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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141556, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882548

RESUMO

Wetlands provide a wide range of ecosystem services, including supplying the food and shelter for a rich assemblage of waterbirds and providing the stopover sites that allow birds to make migratory journeys. Human impact and the ongoing climate change are however reducing the ability of wetlands to provide such important services. Through field surveys, GIS analyses and climate projections, we assessed the status of, and threats to, 38 largest wetlands belonging to the Mediterranean bird flyways in Sardinia and Sicily (Italy). We then combined ten decision criteria about avifaunal diversity and human/climate threats in order to prioritize the studied wetlands from most to least worthy of urgent interventions. Results showed that the main wetlands of these two regions have distinct demands with regard to the kind of actions required, going from the mitigation of tourism pressure to the prevention of climate-induced water shortage in summer. Furthermore, clear priorities for interventions emerged in both regions. Our study has direct implications for managers and researchers attempting to assess wetland conditions and set conservation priorities, thus offering a tool for deciding urgent interventions on the main stopover sites along the Mediterranean bird flyways.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Aves , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Sicília
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111754, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126067

RESUMO

Calvo et al. (2020) criticize a new seagrass rehabilitation method proposed by Alagna et al. (2019) and inspired by the Posidonia oceanica spontaneous recovery observed at Capo Feto (Sicily), were recolonization was detected almost exclusively on rubbles deployed to fill a pipeline trench. Calvo et al. (2020) claim that natural recovery occurred consistently also on dead matte along the eastern side of the trench, weakening the assumption on which the method is based. Here we show that the P. oceanica patches reported by these authors as new establishments were already documented in 2003 (Vega Fernandez et al., 2005) and are attributable to the fragmentation of the pristine meadow caused by altered sedimentation rate after an extensive dredging operation. Moreover, we outline the area of applicability of the method tested in Alagna et al. (2019) and provide a point-by-point rebuttal to the complaints of imprecise and misleading contents of the paper.


Assuntos
Alismatales , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Sicília
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111743, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068789

RESUMO

This study compared the capacity of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and the green alga Ulva lactuca to sequester the trace elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, in seawater and benthic sediments, under the same environmental conditions. Samples of C. nodosa leaves and U. lactuca thalli were collected in four sites off the coast of Sicily (Italy), with varying degrees of anthropogenic impact. C. nodosa accumulated generally higher levels of trace elements, suggesting a better performance in marine phytoremediation. In turn, C. nodosa and U. lactuca showed a similar performance regarding the bioindication of trace elements. Since salinity, temperature and pH had relatively constant values, their role in the accumulation processes in both species should be considered as secondary. Although C. nodosa and U. lactuca fulfill several criteria as bioindicators, including widespread distribution, abundance and tolerance to toxicity, their regular use in biomonitoring programs is still limited.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Oligoelementos , Ulva , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sicília , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Zootaxa ; 4759(4): zootaxa.4759.4.9, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056899

RESUMO

The adult female of a new species of armoured scale insect, Diaspidiotus aetnensis Nucifora, Watson and Mazzeo sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), is described and illustrated. It was collected in Sicily on the endemic birch, Betula aetnensis Raf. (Betulaceae). We provide supplementary notes on Diaspidiotus alni (Marchal), D. wuenni (Lindinger) and D. lenticularis (Lindinger), and a key to the Diaspidiotus species recorded on Betulaceae worldwide.


Assuntos
Betula , Hemípteros , Animais , Betulaceae , Feminino , Sicília
5.
Zootaxa ; 4779(2): zootaxa.4779.2.8, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055792

RESUMO

A new troglobitic species of the subfamily Pselaphinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), Tychobythinus inopinatus sp. nov., is described from Monello Cave (Syracuse, Syracuse Province, Sicily). Major diagnostic features are illustrated based on both male and female specimens. The new species shows some adaptations to cave life, i.e., pale brown colour; setation consisting of long and flattened setae and suberect shorter setae; absence of wings; and anophthalmy and elongate legs and antennae. It can be easily separated from the related taxa by the different shapes of the head, palpi, gular carina of the male, and aedeagus. Tychobythinus inopinatus sp. nov. is known only from Monello Cave, a limestone cave in the south-eastern Sicily.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Sicília
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932886

RESUMO

Landfilling should be the last option in an integrated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management approach. In the European Union (EU), the policy framework to protect the environment and the public health against the impact of health hazards related to urban solid waste management has been consistently implemented in recent decades. A growing interest in the negative impact of fires in waste landfills on the environment and people's health was reported in some European countries. In Italy, an increasing occurrence of arsons in MSW and landfills has been reported in recent years. During the summer of 2012, a multi-site arson occurred in the Palermo Municipal solid waste landfill of Bellolampo (western Sicily), giving rise to an environmental emergency of public health concern. Local health authorities reacted by creating an inter-institutional multidisciplinary task force with the aim to implement measures to prevent and control the risk of exposure by delimiting a protection area to be taken under strict monitoring. Environmental and epidemiological investigations were put in place by air, soil, and farm product sampling. A syndromic surveillance of the exposed population was conducted as well. The air monitoring stations system in place detected an increase in the concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like substances with the PM10 highest emission pick documented within the first 24 h and estimated at about 60 µg/m3. Levels of heavy metals above the limits permitted by law were detected in the top- and sub-soil samples collected within the two landfill sampling sites and also in other nearby sites. Non-conforming concentration values of dioxins and dioxin-like substances were detected in samples taken from farms, milk, and water. The health syndromic surveillance did not document any daily increase in the notification of emergency admissions related to acute respiratory diseases or any other health effect potentially related to the waste arson, but these findings were limited by the non-systematic collection of data. The experience reported in the present case report, as declined within the European Union policy framework and in the view of environmental justice, documented the need to structure a permanent collaboration between the different institutional actors involved in environmental and public health protection activities in order to develop specific protocols to manage events related to the occurrence of waste-related environmental emergencies or disasters.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Sicília , Resíduos Sólidos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915885

RESUMO

Exotic ambrosia beetles are increasing in Europe due to global trade and global warming. Among these xylomycetophagous insects, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious threat for several Mediterranean host plants. Carob trees growing in Sicily (Italy) have been extensively attacked by beetles leading to rapid tree decline. Although X. compactus has been found in Europe for several years, most aspects of its ecology are still unknown. We thus studied the population structure and dynamics of X. compactus, together with its twig size preference during a sampling of infested carob trees in south east Sicily. In addition, fungi associated with insects or galleries were isolated and characterized. The results showed that, in this newly-colonized environment and host plant, adult X. compactus overwinters inside twigs and starts to fly and reproduce in mid spring, completing five generations before overwintering in late fall. The mean diameter of carob twigs infested by the beetle varied significantly over the seasons, with the insect tending to infest larger twigs as season progresses. The mean number of adults/gallery was 19.21, ranging from 6 to 28. The minimum temperature significantly affected the overwintering adult mortality. Ambrosiella xylebori and Fusarium solani were the main symbionts associated with the pest in this study. Acremonium sp. was instead recorded for the first time in Europe inside X. compactus galleries. Several other fungi species were also found for the first time in association with X. compactus. Our findings provide useful insights into the sustainable management of this noxious pest.


Assuntos
Gorgulhos/microbiologia , Gorgulhos/patogenicidade , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/parasitologia , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Sicília , Simbiose , Árvores/parasitologia
8.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110058, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758894

RESUMO

In December 2019, severe cases of pneumonia of unknown aetiology were reported in Wuhan city, in China. Lately, the pneumonia was related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the diseases was termed coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). At the end of January 2020, the infection spread all over Italy, but with high infection rates and mortality in the northern part, especially in Lombardy, the most industrialized and polluted region of the country. It is noteworthy that a strong association between severe viral respiratory disease and air pollution has been described. Air pollutant could be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases and can be of natural origin (such as ash from a volcanic eruption) or released from motor vehicle depletes (carbon monoxide gas) or factories (sulfur dioxide). Volcanic eruptions release large amounts of sulphuric acid, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrochloric acid into the atmosphere. Pulmunary diseases spreadby means of small droplets in thebreath, also called aerosols, and air pollution may facilitate the outside survival of viruses. We suppose that ash and gases emitted from the Mount Etna contributed to air pollution, potentially favouring the major contagion of COVID-19 in the eastern flank of the mountain, as in Catania city. In fact, ash and gases (with regard to radon) are usually particularly intense in winter, with a reduction of emission of specific metals with warmer weather. This is the first paper that elaborates the hypothesis of a potential role of volcanic gases and heavy metals-related air pollution, combined to specific climatic conditions and regional topography, in favouring severe COVID-19 diffusion in Sicily. Clinical and epidemiological studies are needed to support the hypothesis and plan the due prevention and awareness-raising campaigns.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/análise , Erupções Vulcânicas , /epidemiologia , Cidades , Gases , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Itália/epidemiologia , Metais Pesados , Modelos Teóricos , Sicília/epidemiologia , Solo , Ácidos Sulfúricos , Água
9.
Public Health ; 185: 394-399, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Italy, a recent irregular movement of people raised concerns among the host population on possible introduction of diseases that have long been controlled in the host countries. This study evaluates the health conditions of illegal immigrants landed on the north-eastern Sicilian territory, to provide information on the clinical and epidemiologic burden of infectious diseases among migrants and how the local population feel about these landings. STUDY DESIGN: The study design is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study considered all migrants landed illegally in the city of Messina, Sicily, between January 2014 and July 2018. Analysing the data of hospital admissions and disease notifications, we calculated the frequency of infectious diseases among migrant population. Furthermore, through a survey conducted by a well-known online newspaper, we analysed the perception that the local population has about the health risk represented by migrants. RESULTS: In the considered five-year period, 108 landings, for a total of 38,608 migrants occurred at the Messina port. The percentage of hospitalisation was rather low (3.5%), and it concerned mainly pregnant women. The notifications of infectious diseases were contained, with exception of scabies and tuberculosis. Finally, from the online survey, resulted that there is a large part of local population that considers migrants a potential danger to community health. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the presence of migrants should not have to date any impact on the health conditions of the resident population. However, monitoring over time the health of migrants and screening for infectious diseases as soon as possible after landing are advantageous for both migrants and host country.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Sicília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756592

RESUMO

Compared to other types of social networks, criminal networks present particularly hard challenges, due to their strong resilience to disruption, which poses severe hurdles to Law-Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). Herein, we borrow methods and tools from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to (i) unveil the structure and organization of Sicilian Mafia gangs, based on two real-world datasets, and (ii) gain insights as to how to efficiently reduce the Largest Connected Component (LCC) of two networks derived from them. Mafia networks have peculiar features in terms of the links distribution and strength, which makes them very different from other social networks, and extremely robust to exogenous perturbations. Analysts also face difficulties in collecting reliable datasets that accurately describe the gangs' internal structure and their relationships with the external world, which is why earlier studies are largely qualitative, elusive and incomplete. An added value of our work is the generation of two real-world datasets, based on raw data extracted from juridical acts, relating to a Mafia organization that operated in Sicily during the first decade of 2000s. We created two different networks, capturing phone calls and physical meetings, respectively. Our analysis simulated different intervention procedures: (i) arresting one criminal at a time (sequential node removal); and (ii) police raids (node block removal). In both the sequential, and the node block removal intervention procedures, the Betweenness centrality was the most effective strategy in prioritizing the nodes to be removed. For instance, when targeting the top 5% nodes with the largest Betweenness centrality, our simulations suggest a reduction of up to 70% in the size of the LCC. We also identified that, due the peculiar type of interactions in criminal networks (namely, the distribution of the interactions' frequency), no significant differences exist between weighted and unweighted network analysis. Our work has significant practical applications for perturbing the operations of criminal and terrorist networks.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Rede Social , Humanos , Sicília
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111504, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758796

RESUMO

Mediterranean Sea is among the world's leading tourist destinations; however, the sharp increase in tourists during the high season may affect coastal seawater. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and temporal variation of anthropogenic nutrients in coastal seawater in relation to tourist flows in three Mediterranean islands (Cyprus, Sicily and Rhodes), through short-term macroalgae deployments, coupled with δ15N analysis and GIS mapping. In all islands, an overall increase in macroalgae δ15N occurred over the deployment carried out in August in the tourist sites, suggesting the presence of anthropogenic nutrients. Decreasing δ15N values occurred at increasing distance from the coastline in two out of the three islands (Cyprus and Sicily). This study revealed the usefulness of the approach used in the assessment of tourism impact in terms of trophic enrichment and its potential to support competent authorities for the development of sustainable coastal management plans.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Alga Marinha , Chipre , Ilhas do Mediterrâneo , Mar Mediterrâneo , Nutrientes , Sicília
12.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 45(5): 330-340, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627601

RESUMO

Forty parents of youth soccer players of ages 5-17 years, in Sicily, Italy completed a survey measuring knowledge of concussion symptoms and facts. Parents averaged 16 out of 23 correct responses (69.5%) on the survey, with no significant correlation between parental age and education and knowledge. Italian parents were more familiar with somatic symptoms (92.5%-100% correct) than emotional/behavioral (27.5%-57.5% correct) and sleep symptoms (45.0%). Comparisons to U.S. and Australian research showed general agreement on knowledge of concussion symptoms, but less awareness of other concussion facts among Italian parents. More research on cross-cultural concussion education and barriers to concussion resources is warranted.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Pais/educação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sicília
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722442

RESUMO

In recent years, vaccination coverage rates against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Europe have shown a decreasing trend and remain below the required standard. The present study aims to assess knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV infection and vaccination among a representative sample of preadolescents of Palermo, Italy. A survey was carried out throughout two questionnaires, before and after carrying out an educational intervention scheduled during school hours. A total of 1702 students attending first-grade secondary schools of the province of Palermo were enrolled (response rate 68.9%). Students attending third classes (adj OR = 1.18; CI 95% 1.03-1.36), being of higher socioeconomic status (adj OR = 1.35; CI 95% 1.05-1.73), who had previously received information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) at home (adj OR = 1.62; CI 95% 1.27-2.07) or at school (adj OR = 2.15; CI 95% 1.70-2.71) and who had ever heard in the past about HPV (adj OR = 1.80; CI 95% 1.42-2.29) showed a significantly higher baseline level of knowledge regarding HPV. Willingness to receive HPV vaccination, in a 10-point Likert scale, significantly increased between the pre- (8.51; SD ± 1.79) and post- (9.01 SD ± 1.52) intervention questionnaires (p < 0.001). A total of 188 out of 272 (69.1%) preadolescents attending five out eighteen schools involved in the project, who had not previously received the HPV vaccine, were vaccinated. During past years, education campaigns on HPV were mainly dedicated to adult women, excluding teenagers and omitting young males. It should therefore be of primary importance that school-based education and vaccination programmes be standardized.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sicília , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660125

RESUMO

Italy was the first country in Europe which imposed control measures of travel restrictions, quarantine and contact precautions to tackle the epidemic spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in all its regions. While such efforts are still ongoing, uncertainties regarding SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and ascertainment of cases make it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of restrictions. Here, we employed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Dead (SEIRD) model to assess SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics, working on the number of reported patients in intensive care unit (ICU) and deaths in Sicily (Italy), from 24 February to 13 April. Overall, we obtained a good fit between estimated and reported data, with a fraction of unreported SARS-CoV-2 cases (18.4%; 95%CI = 0-34.0%) before 10 March lockdown. Interestingly, we estimated that transmission rate in the community was reduced by 32% (95%CI = 23-42%) after the first set of restrictions, and by 80% (95%CI = 70-89%) after those adopted on 23 March. Thus, our estimates delineated the characteristics of SARS-CoV2 epidemic before restrictions taking into account unreported data. Moreover, our findings suggested that transmission rates were reduced after the adoption of control measures. However, we cannot evaluate whether part of this reduction might be attributable to other unmeasured factors, and hence further research and more accurate data are needed to understand the extent to which restrictions contributed to the epidemic control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Quarentena , Sicília/epidemiologia , Viagem
15.
Clin Ter ; 171(4): e291-e294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614360

RESUMO

The aim of this case report is to share with the forensic science community the experience of a rare complication of sickle cell anemia: acute chest syndrome. In October 2016, at the port of the city of Trapani (Sicily, Italy), the landing of an ONG "Médecins Sans Frontières" ship took place with 548 non-EU citizens and a corpse on board. The man, in the hours before his death, complained of severe chest pain and respiratory difficulties, and, despite of the therapeutic aids and resuscitation maneuvers, lastly died. The Public Prosecutor ordered that autopsy be executed on the corpse of the young Ghanaian, and it was to be supplemented by histological, toxicological, genetic investigations, and the dating of the biological age. The autoptic examination findings were indicative of bilateral bronchopneumonia, and were also confirmed by the histological findings, which identified a condition of massive adipose pulmonary embolism, due to the presence of extramedullary hematopoietic tissue, site of endovascular thrombosis secondary to hemolysis of sickle cells. The spleen appeared of small volume, with fibrotic phenomena. The predisposition to infections, thrombosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis are all complications of sickle cell anemia. The severe pulmonary condition characterized by vaso-occlusive findings and pulmonary inflammation with infiltrate, symptoms like fever, chest pain and severe systemic hypoxia allowed to ascribe the plausible cause of death as acute chest syndrome, a rare complication of sickle cell anemia. The peculiarity of this clinical case is also related to the methods of medical intervention (boat with non-governmental medical support for assistance to migrants).


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Gana/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Sicília
16.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115213, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688110

RESUMO

Abundance, composition, and distribution of macro-litter found on the seafloor of the Strait of Sicily between 10 and 800 m depth has been studied using data collected by bottom trawl surveys MEDITS from 2015 to 2019. Three waste categories based on the items use were considered: single-use, fishing-related and generic-use. Over 600 sampling sites, just 14% of these were litter-free. The five-years average density of seafloor litter was 79.6 items/km2 and ranged between 46.8 in 2019 and 118.1 items/km2 in 2015. The predominant waste type was plastic (58% of all items). Regardless of material type, single-use items were a dominant (60% of items) and widespread (79% of hauls) fraction of litter with a mean density of 48.4 items/km2. Fishing-related items accounted for 12% of total litter items. Percentage of dirty hauls and litter density increased with depth. Analysis of the relation density-depth indicates a progressive increase of litter density beyond depth values situated within the interval 234-477 m depending on the litter category. A significant decrease in litter density by categories was observed over the period. Patterns of spatial distribution at the higher depths (200-80 0m) resulted stable over the years. Density hotspots of fishing-related items were found where the fishing activity that uses fish aggregating devices (FADs) is practised and in the proximity of rocky banks. Single-use and generic-use objects densities were greater on the seafloor along main maritime routes than other areas. Comparisons between the percentage of hauls littered with anthropic waste from the mid-1990s against those in 2018-19 highlighted an increase of about 10.8% and 15.3% for single-use items and fishing-related items respectively, and a decrease of 18.6% for generic-use items. This study provides a snapshot of the current situation of littering in the central Mediterranean Sea and represents a solid baseline against which the effectiveness of current and future mitigation strategies of the litter impact on marine environment can be measured.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Sicília
18.
Med Leg J ; 88(1_suppl): 35-37, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519568

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic caused a marked increase in admissions to intensive care units. The critically ill patients' condition from the infection resulted in their deaths. The healthcare facilities have got into trouble because of the pandemic. In fact, they had to create additional beds in a very short time and to protect health workers with personal protective equipment. Healthcare professionals fear that there will be an increase in complaints and medico-legal malpractice claims and hence they have urged politicians to discuss this. The Italian Parliament recently debated the topic of medical liability and passed the Decree-Law no. 18 of 17 March 2020 (DL - so called Cura Italia) by which they want to extend the concept of "gross negligence" to healthcare facilities. Several Extended Care Units have suffered from outbreaks of Covid-19, so the Prosecutor's Office of several cities initiated investigations against them. This situation has reached Sicily, where the Prosecutor's Office of Palermo has opened an inquiry against an Extended Care Unit. Simultaneously, the Covid-19 pandemic may change patients' attitudes towards healthcare professionals, who are risking their lives daily. So the Italian medico-legal community is debating these questions, with one last pending question remaining: is the number of medico-legal claims likely to increase or trend down?


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração da Prática Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Erros de Diagnóstico/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Responsabilidade Legal , Imperícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Má Conduta Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Sicília
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349259

RESUMO

Epidemiological figures of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Italy are higher than those observed in China. Our objective was to model the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak progression in Italian regions vs. Lombardy to assess the epidemic's progression. Our setting was Italy, and especially Lombardy, which is experiencing a heavy burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The peak of new daily cases of the epidemic has been reached on the 29th, while was delayed in Central and Southern Italian regions compared to Northern ones. In our models, we estimated the basic reproduction number (R0), which represents the average number of people that can be infected by a person who has already acquired the infection, both by fitting the exponential growth rate of the infection across a 1-month period and also by using day-by-day assessments based on single observations. We used the susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) compartment model to predict the spreading of the pandemic in Italy. The two methods provide an agreement of values, although the first method based on exponential fit should provide a better estimation, being computed on the entire time series. Taking into account the growth rate of the infection across a 1-month period, each infected person in Lombardy has involved 4 other people (3.6 based on data of April 23rd) compared to a value of R0 = 2.68, as reported in the Chinese city of Wuhan. According to our model, Piedmont, Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany and Marche will reach an R0 value of up to 3.5. The R0 was 3.11 for Lazio and 3.14 for the Campania region, where the latter showed the highest value among the Southern Italian regions, followed by Apulia (3.11), Sicily (2.99), Abruzzo (3.0), Calabria (2.84), Basilicata (2.66), and Molise (2.6). The R0 value is decreased in Lombardy and the Northern regions, while it is increased in Central and Southern regions. The expected peak of the SEIR model is set at the end of March, at a national level, with Southern Italian regions reaching the peak in the first days of April. Regarding the strengths and limitations of this study, our model is based on assumptions that might not exactly correspond to the evolution of the epidemic. What we know about the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic is based on Chinese data that seems to be different than those from Italy; Lombardy is experiencing an evolution of the epidemic that seems unique inside Italy and Europe, probably due to demographic and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Sicília/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7861, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398794

RESUMO

Both close inbreeding and extreme outbreeding may negatively affect direct fitness. Optimal outbreeding theory suggests that females should preferentially mate with distantly related males. (K)in breeding theory suggests that, at similar direct fitness costs of close inbreeding and extreme outbreeding, females should prefer close kin to non-kin. Empirical evidence of plastic female choice for an optimal balance between close inbreeding and extreme outbreeding remains elusive. We tested the combined predictions of optimal outbreeding and (k)in breeding theories in predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis from two origins, Sicily and Greece, which suffer from both close inbreeding and extreme outbreeding depression. In three separate experiments, virgin females were presented binary choices between familiar and unfamiliar brothers, and between familiar/unfamiliar brothers and distant kin or non-kin. Females of Greece but not Sicily preferred unfamiliar to familiar brothers. Females of both origins preferred distant kin to unfamiliar and familiar brothers but preferred unfamiliar brothers to non-kin. Females of Sicily but not Greece preferred familiar brothers to non-kin. The suggested kin recognition mechanisms are phenotype matching and direct familiarity, with finer-tuned recognition abilities of Greece females. Overall, our experiments suggest that flexible mate choice by P. persimilis females allows optimally balancing inclusive fitness trade-offs.


Assuntos
Ácaros/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Acrilatos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Grécia , Endogamia , Masculino , Ácaros/classificação , Plásticos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sicília
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