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1.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740497

RESUMO

Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to experience birth rates among teenagers that are significantly higher than other high-income nations. Use of emergency contraception (EC) within 120 hours after unprotected or underprotected intercourse can reduce the risk of pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive methods include oral medications labeled and dedicated for use as EC by the US Food and Drug Administration (ulipristal and levonorgestrel), the "off-label" use of combined oral contraceptives, and insertion of a copper intrauterine device. Indications for the use of EC include intercourse without use of contraception; condom breakage or slippage; missed or late doses of contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, and injectable contraception; vomiting after use of oral contraceptives; and sexual assault. Our aim in this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on the safety, efficacy, and use of EC in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance EC prescription as 1 public health strategy to reduce teenaged pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção Pós-Coito/métodos , Papel do Médico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Sexo sem Proteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Feminino , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatras/psicologia , Papel do Médico/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
2.
Neuroimage Clin ; 21: 101643, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612937

RESUMO

Neuroadaptations caused by chronic methamphetamine (MA) use are likely major contributors to high relapse rate following treatment. Thus, focusing intervention efforts at pre-empting addiction in vulnerable populations, thereby preventing MA-use-induced neurological changes that make recovery so challenging, may prove more effective than targeting chronic users. One approach is studying casual/recreational users, not diagnosed with substance use disorder. This group may be at high risk for addiction due to their experience with MA. On the other hand, they may be resilient against addiction since they were able to maintain casual use over the years and not become addicted. Understanding their neuro-cognitive characteristics during decision-making and risk-taking would help solve this dilemma and, may help identify intervention strategies. Unfortunately, research on neuro-cognitive characteristics of casual MA users is currently lacking. In this work we begin to address this deficit. This study was part of a larger investigation of neural correlates of risky sexual decision-making in men who have sex with men. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, 31 casual MA users and 66 non-users performed the CUPS task, in which they decided to accept or refuse a series of mixed gambles. Convergent results from whole brain, region of interest and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses are presented. Whole brain analysis identified an amygdala-striatal cluster with weaker activation in casual MA users compared to non-users during decision-making. Activity in that cluster inversely correlated with decisions to gamble: lower activation corresponded to higher risk taking. Using this cluster as a seed in PPI analyses, we identified a wide range of neural network differences between casual MA users and non-users. Parametric whole brain analyses identified clusters in the ventral striatum, posterior insula and precuneus where activations modulated by risk and reward were significantly weaker in casual MA users than in non-users. The striatal cluster identified in these analyses overlapped with the amygdala-striatal cluster. This work identified neural differences in casual MA users' reward processing and outcome learning systems which may underlie their increased real-world risk-taking. It suggests that while making decisions casual MA users focus primarily on potential gain unlike non-users who also take the riskiness of the choice into consideration.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cognição/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia
3.
Ann Behav Med ; 52(5): 380-392, 2018 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684131

RESUMO

Background: The sexual decision-making literature suggests that sexual arousal and behavior are associated. The somatic marker hypothesis suggests that individual neuropsychological differences in decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), may moderate these associations; however, this hypothesis has yet to be tested with event-level sexual behavior data. Purpose: We hypothesized that (a) daily sexual arousal would be positively associated with likelihood of engaging in sex and condomless anal sex (CAS) and (b) IGT scores would moderate these associations such that the associations would be stronger among those with higher IGT scores. Methods: We used daily diary data from 334 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men to examine the main and interaction effects of sexual arousal and IGT scores on sexual engagement and CAS. Results: As hypothesized, daily sexual arousal was positively associated with greater odds of both sexual engagement and CAS with casual male partners. Individual-level IGT performance significantly moderated the day-level association between arousal and sexual engagement, which was stronger for men with higher IGT scores. There was no main effect of IGT scores on either sexual behavior outcome, nor did it moderate the association between arousal and CAS. Conclusions: These findings highlight the influence of sexual arousal on sexual engagement, which differed by IGT scores; the effect of arousal on CAS was much less variable and may not be moderated by neurocognitive factors. This study supports the importance of exploring integrated behavioral/biomedical interventions to improve individual decision making to prevent HIV infection.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Behav Med ; 52(5): 406-411, 2018 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684134

RESUMO

Background: Executive functioning (EF) describes a set of neurocognitive processes critical to enacting complex health behaviors. However, theoretical frameworks for understanding sexual risk behavior have generally neglected neurocognitive constructs, and beyond a few studies of individuals selected for high substance use, the literature contains virtually no research on this topic with other adults at risk for HIV infection, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Purpose: This study tested whether EF was associated with condomless anal intercourse (CAI) among MSM. Methods: Seventy MSM completed cognitive tests assessing EF at two time points-baseline, and approximately 30 min later after engaging in a stressful interpersonal task. Men also reported their sexual behaviors over the past 3 months, including the frequency of CAI. Results: Baseline EF was unrelated to CAI. However, CAI was associated with the degree to which performance improved from baseline to post-stressor administration. Compared with norms for practice effects, men who reported CAI improved less than expected from baseline to post-stressor EF performance, whereas men who reported no CAI exhibited a more normative practice effect. Conclusions: MSM with histories of greater sexual risk improved less than anticipated from baseline to post-stressor on tests of EF, suggesting that they might be more cognitively depleted by the stressful interpersonal task they engaged in between administrations. It is possible that certain individuals struggle to maintain executive control in stressful interpersonal situations, a finding that could contribute to the difficulty some individuals face executing precautionary behaviors during a sexual encounter.


Assuntos
Preservativos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Relações Interpessoais , Assunção de Riscos , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(4): 1555-1562, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314426

RESUMO

The insula plays an important role in response inhibition. Most relevant here, it has been proposed that the dorsal anterior insular cortex (dAIC) plays a central role in a salience network that is responsible for switching between the default mode network and the executive control network. However, the insula's role in sexually motivated response inhibition has not yet been studied. In this study, eighty-five 18- to 30-year-old sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) performed an erotic Go/NoGo task while in an MRI scanner. Participants' real-world sexual risk-taking (frequency of condomless anal intercourse over the past 90 days) was then correlated with their neural activity during the task. We found greater activity in bilateral anterior insular cortex (both dorsal and ventral) on contrasts with stronger motivational information (attractive naked male pictures versus pictures of clothed, middle-aged females) and on contrasts requiring greater response inhibition (NoGo versus Go). We also found that activity in the right dAIC was negatively correlated with participants' real-world sexual risk-taking. Our results confirmed the involvement of the insular cortex in motivated response inhibition. Especially, the decreased right dAIC activity may reduce the likelihood that the executive control network will come online when individuals are faced with situations requiring inhibitory control and thus lead them to make more risky choices.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Literatura Erótica , Homossexualidade Masculina , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 84(6): 511-525, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a family- and church-based intervention for adolescents and caregivers in rural Kenya to improve family relationships, reduce HIV risk, and promote mental health. METHOD: The intervention was developed using community-based participatory methods and focused on strengthening family communication. Modules addressed economic, relationship, and HIV-related topics using evidence-based behavioral strategies alongside culturally grounded content. A stepped wedge cluster randomized trial was conducted with 124 families (237 adolescents ages 10 to 16; 203 caregivers) from 4 churches. Participants completed interviewer-administered surveys over 5 rounds. Primary outcomes included family communication, HIV risk knowledge, self-efficacy, and beliefs. Secondary outcomes included parenting, social support, mental health, and adolescent sexual behavior. We estimated intent-to-treat effects via ordinary least squares regression with clustered standard errors. RESULTS: Relative to controls, the intervention group reported better family communication across domains at 1- and 3-months postintervention and higher self-efficacy for risk reduction skills and HIV-related knowledge at 1-month postintervention. Sexually active youth in the intervention reported fewer high-risk behaviors at 1-month postintervention, including unprotected sex or multiple partners. Male caregivers in the intervention reported higher parental involvement at both time points, and youth reported more social support from male caregivers at 3-months postintervention. No effects on secondary outcomes of parenting, social support, and mental health were detected. CONCLUSIONS: This intervention holds promise for strengthening positive family processes to protect against negative future outcomes for adolescents. Implementation with religious congregations may be a promising strategy for improving sustainability and scalability of interventions in low-resource settings. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , População Rural , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle
8.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140555, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26461258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is a major pathway towards secondary HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). We explored the socio-cultural environment and individual beliefs and experiences conducive to UAI in the context of Southern China. METHODS: We employed an ethnographic approach utilizing a socio-ecological framework to conduct repeated in-depth interviews with thirty one newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM as well as participant observations in Shenzhen based healthcare settings, MSM venues and NGO offices. RESULTS: Some men (6/31) reported continuing to practice UAI after an initial diagnosis of being HIV positive. For MSM who had existing lovers or stable partners, the fear of losing partners in a context of non-serostatus disclosure was testified to be a major concern. MSM with casual partners reported that anonymous sexual encounters and moral judgments played a significant role in their sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneously, self-reported negative emotional and psychological status, perception and idiosyncratic risk interpretation, as well as substance abuse informed the intrapersonal context for UAI. CONCLUSION: UAI among these HIV positive MSM was embedded in an intrapersonal context, related to partner type, shaped by anonymous sexual encounters, psychological status, and moral judgments. It is important that prevention and intervention for secondary HIV transmission among newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM in China take into account these contextual factors.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/fisiopatologia , Coito/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 68(3): 322-8, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25394191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, alcohol contributes to the HIV epidemic, in part, by influencing sexual behaviors. For some, high levels of alcohol consumption may be driven by previous traumatic experiences that result in traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to quantify the longitudinal association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex among women who attend drinking venues and to assess whether this association was explained by mediation through alcohol use. METHODS: Data were collected in 4 waves over a year from a prospective cohort of 560 women who regularly attended alcohol-serving venues in a Cape Town township. Longitudinal mixed models examined (1) the relationship between traumatic stress and counts of unprotected sex and (2) whether alcohol use mediated the association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex. RESULTS: Most women reported elevated traumatic stress (80%) and hazardous alcohol use (88%) at least once during the study period. In models adjusted for covariates, traumatic stress was associated with unprotected sex (b = 0.28, SE = 0.06, t = 4.82, P < 0.001). In addition, traumatic stress was associated with alcohol use (b = 0.27, SE = 0.02, t = 14.25, P < 0.001) and was also associated with unprotected sex (b = 0.20, SE = 0.06, t = 3.27, P < 0.01) while controlling for alcohol use (b = 0.28, SE = 0.07, t = 4.25, P < 0.001). The test for the mediated effect established that alcohol use was a significant mediator, accounting for 27% of the total effect of traumatic stress on unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need to address traumatic stress among female venue patrons as an important precursor of HIV risk due to alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Estresse Psicológico , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
11.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 18(3): 133-41, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25438518

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the risk factors for engaging in transactional sex among young females in Montserrado County, Liberia. Data from an HIV behavioral survey conducted among young people aged 14 - 25 years were used. The analytical sample included 493 sexually-experienced females. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. We found that 72% of our sample had ever engaged in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with education (OR: 0.5); reporting no earned income (OR: 1.9); longer duration of sexual activity (OR: 3.5); early sexual debut (OR: 2.5); history of sexual violence (OR: 2.1) and multiple sexual partnerships (OR: 4.0). Respondents' age, residence, and drug/alcohol use were not associated with engagement in transactional sex. HIV interventions should incorporate educational strategies to reduce the prevalence of transactional sex among young people. These strategies should include economic opportunities to offset financial need as well as efforts to eradicate sexual violence.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Trabalho Sexual , Sexo sem Proteção , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anomia (Social) , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Behav Med ; 36(3): 283-94, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22538773

RESUMO

Biomarker composites (BCs) that objectively quantify psychosocial stress independent of self report could help to identify those at greatest risk for negative health outcomes and elucidate mechanisms of stress-related processes. Here, BCs are examined in the context of existing disease progression among HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) with high stress histories, including childhood sexual abuse. Participants (N = 99) collected 12-h overnight and morning urine samples for assay of cortisol and catecholamines (primary BC) and neopterin (an indicator of HIV disease progression). Data on cumulative psychosocial trauma history (severity, types, frequency, age at first incident), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sexual risk behaviors, and a secondary BC consisting of routine health indicators (heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio) were also collected. Lifetime trauma exposure was highly pervasive and significantly greater among those meeting a standard cutoff for PTSD caseness (24 %). After controlling for HIV factors (neopterin levels and years with disease), PTSD was a significant (p < .05) predictor of the primary, but not secondary BC. Those with PTSD also had significantly more sexual partners, sex without a condom, and exchange sex for money or drugs than those without PTSD. Specific trauma characteristics predicted PTSD severity and caseness independently and uniquely in regression models (p's < .05-.001). A primary BC appears sensitive to cumulative trauma burden and PTSD in HIV-positive African American MSMW, providing support for the use of BCs to quantify psychosocial stress and inform novel methods for examining mechanisms of stress influenced health behaviors and disease outcomes in at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/etnologia , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Catecolaminas/urina , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/etnologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/urina , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/urina , Los Angeles , Masculino , Neopterina/urina , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/urina , Estresse Psicológico/urina , Sexo sem Proteção/etnologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
13.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 4(4): 417-27, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22114852

RESUMO

Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Pós-Coito/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Pós-Coito/farmacocinética , Norpregnadienos/administração & dosagem , Norpregnadienos/farmacocinética , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais/farmacocinética , Interações Medicamentosas/fisiologia , Feminino , Interações Alimento-Droga/fisiologia , Humanos , Receptores de Progesterona/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia
14.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 20(8): 1225-31, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21689024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Public health officials promote sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing as a method to reduce the morbidity of STIs. The purpose of this study was to examine what factors are associated with STI testing among young women across various types of STIs and to compare relative influences of factors across models. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of data from Add Health Wave III was conducted (n=2629). Explanatory factors highlighted in qualitative literature were operationalized and built into a logistic regression model used to predict testing for chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, human papillomavirus (HPV), genital herpes, and HIV. RESULTS: STI symptoms and concerns about a recent sexual encounter were important expressed reasons for seeking medical care. Number of sexual partners, sexual orientation, STI symptoms, and going to the gynecologist in the past 12 months were important predictors of testing across STIs. This study supports qualitative work that suggests preventive health consciousness, STI symptoms, and relationship characteristics are important factors in STI testing. Results question the validity of self-report data regarding STI testing. CONCLUSIONS: Education efforts in secondary school health programs and during gynecologic examinations can decrease confusion about STI testing.


Assuntos
Serviços de Diagnóstico/normas , Exame Ginecológico/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Papel do Médico , Melhoria de Qualidade , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia
16.
Sex Transm Infect ; 87(4): 325-30, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21147893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since May 2004, 10 central and east European (CEE) countries have joined the European Union. While HIV rates remain low among men who have sex with men (MSM) in CEE countries, there is no research on the sexual behaviour of CEE MSM in the U.K. METHODS: CEE MSM living in the U.K. (n=691) were recruited for an online questionnaire by two popular MSM websites. RESULTS: The majority of men had arrived in the U.K. since May 2004. A previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis was reported by 30.7%, and 4.8% reported being HIV positive, the majority diagnosed in the U.K. Unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner of unknown or discordant HIV status was reported by 22.8%. Men who had been in the U.K. for longer (>5 years vs. <1 year) reported more partners in the past 5 years (67.2% vs. 50.4% had >10 partners, p < 0.001) and were less likely to report their most recent partner was from their home country (14.9% vs. 33.6%, p < 0.001). Among migrant CEE MSM living in London, 15.4% had been paid for sex in the U.K. and 41.5% had taken recreational drugs in the past year. CONCLUSION: CEE MSM in the U.K. are at risk for the acquisition and transmission of STI and HIV through unprotected anal intercourse with non-concordant casual partners. Sexual mixing with men from other countries, commercial sex and increased partner numbers may introduce additional risk. This has important implications for the cross-border transmission of infections between the U.K. and CEE countries.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Migrantes/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa Oriental/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Venereologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arch Sex Behav ; 38(4): 538-50, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19030978

RESUMO

The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Piscadela , Pressão Sanguínea , Preservativos , Dominação-Subordinação , Heterossexualidade/fisiologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pênis/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Genes Brain Behav ; 8(1): 107-13, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19016887

RESUMO

Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is a major risk factor for serious diseases as well as unplanned pregnancy. It is not known if RSB has a genetic basis or if it is only influenced by social and cultural conditions. Adolescent conduct disorder has previously been linked to RSB and has been found to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we look at normal variation in a broad measure of RSB and in retrospectively reported adolescent misconduct in a large community sample of twins (n = 4904) to partition the variance and covariance between the traits into genetic and environmental components. We found that RSB is influenced to the same extent by genes, shared environment and unshared environment. Adolescent misconduct is moderately influenced by genetic factors and only modestly by shared environmental factors. Moreover, RSB is associated with adolescent misconduct (r = 0.5), primarily because of genetic correlation between the variables. The implications of our findings as well as possible sex differences are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Sex Behav ; 38(4): 498-513, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18431618

RESUMO

Three experiments supported the idea that alcohol fosters sexual risk-taking in men and women, in part, through its effects on sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, increasing alcohol dosage (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .04, .08%) heightened men's and women's risk-taking intentions. Alcohol's effect was indirect via increased subjective sexual arousal; also, men exhibited greater risk-taking than women. In Experiment 2, an extended dosage range (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .06, .08, .10%) heightened men's risk-taking intentions. Alcohol's effect again was indirect via subjective arousal. Physiological sexual arousal, which was unaffected by alcohol, increased risk-taking via increased subjective arousal. In Experiment 3, alcohol increased women's risk-taking indirectly via subjective arousal, but alcohol-attenuated physiological arousal had no effect on risk-taking. Implications for alcohol myopia theory and prevention interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pênis/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Pletismografia , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Vagina/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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