMO

Access to antiretroviral-based HIV prevention has been marked by sex asymmetries, and its effectiveness has been compromised by low clinical follow-up rates. We investigated risk profiles of women who received nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), as well as the rates and predictive factors of loss to follow-up after nPEP initiation.Retrospective study evaluating 501 women who received nPEP between 2014 and 2015 at 5 HIV centers (testing centers-VCT, outpatient clinics, and infectious diseases hospital). Risk profiles were drawn based on the characteristics of the women and their sexual partners, and then stratified by sociodemographic indicators and previous use of HIV prevention services. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was defined as not presenting for follow-up visits or for HIV testing after nPEP initiation. Predictors of LTFU were analyzed by calculating adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs).Approximately 90% of women had sexual encounters that met the criteria established in the Brazilian guidelines for nPEP. Those who declared to be sex workers (26.5%) or drug users (19.2%) had the highest social vulnerability indicators. In contrast, women who had intercourse with casual partners of unknown HIV risk (42.7%) had higher education and less experience with previous HIV testing (89.3%) or nPEP use (98.6%). Of the women who received nPEP after sexual intercourse with stable partners, 75.8% had HIV-infected partners. LTFU rate was 72.8% and predictors included being Black (aPR = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.30), using drugs/alcohol (aPR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32) and having received nPEP at an HIV outpatient clinic (aPR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.20-1.51) or at an infectious diseases hospital (aPR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.11-1.69) compared with a VCT. The risk of LTFU declined as age increased (aPR 41-59 years = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.96).Most women who used nPEP had higher socioeconomic status and were not part of populations most affected by HIV. In contrast, factors that contribute to loss to follow-up were: having increased social vulnerability; increased vulnerability to HIV infection; and seeking nPEP at HIV treatment services as opposed to at a VCT.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Sexo sem Proteção , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Coito , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual , Classe Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497185

RESUMO

Introduction: In 2015, in Dire Dawa administration city, adult HIV prevalence was 3.26 with 9,523 HIV positive population, & 251 annual AIDS deaths. Female sex workers are one of the high-risk groups for contracting HIV. Therefore, this study has assessed the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk perception and condom utilization pattern among female sex workers' in Diredawa city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15-June 25, 2016, in Dire Dawa among 156 female sex workers using convenient sampling method. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face using a pretested questionnaire. Training was provided to the data collectors and supervisors. Close supervision was done and double data entry was performed. Then the data were checked for completeness, consistency and entered into Epi Info v3.1 and analyzed using SPSS v20. The descriptive statistical analysis was used to compute frequency, mean, mode and proportion of the findings of this study. The results were presented using tables, charts, graphs, and texts. Results: Among the 156 female sex workers (FSWs), 99 (63.5%) had been working on commercial sex for more than one year, 92 (59%) were usually street-based, and 80 (51.3%) had partners between 2-3 per night. Only, 17 (10.9%) respondents mentioned three and above ways of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention methods. Less than two-thirds (64.1%) of FSWs used a condom with all partners. One hundred thirty-eight (88.5%) of participants were engaged in unsafe sexual practice at least once since their engagement in sex work. Majority of FSWs (85.3%)) believed that their occupation is hazardous and 145 (92.9%) reported that they were unhappy being a commercial sex worker. Regarding risk perception, 79 (50.64%) and 37 (23.7%) of respondents perceived their chances of contracting HIV/STIs to be high and moderate respectively. Conclusion: Knowledge about HIV/STIs and magnitude of condom utilization were good. However, a high number of unsafe sex and unsatisfactory risk perception attitudes were observed. Thus, a collaborative effort is needed to create awareness regarding risk perception attitude and increase the level of their practice towards the prevention of unsafe sex.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Transfusion ; 59(8): 2584-2592, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1016740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men in Brazil are deferred from donation for 1 year since their last sexual contact. Legal proceedings in front of the Brazilian Supreme Court could compel blood collection agencies to discontinue use of sexual orientation questions. METHODS: Data from male participants in a completed HIV risk factor case-control study were used to evaluate whether it is possible to differentiate donors at lower and higher risk for HIV using two analytical approaches: latent class and random forest analyses. RESULTS: Male blood donors were divided into three distinct risk profile classes. Class 1 includes donors who are heterosexual (96.4%), are HIV negative (88.7%), have a main partner (99.4%), and practice unprotected sex (77.8%). Class 2 Includes donors who are men who have sex with men /bisexuals' (100.0%), are HIV positive (97.4%), and were not aware of their sexual partners' HIV status (80.3%). Class 3 includes donors who are heterosexual (84.1%), practice unprotected vaginal/anal heterosexual sex (66.8% vs. 40.9%), and were both HIV positive and HIV negative (49.5% vs. 50.5%). We also found that asking donors about their partner(s)' HIV serostatus could replace asking about donors' sexual orientation and types of partners with relatively minor shifts in sensitivity (0.76 vs. 0.58), specificity (0.89 vs. 0.94), and positive predictive value (0.85 vs. 0.88). CONCLUSION: Sexual orientation questions on the donor questionnaire could be replaced without great loss in the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. Social and sexual behaviors of donors and their partners are proxies for HIV risk and can help to develop modified questions that will need controlled trials to be validated


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Doadores de Sangue , Parceiros Sexuais , HIV , Sexo sem Proteção
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 644, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the widespread use of the Internet among men who have sex with men (MSM) and high risk of Internet-facilitated sexual behaviors, Internet-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are urgently needed. METHODS: We recruited 1,100 participants from online and randomly assigned to two groups. One group received online HIV intervention services. Online HIV intervention was developed through mix-method formative research, measures included scenarios experiencing intervention and HIV information dissemination. Self-reported condomless anal sex with a male in the past three months was measured to evaluate the intervention effect. RESULT: Of the 1,100 participants, the majority were aged between 21 and 30 years old (62%), had a college degree or higher (80%), were single (88%), and self-identified as homosexual (78%). The estimated risk difference of condomless sex with a male in the past three months between groups was 9.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 17.5%). Using multiple imputations intention-to-treat, the estimated risk difference was 8.9% (95%CI: 1.2, 16.6%). Modification effects were found between intervention and characteristics including: educational attainment (p = 0.012), marital status (p = 0.005) and awareness of AIDS-related knowledge (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Internet appears to be a promising approach to disseminate HIV prevention amongst MSM. Interactive online intervention appeals to MSM and poses a great potential for reducing HIV risky behavior. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800014260 (retrospectively registered 2 Jan, 2018).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Internet , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 978, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Condom use remains consistently low among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aims to identify factors associated with condom use after online video intervention. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of data collected from an online non-inferiority trial comparing the effectiveness of two condom use promotion video interventions among Chinese MSM. Participants from the two groups were combined since the effectiveness of two video interventions were shown to be non-inferior. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with condomless sex after the intervention during the follow-up interval. RESULTS: Overall, 1173 participants were recruited at baseline and 791 (67.4%) completed the three-month follow-up survey. 57.3% (453/791) of the participants reported condomless sex after intervention in the three-month follow-up interval. MSM who have had sex under the influence of alcohol in the last 3 months (Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.97; Adjusted OR(AOR) = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.83) and ever have had sex tourism (OR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.34, 5.63; AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.07) at baseline were more likely to have condomless sex after intervention in the three-month follow-up period. MSM who had a higher level of community engagement in sexual health (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82; AOR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.75 with substantial engagement) and who viewed additional condom promotion videos during the follow-up period by themselves (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50, 0.89; AOR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.91). were less likely to have condomless sex during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The intervention appeared to be effective among MSM who reported viewing additional condom promotion videos by themselves and more community engagement after the intervention. In MSM who reported risky sexual behaviors at baseline, the intervention appeared less effective. Tailored intervention videos that target particular subgroups, active in-person community engagement, and optimized intervention frequency should be considered in future sexual health interventions.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação de Videoteipe
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 722, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China has increased yearly. This study aimed to explore the association between the characteristics of social communication and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) among MSM and the implications for prevention and control of HIV among MSM in China using an egocentric network framework. METHODS: The data were collected in Guangzhou between November 2016 and May 2017 through standardized face-to-face interviews. The participants were recruited among MSM who received voluntary counselling and testing services (VCT) provided by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We used the framework of the egocentric network analysis, the odd ratios of CAI were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). RESULTS: In total, 1073 MSM who nominated 2667 sexual partners were sampled. MSM who were approximately 30 years old and chose sexual partners of different age category were more likely to engage in CAI. Participants with high level education who were in partnerships with individuals with lower education levels had a higher risk of CAI. Participants who reported having a strong relationship with their sexual partners(AOR = 1.31) were associated with a higher probability of experiencing CAI during sex; while having sexual partners who were unmarried (OR = 0.56), and participants who reported meeting sexual partners online (AOR = 0.74) or, having sex with an occasional partner (AOR = 0.44)were less likely to engage in CAI. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that the strength of sexual dyadic relational ties and different social communication mixing patterns across ages, educational categories, and marital status were associated with CAI.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
9.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1467-1477, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148974

RESUMO

Background: The consequences of high risk sexual practices (HRSP) are enormous among adolescent senior secondary school students. They therefore need to have sufficient knowledge of HRSP. Aim Objectives: The study gauged the level of knowledge and perceptions of high risk sexual behavior among senior secondary school students in Ilorin, Nigeria with a view to improving their understanding of the current trends in HRSP.This was a quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of adolescent secondary school students in Ilorin East Local Government Area. Multi - stage sampling method involving 3 stages was used. A semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain data. Informed consent of respondents was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS windows software package version 17. Results: Majority, 305 (69.5%) of the students were between 16 - 20 years. The major source of information was from movies, 42.5%, and the internet, 24.7%. Twenty-three percent (23.1%) had poor knowledge of HRSP. Thirty-eight percent (38.1%) did not consider indiscriminate sexual intercourse as HRSP while 27.9% still believed that unprotected sexual practice is safe. Thirty-four percent (34.2%) did not know that sex with multiple partners is a HRSP while 34.4% did not know that oral -genital sex is unsafe. Over thirty-two (32.9%) perceived that engaging in sex made them mature among peers. Twenty-four (24.7%) did not perceive any danger in keeping multiple sexual partners while 15.3% would still engage in unprotected sex. Conclusion: The students had relatively poor knowledge and perceptions of HRSP. Quite a number did not consider indiscriminate sexual intercourse as HRSP. An appreciable number did not perceive any danger in keeping multiple sexual partners or beingengaged in unprotected sex. Counselling on the dangers of HRSP should be a component of the school health services so as to curb the complications of HRSP in our secondary schools.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 77, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-fee female sex workers (FSW) lack power to effectively negotiate male condom use with clients. Female condoms (FCs) may provide an alternative strategy. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability of FC use among low-fee FSWs, and to identify appropriate candidates for future FC promotion. METHODS: A one-month follow-up study was conducted. At entry into the study, eligible participants completed a baseline questionnaire and were given 10 FCs. At the one-month follow up encounter, the number of used FC packages were counted and each participant completed a follow-up questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with more frequent use of FCs (> 2 times). RESULTS: A total of 312 low-fee FSWs were enrolled at baseline and all participants completed the follow-up evaluation. Among them, 123 (39.4%) participants had used more than two FCs. Participants who were illiterate or had completed at most primary school education (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-7.2), charged ≤30 RMB per client (≤30 vs. 51-80 RMB, OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9-7.6), or had consistently used condoms with regular clients in the past month (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4-4.2) were more likely to use FCs. CONCLUSION: Low-fee FSWs charging ≤30 RMB per client, and those who are less educated may be appropriate initial candidates for FC promotion in China. Strategies to consider include teaching FSWs tactics for negotiation of FC use that can initially be applied with regular clients, and providing education to maximize ease-of use, and minimize discomfort with FC usage.


Assuntos
Preservativos Femininos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Negociação , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1417-1426, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066843

RESUMO

HIV infection, acquired with the conscious participation of the recipient, is a complex problem of international concern, especially among men who have sex with men. Behaviors emerge such as bareback (intentionally unprotected anal sex between men) and bugchasing (bareback sex when one participant is HIV+ and the other is not). A group of emerging risk behaviors for HIV infection was characterized. A review of the literature in the MEDLINE, Web of Science and regional SciELO databases was performed. HIV-related search terms such as unprotected sex, barebacking/bareback and bug chasing, were used. Bareback and bug chaser behaviors occur, among other factors, through social homonegativity, ART positive coverage, insufficient prevention campaigns, search for new sensations and attempts to strengthen the relationship with the HIV+ member. Unprotected sex is primarily associated with having HIV/AIDS diagnoses, physical violence due to sexual orientation, viewing homosexual sex sites, and having bought or sold sex. It is necessary to work with individual behaviors that draw individuals close to infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
12.
Public Health Rep ; 134(1_suppl): 63S-70S, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effect of incarceration on HIV risk-related behaviors among at-risk heterosexual men is understudied. The objective of our study was to examine the association between incarceration and HIV risk-related behaviors among a sample of predominantly non-Hispanic black and Hispanic heterosexual men residing in urban areas in the United States with a high prevalence of AIDS. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2013 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system on 5321 at-risk heterosexual men using log-linked Poisson regression models, adjusted for demographic characteristics and clustered on city. RESULTS: Of 5321 men, 1417 (26.6%) had recently been incarcerated (in the past 12 months), 2781 (52.3%) had ever been incarcerated but not in the past 12 months, and 1123 (21.1%) had never been incarcerated. Recent incarceration was associated with multiple casual female sexual partners (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.44), condomless sex with multiple female sexual partners (aPR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06-1.66), injection drug use (aPR = 3.75; 95% CI, 2.64-5.32), and having sexual partners who were more likely to have ever injected drugs (aPR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.48-2.28), been incarcerated (aPR = 2.28; 95% CI, 2.01-2.59), or had a concurrent sexual partner (aPR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.11), as compared with never-incarcerated men. CONCLUSIONS: Incarceration history was associated with HIV risk-related behaviors among heterosexual men from urban areas in the United States. Correctional rehabilitation initiatives are needed to promote strategies that mitigate HIV risk-related behaviors and promote healthy reentry into communities among heterosexual men at high risk for HIV.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2428-2438, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The level of evidence for HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited compared with the evidence available for transmission risk in heterosexual couples. The aim of the second phase of the PARTNER study (PARTNER2) was to provide precise estimates of transmission risk in gay serodifferent partnerships. METHODS: The PARTNER study was a prospective observational study done at 75 sites in 14 European countries. The first phase of the study (PARTNER1; Sept 15, 2010, to May 31, 2014) recruited and followed up both heterosexual and gay serodifferent couples (HIV-positive partner taking suppressive ART) who reported condomless sex, whereas the PARTNER2 extension (to April 30, 2018) recruited and followed up gay couples only. At study visits, data collection included sexual behaviour questionnaires, HIV testing (HIV-negative partner), and HIV-1 viral load testing (HIV-positive partner). If a seroconversion occurred in the HIV-negative partner, anonymised phylogenetic analysis was done to compare HIV-1 pol and env sequences in both partners to identify linked transmissions. Couple-years of follow-up were eligible for inclusion if condomless sex was reported, use of pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis was not reported by the HIV-negative partner, and the HIV-positive partner was virally suppressed (plasma HIV-1 RNA <200 copies per mL) at the most recent visit (within the past year). Incidence rate of HIV transmission was calculated as the number of phylogenetically linked HIV infections that occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up divided by eligible couple-years of follow-up. Two-sided 95% CIs for the incidence rate of transmission were calculated using exact Poisson methods. FINDINGS: Between Sept 15, 2010, and July 31, 2017, 972 gay couples were enrolled, of which 782 provided 1593 eligible couple-years of follow-up with a median follow-up of 2·0 years (IQR 1·1-3·5). At baseline, median age for HIV-positive partners was 40 years (IQR 33-46) and couples reported condomless sex for a median of 1·0 years (IQR 0·4-2·9). During eligible couple-years of follow-up, couples reported condomless anal sex a total of 76 088 times. 288 (37%) of 777 HIV-negative men reported condomless sex with other partners. 15 new HIV infections occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up, but none were phylogenetically linked within-couple transmissions, resulting in an HIV transmission rate of zero (upper 95% CI 0·23 per 100 couple-years of follow-up). INTERPRETATION: Our results provide a similar level of evidence on viral suppression and HIV transmission risk for gay men to that previously generated for heterosexual couples and suggest that the risk of HIV transmission in gay couples through condomless sex when HIV viral load is suppressed is effectively zero. Our findings support the message of the U=U (undetectable equals untransmittable) campaign, and the benefits of early testing and treatment for HIV. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina , Sexo sem Proteção , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Preservativos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais , Carga Viral
14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 146(2): 184-191, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya. METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional data were collected between September 2016 and May 2017 in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Mombasa. Eligibility criteria included current sex work, age 16-34 years, not pregnant, and not planning pregnancy. Peer educators recruited FSWs from randomly selected sex-work venues. Multiple logistic regression identified correlates of LARC use. Prevalence estimates were weighted to adjust for variation in FSW numbers recruited across venues. RESULTS: Among 879 participants, the prevalence of contraceptive use was 22.6% for implants and 1.6% for intra-uterine devices (IUDs). LARC use was independently associated with previous pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio for one pregnancy, 11.4; 95% confidence interval, 4.25-30.8), positive attitude to and better knowledge of family planning, younger age, and lower education. High rates of adverse effects were reported for all methods. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that implant use has increased among FSWs in Kenya. Unintended pregnancy risks remain high and IUD use is negligible. Although LARC rates are encouraging, further intervention is required to improve both uptake (particularly of IUDs) and greater access to family planning services.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/estatística & dados numéricos , Quênia , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/efeitos adversos , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 261, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study objectives were to identify differences in HIV sexual risk behavior of men who had sex with other men (MSM) resident in urban and rural Nigeria, their perspectives on need for HIV prevention services and perceived barriers and facilitators to access of HIV prevention services in private, public and peer-led health facilities. METHOD: Data were collected from MSM resident in urban and rural parts of River and Kaduna States. Qualitative assessment sought perspectives on barriers and facilitators of MSM uptake of HIV prevention services. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to seek information on HIV sexual risk behaviors (sexual abuse, age of sexual debut, multiple sexual partners and use of condom at last sexual intercourse), willingness to use and perceived barriers to access of HIV prevention services in public, private and peer-led health facilities, and willingness to use and perception about availability of structural intervention services. Differences in HIV sexual risk behaviors by residential location, and associations between sexual risk behavior and willingness to access HIV prevention services were determined. RESULTS: More MSM resident in urban than rural areas engaged in three or more HIV sexual risk behaviors (25.9% vs 8.7%; p = 0.02). More respondents were willing to access HIV prevention service provided through peer-led health facilities. Less than 35% of respondents identified non-availability of free services as a barrier to HIV prevention service access in the three types of health facilities. More MSM with multiple sexual risk behaviors were willing to access services promoting mental and psychosocial health (p < 0.001), HIV positive peer support programs (p = 0.002) and training on human rights and paralegal services (p < 0.001). Respondents opined that services that assured confidential HIV testing and mitigated structural drivers of HIV infection for MSM provided through peer-led facilities, will increase MSM's uptake of HIV prevention services. CONCLUSION: HIV risk reduction intervention services differentiated by rural and urban residence, may be needed for MSM. Services provided through peer-led facilities, that include mental and psychosocial health care, peer support, human rights and paralegal services will likely increase its use by MSM with more HIV sexual risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(4): 440-445, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006205

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence and related factors of HIV infection among male clients of the female sex workers in Hekou Yao autonomous county of Honghe Hani Yi autonomous prefecture (Hekou county) in Yunnan province in China, 2014-2015. Methods: Serial cross-sectional survey was conducted during June 2014 to November 2015. Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit the male clients for this study. Self-reported information on social-demographic characteristics, with sexual and drug behavior patterns, was gathered. Both blood and urine samples were collected for HIV, with for opiate testing. Multivariate logistic regression and Exhaustive CHAID method were used to determine the correlated factors associated with HIV infection. Statistical analysis was used by SPSS 22.0 software and Clementine 12.0 software. Results: The overall HIV prevalence of male clients was 2.06% (16/776). Male clients who keep using condom with female sex worker was estimated as 68.81% (534/776). The last commercial sexual partner of Vietnamese male clients was all Vietnamese female sex workers. Compared with Chinese male clients, Vietnamese male clients have a higher rate of morphine positive. Factors as: age ≥50 years vs. age <30 years (OR=8.11, 95%CI: 1.26-52.16) and testing for morphine positive vs. morphine negative (OR=7.35, 95%CI: 1.42-38.06) were significantly associated with HIV infection through multiple logistic regression analysis. Through Exhaustive CHAID, it confirmed that age was the primary factor that associated with HIV infection of male clients. Conclusions: Relationship between morphine and HIV infection indicated that HIV prevalence of male clients in Hekou county was influenced by the combined effect of both illegal drug use and commercial sexual behavior. Special attention should be paid to male clients over 50 years of age, on HIV intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Trabalho Sexual , Sexo sem Proteção
17.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(4): 349-359, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958012

RESUMO

To examine the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of a dual-target motivational intervention (MI) to reduce heavy drinking and risky sex. A priori hypotheses were that: increases in alcohol-related readiness to change (RTC) and self-efficacy would mediate the effect of MI on alcohol use; increases in sex-related RTC and self-efficacy would mediate the effect of MI on risky sex; and reductions in alcohol use would mediate reductions in risky sex. Patients in Emergency Departments who screened positive for heavy drinking and risky sex were randomly assigned to receive MI or brief advice. RTC and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and immediately postintervention. Alcohol use and sexual behavior was assessed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow up. Single- and serial-mediation models were tested. Patients who received MI had higher postintervention RTC and self-efficacy, but neither mechanism mediated the effects of MI on behavioral outcomes. Reduction in heavy drinking mediated the effect of MI on frequency of sex under the influence (SUI). Further, the effect of MI on condomless sex was mediated by an indirect path in which reductions in heavy drinking at 3 months predicted less SUI at 6 months, which in turn predicted reduction in condomless sex at 9-months. Although some effect of dual-target MI on risky sex is independent of drinking, treatment-related reduction in heavy drinking does account for a significant portion of reduction in risky sex, providing support for the utility of this intervention in patient populations where heavy drinking and risky sex co-occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Entrevista Motivacional , Autoeficácia , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
JAMA ; 321(14): 1380-1390, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964528

RESUMO

Importance: Emerging evidence suggests that risk of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increases among gay and bisexual men following initiation of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Objective: To describe STI incidence and behavioral risk factors among a cohort of predominantly gay and bisexual men who use PrEP, and to explore changes in STI incidence following PrEP commencement. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Expanded (PrEPX) Study, a multisite, open-label intervention study, was nested within the Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) clinic network. A total of 4275 participants were enrolled (July 26, 2016-April 1, 2018) in Victoria, Australia. Of these, 2981 enrolled at 5 ACCESS clinics (3 primary care, 1 sexual health, and 1 community-based HIV rapid testing service), had at least 1 follow-up visit, and were monitored until April 30, 2018. Exposures: Upon enrollment, participants received daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumurate and emtricitabine for HIV PrEP, quarterly HIV and STI testing, and clinical monitoring. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incidence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. Incidence rates and hazard ratios describing behavioral risk factors of STI diagnosis were calculated. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs), adjusted for change in testing frequency, described changes in STI incidence from 1-year preenrollment to study follow-up among participants with preenrollment testing data (n = 1378). Results: Among the 2981 individuals (median age, 34 years [interquartile range, 28-42]), 98.5% identified as gay or bisexual males, 29% used PrEP prior to enrollment, 89 (3%) withdrew and were censored at date of withdrawal, leaving 2892 (97.0%) enrolled at final follow-up. During a mean follow-up of 1.1 years (3185.0 person-years), 2928 STIs were diagnosed among 1427 (48%) participants (1434 chlamydia, 1242 gonorrhea, 252 syphilis). STI incidence was 91.9 per 100 person-years, with 736 participants (25%) accounting for 2237 (76%) of all STIs. Among 2058 participants with complete data for multivariable analysis, younger age, greater partner number, and group sex were associated with greater STI risk, but condom use was not. Among 1378 participants with preenrollment testing data, STI incidence increased from 69.5 per 100 person-years prior to enrollment to 98.4 per 100 person-years during follow-up (IRR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.29-1.56]). After adjusting for testing frequency, the increase in incidence from 1 year preenrollment to follow-up was significant for any STI (adjusted IRR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.23]) and for chlamydia (adjusted IRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04-1.33]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among gay and bisexual men using PrEP, STIs were highly concentrated among a subset, and receipt of PrEP after study enrollment was associated with an increased incidence of STIs compared with preenrollment. These findings highlight the importance of frequent STI testing among gay and bisexual men using PrEP.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Bissexualidade , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(7): 647-655, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961464

RESUMO

This study examined the comparative health risk behaviors of women who (a) traded sex for money, (b) traded sex for drugs, (c) traded sex for both drugs and money, or (d) did not trade sex. Self-report data were collected from 2369 women who received services through HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing programs and a subset were tested for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. Results revealed those women who traded sex only for money used condoms, were tested for HIV, and received the HIV test results more often than the other women. Women who traded sex for both drugs and money reported a significantly higher prevalence of gonorrhea, hepatitis B, and syphilis; were more likely to test positive for hepatitis B, syphilis, and HIV; engaged more often in sex acts without condoms; and were incarcerated for significantly more days. Based on these findings, the targets with greatest potential for STI prevention interventions are female sex workers who trade sex for both drugs and money.


Assuntos
Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Preservativos , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180064, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a bridge for transmission of pathogens from high-risk to general populations. We assessed the epidemiological status of syphilis in FSWs along the Pará highway system. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-two FSWs were interviewed and samples were analyzed using rapid qualitative tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The prevalence of syphilis was high (36.94%). The high rate of prostitution, use of illicit drugs, and search for financial resources increased Treponema pallidum transmission through unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: Several characteristics of FSWs were identified, which reinforce the need for measures guaranteeing their health and protection.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/transmissão , Transportes , Treponema pallidum/genética , Sexo sem Proteção , Adulto Jovem
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