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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007604, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386661

RESUMO

Bubonic is the most prevalent plague form in Madagascar. Indoor ground application of insecticide dust is the conventional method used to control potentially infected rodent fleas that transmit the plague bacterium from rodents to humans. The use of bait stations is an alternative approach for vector control during plague epidemics, as well as a preventive control method during non-epidemic seasons. Bait stations have many advantages, principally by reducing the amount of insecticide used, lowering the cost of the treatment and minimizing insecticide exposure in the environment. A previous study reported promising results on controlling simultaneously the reservoir and vectors, when slow-acting rodenticide was incorporated in bait stations called "Boîtes de Kartman". However, little evidence of an effective control of the fleas prior to the elimination of rodents was found. In this study, we evaluated bait stations containing insecticide powder and non-toxic attractive rodent bait for their potential to control rat fleas. Its efficacy was compared to the standard method. The impact of both methods on indoor and outdoor rodent fleas, as well as the human household flea Pulex irritans were analyzed at different time points after treatments. Bait stations did not cause any significant immediate or delayed reduction of rat fleas and increasing the number of operational bait stations per household did not significantly improve their efficacy. Insecticide ground dusting appeared to be the most efficient method to control indoor rat fleas. Both methods appeared to have little impact on the density of outdoor rat fleas and human fleas. These results demonstrate limited effectiveness for bait stations and encourage the maintenance of insecticide dusting as a first-line control strategy in case of epidemic emergence of plague, when immediate effect on rodent fleas is needed. Recommendations are given to improve the efficacy of the bait station method.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Peste/prevenção & controle , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Madagáscar , Peste/transmissão , Ratos , Roedores , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 259, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A spot-on formulation of fluralaner plus moxidectin has been designed to provide long-term protection against fleas and ticks, prevent heartworm disease and treat gastrointestinal nematode infections in cats. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this product against fleas collected from a household with repeated fipronil failures following owner-administered treatments. METHODS: Thirty cats were randomized to three equal groups: (A) untreated controls; (B) to receive a single application of fluralaner plus moxidectin (Bravecto® Plus) at 40 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg body weight, respectively; and (C) three applications at one month intervals with a spot-on formulation of fipronil and (S)-methoprene (Frontline® Plus) at 0.5 ml manufacturer recommended dose. Flea challenges were completed on Days -6 (for randomization), -1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 77, 84 and 91. Flea counts were completed 48 hours after initial treatment and 48 hours following each subsequent challenge. RESULTS: Fleas were found on all control and all fipronil and (S)-methoprene treated cats at every assessment. From Day 2 to Day 93, all cats in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were flea-free, with one exception (Day 58; three fleas counted on one cat); control group flea counts ranged between 34-109, and fipronil and (S)-methoprene group counts ranged between 1-79. At each assessment after Day 0, compared to the control group, geometric mean flea counts were significantly lower in the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P ≤ 0.04) and in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group (P < 0.001), and mean flea counts in the fluralaner plus moxidectin group were significantly lower than those of the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group (P < 0.001). The efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin, based on geometric means, was 100% at each assessment post-Day 0 except on Day 58 when efficacy was 99.7%. In the fipronil and (S)-methoprene group efficacy ranged between 30.6-65.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate complete efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin against a flea isolate that was not controlled by fipronil and (S)-methoprene. This study provides confirmation of the consistent, sustained efficacy of topically applied fluralaner in the treatment and control of flea infestations in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S12-S18, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914264

RESUMO

The efficacy of a single application of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated against fleas and ticks infesting cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan and against Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks on cats in a laboratory study. In the laboratory study, sixteen cats were ranked based on pre-treatment tick counts and allocated randomly to treatment on Day 0 with either selamectin plus sarolaner or placebo. Cats were infested with adult H. longicornis on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy relative to placebo was based on live attached tick counts conducted 48 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations. Selamectin plus sarolaner reduced live, attached H. longicornis counts by 96.4% within 48 h of treatment, and by ≥91.7% within 48 h of weekly re-infestation for 35 days, based on arithmetic means. In the field studies, 67 client-owned cats harboring six or more live fleas and 63 cats harboring four or more live attached ticks were enrolled to evaluate selamectin plus sarolaner for efficacy and safety compared with a registered product. Cats were allocated randomly to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner or fipronil plus (S)-methoprene based on order of presentation. Treatment was administered once on Day 0 and efficacy was assessed by parasite counts conducted on Days 14 and 30 compared to the pre-treatment count. In the flea field study, live flea counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 99.5% and 99.9% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 97.6% and 98.6% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Clinical signs typically associated with flea allergy dermatitis improved following treatment. In the tick field study, live tick counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 97.5% and 97.7% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 91.5% and 93.4% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Selamectin plus sarolaner was determined to be non-inferior to fipronil plus (S)-methoprene in both field studies. There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. A single topical dose of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum dosage of 6.0 mg/kg selamectin and 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner was confirmed to be effective against H. longicornis ticks on cats for one month and safe and effective in the treatment of fleas and ticks on cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Japão , Masculino , Metoprene/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(4): 274-283, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668280

RESUMO

Sylvatic plague affects many species in North American prairie ecosystems. Deltamethrin is commonly used to manage fleas in potential outbreak areas. Understanding the role of small mammals and their ectoparasites in sylvatic plague maintenance is pertinent to understanding the ecology of plague and its persistence in nature. This study examined the effects of plague management using deltamethrin on communities of small mammals, their flea faunas, and Yersinia pestis prevalence. We trapped small mammals from 2014 to 2016 on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation (LOBR), South Dakota, and analyzed the effects of deltamethrin treatment on small mammal populations, flea loads, and Y. pestis prevalence. We collected higher flea loads from small mammals on sites not treated with deltamethrin (1.10 fleas per animal) than from deltamethrin-treated sites (1.03 fleas per animal). We observed significant negative trends in mean flea load per animal between pre- and post-treatment collections. We detected no significant effects of deltamethrin treatment on animal captures pre- and post-treatment, but observed significant differences in animal captures by experimental unit. We detected no serological evidence for the presence of Y. pestis antibodies in small mammals and 1.2% Y. pestis prevalence across all sampled fleas. Although there is little overlap in the species of fleas infesting small mammals and prairie dogs, the occurrence of flea spillover has been documented. In our study, treatment with deltamethrin reduced flea loads on small mammals by up to 49%. Our data suggest that although the efficacy of deltamethrin on the LOBR-a mixed-grass system-may not be as high as that found in a comparable study in a short-grass system, deltamethrin is still a useful tool in the management of plague.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Peste/veterinária , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Dinâmica Populacional , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/prevenção & controle , Roedores/parasitologia , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Yersinia pestis
5.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(6): 400-406, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620249

RESUMO

Plague, a flea-borne disease, hampers efforts to restore populations of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), which occupy colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in North America. Plague is managed by infusing prairie dog burrows with DeltaDust® 0.05% deltamethrin, a pulicide that kills fleas. Experiments are needed to identify pulicides that can be used in rotation with DeltaDust for integrated plague management. In South Dakota, USA, we tested the efficacy of four pulicide dusts when applied at a rate of 8 g per burrow on colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus): Sevin® 5% carbaryl; Dusta-cide® 6% malathion; Alpine® 0.25% dinotefuran with 95% diatomaceous earth; and Tri-Die® 1% pyrethrum with 40% amorphous silica and 10% piperonyl butoxide. We also tested systemic 0.005% fipronil, which was distributed as ½ cup of laced grain per burrow. We sampled prairie dogs on 3294 occasions and detected 10,041 fleas. Sevin and Dusta-cide suppressed fleas but only for 1 month. Neither Alpine nor Tri-Die had any noticeable, consistent effect on fleas. Fipronil suppressed fleas by 97-100% for 3 months. The residual effect of fipronil persisted for ∼12 months. Efficacy of fipronil seems comparable with DeltaDust, which exhibited a residual effect for ∼10 months in prior studies. Continued research is needed to optimize fipronil treatments for plague management on prairie dog colonies.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Peste/prevenção & controle , Peste/transmissão , Peste/veterinária , South Dakota
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S3-S11, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579753

RESUMO

Two randomised, single-masked, multi-center field studies were conducted in the United States in cats presented as veterinary patients. The first study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topically applied formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea infestations; the second study evaluated its efficacy against natural ear mite infestations. The product was administered topically by the cats' owners at the dose range provided in the market product of 6.0-12.0 mg selamectin and 1.0-2.0 mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin (Advantage® Multi for Cats, Bayer) was used as a positive control in both studies at the label dosage. In the flea study, treatments were administered on Days 0, 30, and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live flea counts on Days 30, 60, and 90 relative to the pre-treatment count. In the ear mite study, a single treatment was applied on Day 0 and efficacy was determined on Days 14 and 30 based on the presence or absence of ear mites. In both studies, patients were randomly allocated to treatments in the ratio of 2:1, selamectin plus sarolaner: imidacloprid plus moxidectin. In the two studies, 405 cats received treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; of these, 256 cats received three monthly treatments in the flea study. There were no serious adverse reactions to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; health issues noted were typical of the normal ailments or minor traumatic injuries expected in the general cat population and were similar in both treatment groups. Efficacy against fleas based on geometric (arithmetic) means was 97.2% (95.9%), 99.5% (99.4%), and 99.8% (99.8%) in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and was 79.7% (70.5%), 91.4% (77.3%), and 95.5% (87.4%) in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Days 30, 60, and 90, respectively. Flea counts for the selamectin plus sarolaner group were significantly lower than the counts for the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group at all time-points after treatment administration on Day 0 (P < 0.001). Treatment reduced the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (alopecia, dermatitis/pyodermatitis, erythema, pruritus, scaling, and papules) in affected cats by 86.7%-100% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and by 66.7%-100% in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group. In the ear mite study, a single application of selamectin plus sarolaner resulted in the clearance of mites from 87.5% of cats within 14 days and 94.4% of cats within 30 days of treatment. The respective percentages of mite-free cats in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group were 64.0% and 72.0%. There were significantly more cats with no mites noted in the selamectin plus sarolaner group than in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Day 14 and Day 30 (P ≤ 0.018). Selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) administered topically at monthly intervals for three months was well tolerated and highly effective for the treatment and prevention of natural infestations of fleas on cats presented as veterinary patients. Clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis improved in affected cats following treatment administration. A single topical treatment was also safe and highly effective for the treatment of ear mite infestations in naturally infested cats.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208613, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532255

RESUMO

To reduce morbidity and mortality caused by visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the Brazilian Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Surveillance Program promotes the diagnosis and treatment of cases, vector control, euthanasia of seropositive dogs, and health education. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these measures is questionable as they lead to little reduction in the transmission of the disease. Thus, the effectiveness of strategies such as insecticide-impregnated collars, spot-on insecticides, and immunization of dogs should be assessed. Herein, we evaluated the effectiveness of deltamethrin-impregnated collars on reducing the incidence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs living in an endemic area of VL. An intervention study was conducted and a total 5,850 dogs were analyzed in baseline. Of these 3,742 seronegative dogs were divided into two groups: collared and uncollared (control). Dogs were followed for 12 months and three interventions were performed. The Cox regression model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the collar. All analyzes were performed by Intention-to-treat and per-protocol. By intention-to-treat, the incidence rates of L. infantum infection were 7.5 and 7.9 in the collar group, and 6.5 and 13.2 per 1,000 dogs-months in the control group after 6 and 12 months, respectively. In the per-protocol analysis, the incidence rates in the control group were similar to those observed in the intention-to-treat analysis. In the collar group, the incidence rate was 5.1/1,000 dogs-months after 6 and 12 months. The effectiveness by intention-to-treat after adjustment by the multivariate Cox model was 48%. In the analysis per-protocol, the effectiveness increased to 63%. Although collar use was effective when it was evaluated by intention-to-treat, higher effectiveness was found in the per-protocol analysis after one year of follow-up. The data emphasize the importance of the uninterrupted use of deltamethrin-impregnated collars to increase protection against canine VL.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/química , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Nitrilos/química , Piretrinas/química , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Incidência , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Masculino , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Controle de Pragas , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Sifonápteros/parasitologia , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carrapatos/parasitologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 589, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A spot-on formulation containing fluralaner (280 mg/ml) plus moxidectin (14 mg/ml) (Bravecto® Plus) was developed for the treatment of nematode infections as well as providing 12 weeks of protection against insect and acarine parasites in cats. The effectiveness and safety of this product against feline gastrointestinal nematodes was assessed in naturally-infested, client-owned cats under field conditions in Albania, Bulgaria, Germany and Hungary. METHODS: To be eligible for enrollment in this investigator-blinded study cats had to be at least 10 weeks-old, weigh at least 1.2 kg, be clinically healthy, and have a faecal sample testing positive for nematodes no more than eight days prior to treatment. Cats were stratified into blocks of three in order of presentation at each center and randomly allocated in a 2:1 ratio to be treated topically on Day 0 with fluralaner plus moxidectin (minimum dose rates 40 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg, respectively) or emodepside plus praziquantel (minimum dose rates 3 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg, respectively) (Profender®). Faecal samples were collected from cats prior to treatment and 14 ± 4 days later. RESULTS: There were 182 cats randomized to the fluralaner plus moxidectin group, and 91 to the emodepside plus praziquantel group. Prior to treatment the most commonly identified nematode egg was Toxocara cati, found in 79.1 and 82.4% of cats in the fluralaner plus moxidectin and emodepside plus praziquantel groups, respectively. Eggs of Toxascaris leonina were found in 8.2 and 6.6% of cats; of hookworms in 30.8 and 24.2%; and of Capillaria spp. in 7.1 and 4.3%, respectively. After treatment, faecal samples from 98.3% of fluralaner plus moxidectin treated and 96.6% of emodepside plus praziquantel-treated cats were free of nematode ova. Geometric mean faecal egg count reductions for T. cati, the only eggs found in post-treatment faecal samples, were 99.97% and 99.93%, respectively. Treatment with fluralaner plus moxidectin was non-inferior to emodepside plus praziquantel. Both products were safe and well tolerated by cats treated under field conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This field study confirms that, in addition to 12-week extended duration flea and tick control, fluralaner plus moxidectin provides broad spectrum treatment of nematodes in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Depsipeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Método Simples-Cego , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Sifonápteros/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 581, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veterinary clinic transaction records from the USA were examined to determine dog owner purchase patterns for three prescription ectoparasiticides. In-clinic purchases of formulations of fluralaner (with 12-week duration per dose) were compared with dog owner purchases of afoxolaner and spinosad (both with 4 week duration per dose) in a population of 231,565 dogs over a 12 month period. Prior studies in human and animal medicine have suggested that patients more closely adhere to prescriber dosing recommendations when they receive a longer-duration medication. RESULTS: Veterinary clinic transaction records were examined for the period June 2014 through March 2017 using records from approximately 650 veterinary clinics. Ectoparasiticide purchase patterns were compared for two products (afoxalaner and spinosad) with monthly dosing and one product (fluralaner) with an extended (12 week) dosing interval. The average dog owner who obtained fluralaner purchased significantly more months of flea/tick protection (5.7 months) over the 12-month study period than the average dog owner that selected either afoxolaner (4.6 months) or spinosad (3.3 months). The proportion of dog owners who obtained only one dose of ectoparasiticide per 12-month period was 42% for fluralaner, 30% for afoxolaner and 37% for spinosad. The proportion of dog owners who obtained 2 doses or less per 12-month period was 67% for fluralaner, 52% for afoxoalaner and 67% for spinosad. Owners that obtained fluralaner were significantly more likely to obtain 7.0-12.0 months of flea and tick protection and significantly less likely to purchase 1.0-6.9 months compared with dog owners who purchased afoxolaner or spinosad. CONCLUSIONS: Dog owners who obtained a flea and tick medication with a longer duration of action acquired significantly more months of protection in a year than dog owners who obtained shorter duration (1 month) products. Dog owners were better able to adhere to veterinary recommendations on ectoparasites control with a longer-acting flea/tick medication.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Adesão à Medicação , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros , Drogas Veterinárias/uso terapêutico , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estados Unidos
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 515, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes transmit many vector-borne infectious diseases including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, and Japanese encephalitis. The insecticidal δ-endotoxins Cry4, Cry11, and Cyt produced from Bacillus thuringiensis have been used for bio-control of mosquito larvae. Cry δ-endotoxins are synthesised as inactive protoxins in the form of crystalline inclusions in which they are processed to active toxins in larval midgut lumen. Previously, we demonstrated that the activated Cry4Ba toxin has to alter the permeability of the peritrophic membrane (PM), allowing toxin passage across PM to reach specific receptors on microvilli of larval midgut epithelial cells, where the toxin undergoes conformational changes, followed by membrane insertion and pore formation, resulting in larval death. A peritrophic membrane (PM)-binding calcofluor has been proposed to inhibit chitin formation and enhance baculovirus infection of lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. METHODS: In this study, Aedes aegypti larvae were fed with the calcofluor and Cry4Ba toxin to investigate the effect of this agent on the toxicity of the Cry4Ba toxin. RESULTS: Calcofluor displayed an enhancing effect when co-fed with the Cry4Ba wild-type toxin. The agent could restore the killing activity of the partially active Cry4Ba mutant E417A/Y455A toward Ae. aegypti larvae. PM destruction was observed after larval challenge with calcofluor together with the toxin. Interestingly, calcofluor increased Cry4Ba toxin susceptibility toward semi-susceptible Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. However, calcofluor alone or in combination with the toxin showed no mortality effect on non-susceptible fresh-water fleas, Moina macrocopa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PM may contribute to the resistance of the mosquito larvae to Cry4Ba toxin. The PM-permeability alternating calcofluor might be a promising candidate for enhancing insect susceptibility, which will consequently improve Cry4Ba efficacy in field settings in the future.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Benzenossulfonatos/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Aedes/ultraestrutura , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/ultraestrutura , Membranas/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas/metabolismo , Membranas/ultraestrutura , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 385, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluralaner (Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) is a novel isoxazoline that provides up to 12 weeks flea and tick control when administered orally to dogs. Two assessor-blinded studies, one in dogs, the other in cats evaluated the sustained efficacy of a topical fluralaner formulation against fleas in a simulated home environment (SHE). METHODS: Animals were ranked and blocked into groups of two using flea counts completed 24 hours following Ctenocephalides felis infestations placed on dogs on Day -64, and on cats on Day -36. Within blocks animals were randomized to a treatment group, 10 animals per group, one group to receive fluralaner spot-on (minimum dose rate for dogs, 25 mg/kg; for cats, 40 mg/kg), the other to be a sham-treated control. Animals were then placed into their SHE, one animal per pen or cage and then infested with 100 C. felis at weekly intervals. Dogs were infested from Day -56 through -21 and cats on Days -28 and -21. Fleas were counted and removed from each dog and cat on Day -1. Study animals were then held in clean pens/cages until treatment on Day 0. One day later, after treatment, all animals were returned to their home environment (SHE). Additional 50-flea challenges were placed on each animal on Days 22, 50 and 78. Fleas were counted and replaced on all animals on Day 1 and weekly thereafter for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Arithmetic mean counts in control-group animals exceeded 10 fleas at all post-treatment assessments except on Days 1, 7 and 14. All control-group animals remained infested at each assessment from Day or 28 through Day 84, thereby validating the challenge methodology. Fluralaner efficacy was 100% on all occasions except for 2 fleas found on 1 dog on Day 1, and 3 fleas on 1 dog on Day 14. One flea was recovered from 1 fluralaner treated cat on Day 1. There were no treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: A single application of a topical formulation of fluralaner is well tolerated and highly effective in the prevention of flea infestations of dogs and cats throughout the 12 weeks following treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Ctenocephalides/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(7): e0006630, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044788

RESUMO

Plague (Yersinia pestis) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania major) are two rodent-associated diseases which are vectored by fleas and phlebotomine sand flies, respectively. In Central Asia, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) serves as the primary reservoir for both diseases in most natural foci. The systemic insecticide fipronil has been previously shown to be highly effective in controlling fleas and sand flies. However, the impact of a fipronil-based rodent bait, on flea and sand fly abundance, has never been reported in Central Asia. A field trial was conducted in southeastern Kazakhstan to evaluate the efficacy of a 0.005% fipronil bait, applied to gerbil burrows for oral uptake, in reducing Xenopsylla spp. flea and Phlebotomus spp. sand fly abundance. All active gerbil burrows within the treated area were presented with ~120 g of 0.005% fipronil grain bait twice during late spring/early summer (June 16, June 21). In total, 120 occupied and 14 visited gerbil colonies were surveyed and treated, and the resulting application rate was minimal (~0.006 mg fipronil/m2). The bait resulted in 100% reduction in Xenopsylla spp. flea abundance at 80-days post-treatment. Gravid sand flies were reduced ~72% and 100% during treatment and at week-3 post-treatment, respectively. However, noticeable sand fly reduction did not occur after week-3 and results suggest environmental factors also influenced abundance significantly. In conclusion, fipronil bait, applied in southeastern Kazakhstan, has the potential to reduce or potentially eliminate Xenopsylla spp. fleas if applied at least every 80-days, but may need to be applied at higher frequency to significantly reduce the oviposition rate of Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Fipronil-based bait may provide a means of controlling blood-feeding vectors, subsequently reducing disease risk, in Central Asia and other affected regions globally.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Gerbillinae/fisiologia , Cazaquistão , Masculino , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Sifonápteros/fisiologia
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(4): 745-754, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723100

RESUMO

Sylvatic plague poses a substantial risk to black-tailed prairie dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus) and their obligate predator, the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes). The effects of plague on prairie dogs and ferrets are mitigated using a deltamethrin pulicide dust that reduces the spread of plague by killing fleas, the vector for the plague bacterium. In portions of Conata Basin, Buffalo Gap National Grassland, and Badlands National Park, South Dakota, US, 0.05% deltamethrin has been infused into prairie dog burrows on an annual basis since 2005. We aimed to determine if fleas ( Oropsylla hirsuta) in portions of the Conata Basin and Badlands National Park have evolved resistance to deltamethrin. We assessed flea prevalence, obtained by combing prairie dogs for fleas, as an indirect measure of resistance. Dusting was ineffective in two colonies treated with deltamethrin for >8 yr; flea prevalence rebounded within 1 mo of dusting. We used a bioassay that exposed fleas to deltamethrin to directly evaluate resistance. Fleas from colonies with >8 yr of exposure to deltamethrin exhibited survival rates that were 15% to 83% higher than fleas from sites that had never been dusted. All fleas were paralyzed or dead after 55 min. After removal from deltamethrin, 30% of fleas from the dusted colonies recovered, compared with 1% of fleas from the not-dusted sites. Thus, deltamethrin paralyzed fleas from colonies with long-term exposure to deltamethrin, but a substantial number of those fleas was resistant and recovered. Flea collections from live-trapped prairie dogs in Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming, US, suggest that, in some cases, fleas might begin to develop a moderate level of resistance to deltamethrin after 5-6 yr of annual treatments. Restoration of black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs will rely on an adaptive, integrative approach to plague management, for instance involving the use of vaccines and rotating applications of insecticidal products with different active ingredients.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Wyoming/epidemiologia
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 146: 97-105, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626998

RESUMO

The human flea, Pulex irritans, is the most important ectoparasite of humans. Intensive use of pyrethroids for its control has led to insecticide resistance. Monitoring pyrethroid resistance and its underlying mechanisms is essential for flea control. The aims of this study were to identify the susceptibility status of human flea to permethrin and to detect the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation and its frequency in populations of P. irritans. Adults of P. irritans were collected from Zanjan Province, northwest of Iran, during 2013-2017. Different populations of this flea were exposed to permethrin 0.75% for one and 8 h and then the mortality rate, as well as KD50 and KD95 times were calculated. Total RNA and gDNA of samples were extracted, and the fragments of cDNA encoding the partial voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) peptides were amplified using degenerated primers. Specific PCR and TaqMan real-time assays were conducted to characterize the vgsc gene and to detect the presence of mutation and genotyping of the populations. Mortality rates were in the range from 32% to 67% for one-hour and 73% to 90% for eight-hour exposure to permethrin 0.75%. KD50 and KD95 times varied in a range from 46 to 241 and 177 to 899 min, respectively. Sequencing of 70 amplified fragments of gDNA resulted in a 578-bp product. These fragments contained two introns (92 and 63 bp) and three exons (141, 189, and 92 bp) encoding 138 amino acids that encompassed IIS4-IIS6 and the partial linker between domains II and III of VGSC. All the studied populations showed L1014F mutation, substitution of CTT for TTT at the 1014 allele. The result of TaqMan assay for 624 samples showed 96.6% homogenous and 3.36% heterozygous mutant. The development of permethrin resistance and the presence of the L1014F mutation at high frequency in flea populations indicate that pyrethroids are likely ineffective in controlling human flea. Therefore, novel alternative control methods are needed to combat this human ectoparasite.


Assuntos
Piretrinas/farmacologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 347-351, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286262

RESUMO

At Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico, US, infusing Gunnison's prairie dog ( Cynomys gunnisoni) burrows with an insecticide dust containing 0.05% deltamethrin killed fleas which transmit bubonic plague. The reduction in the number of fleas per prairie dog was significant and dramatic immediately after infusions, with a suggestion that the reduction persisted for as long as 12 mo. Despite the lower flea counts, however, a plague epizootic killed >95% of prairie dogs after 3 yr of infusions (once per year). More research is necessary for a better understanding of the efficacy of insecticide dusts at lowering flea counts and protecting prairie dogs from plague.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Peste/veterinária , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Roedores/prevenção & controle , Sciuridae , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 528, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown that the novel isoxazoline, lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) administered orally to dogs, produces rapid flea and tick knockdown and sustained speed of kill for at least a month post-treatment with a wide safety margin. A field study was undertaken to validate pre-clinical results. METHODS: Dogs were enrolled at 10 veterinary clinics across the United States. Qualifying households containing up to three dogs and one primary dog with at least 10 fleas were randomized 2:1 to receive lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) at the recommended minimum dose of 20 mg/kg, or afoxolaner (Nexgard®, Merial), administered per label, to give a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Treatments were dispensed on Days 0, 30 and 60 for administration by owners; all household dogs received the same treatment as the primary dog. Post-enrollment flea and tick counts were made on primary dogs on Days 30, 60 and 90, and all dogs were assessed for tablet palatability and safety. RESULTS: For efficacy assessments, data were used from 111 lotilaner-treated dogs and 50 afoxolaner-treated dogs; for safety, 197 and 86 dogs, respectively. Percent reductions from baseline in geometric mean flea counts for the lotilaner group were 99.3, 99.9 and 100% on Days 30, 60 and 90, respectively, and for afoxolaner 98.3, 99.8 and 99.8% (P < 0.001, both groups, all days). On Day 90, 100% of lotilaner-treated dogs and 93% of afoxolaner-treated dogs were flea-free. Too few ticks were present to allow assessment. There were no differences in palatability between products (P = 0.2132), with, respectively, 94% and 96% of lotilaner and afoxolaner treatments accepted when offered by hand, in an empty food bowl or with food. Both treatments were well tolerated, alleviating clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) in dogs affected at enrollment. CONCLUSION: A single owner-administered lotilaner treatment was greater than 99% effective in reducing mean flea counts within 30 days. Three consecutive monthly lotilaner treatments resulted in a 100% reduction in flea infestations, and a substantial reduction in signs of FAD. Lotilaner flavored tablets were readily accepted under field conditions. The absence of treatment-related adverse events confirms the safety of lotilaner in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/efeitos adversos , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Comprimidos , Estados Unidos
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 526, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a novel isoxazoline developed for oral administration to dogs. In laboratory studies, lotilaner was shown to be safe and to produce a rapid flea and tick knockdown, with a sustained speed of kill for at least a month post-treatment. A study was undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy, safety and palatability of three monthly doses of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco) in controlling fleas under field conditions in Europe. METHODS: Dogs were enrolled at 17 veterinary clinics across Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households having no more than three dogs and one primary dog with at least five fleas was randomised 2:1 to a lotilaner (minimum dose rate 20 mg/kg) or a topical fipronil group (administered per label). There were 128 and 64 households allocated to the lotilaner and fipronil groups, respectively. Treatments were dispensed to owners on Days 0, 28 and 56; supplementary household dogs received the same treatment as the primary dog. Post-enrollment flea counts and flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) assessments were made on primary dogs on Days 14, 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy calculations were based on geometric mean percent reductions of live flea counts versus pre-treatment counts on Day 0. The safety and palatability of lotilaner tablets were also assessed. RESULTS: Lotilaner efficacy was 99.1, 99.5, 99.9 and 99.8% on Days 14, 28, 56 and 84, respectively. Corresponding reductions for fipronil were 93.4, 91.2, 94.4 and 97.0%. Lotilaner was superior to fipronil at all post-Day 0 assessments (t (186) ≥ 3.43, P ≤ 0.0007). At every post-treatment assessment, at least 90% of lotilaner-treated dogs were flea-free (98.4% on Day 84); fewer than 90% of fipronil group dogs were flea-free on the same time points. Lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets were palatable, and both products were well tolerated. Lotilaner alleviated or eliminated clinical signs of FAD, including pruritus. CONCLUSIONS: Under field conditions in Europe, lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets were greater than 99% effective in eliminating fleas from dogs at the first post-treatment assessment (Day 14). Efficacy was maintained through Day 84, with corresponding improvements in FAD. Lotilaner tablets were palatable and safe and provided superior flea control to fipronil.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Alemanha , Hospitais Veterinários , Hungria , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Propriedade , Portugal , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Comprimidos
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 389, 2017 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. METHODS: Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. RESULTS: The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. CONCLUSIONS: An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost completely eliminated flea infestations on dogs and in private residences, while markedly reducing dermatology lesions and pruritus.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Prurido/veterinária , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Florida/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/epidemiologia , Prurido/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 387, 2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of a novel isoxazoline compound, sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) and spinosad (Comfortis®, Elanco) as a positive control were evaluated for the treatment and control of natural flea infestations on dogs in two randomised, blinded, multi-centric clinical trials conducted in 11 veterinary clinics in northeastern and southeastern states of Australia. METHODS: A total of 162 client-owned dogs (80 in northern study and 82 in southern study) from 105 households were enrolled. Each household was randomly allocated to receive either sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) or spinosad (Comfortis®, Elanco). Dogs were dosed on Days 0, 30 and 60 and physical examinations and flea counts were conducted on Days 0, 14, 30, 60 and 90. Efficacy assessments were based on the percentage reduction in live flea counts post-treatment compared to Day 0. RESULTS: In the northern study, at enrolment, primary dogs had flea counts ranging from 5 to 772. At the first efficacy assessment on Day 14, sarolaner resulted in 99.3% mean reduction in live flea counts relative to Day 0, compared to 94.6% in the spinosad group. On Day 30, the sarolaner-treated group had mean efficacy of 99.2% compared to 95.7% in the spinosad-treated group, and on days 60 and 90, both groups had mean efficacies of ≥ 98.8%. In the southern study, at enrolment, primary dogs had flea counts ranging from 5 to 156. Both sarolaner and spinosad resulted in ≥ 96.7% mean reduction in live flea counts on Day 14. On Day 30, the sarolaner-treated group had mean efficacy of 99.5% compared to 89.7% in the spinosad-treated group, and on days 60 and 90, both groups had mean efficacies of ≥ 98.6%. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either study. CONCLUSIONS: A single monthly dose of sarolaner (Simparica®) administered orally at 2-4 mg/kg for three consecutive months was well tolerated and provided excellent efficacy against natural infestations of fleas under a range of Australian field conditions including different climatic and housing conditions. Similar efficacy was observed with spinosad (Comfortis®) after the second and third monthly treatments.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Carga Parasitária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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