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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530108

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the conservation process and feed value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages. In exp. 1, we evaluated the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of TMR silages containing different protein and lipid supplementations. In exp. 2, we compared the performance of finishing beef heifers fed those TMR silages. In both experiments, treatments were as follows: ensiled TMR with urea (U); ensiled TMR without a protein supplement at ensiling, but soybean meal supplemented at feeding to balance diet crude protein (CP) in exp. 2 (SMnf; where the acronym nf indicates nonfermented); ensiled TMR with soybean meal (SM); and ensiled TMR with rolled soybean grain (SG). Thirty-two Nellore heifers (313 ± 8.8 kg shrunk body weight [SBW]) were blocked by initial SBW, housed in individual pens, and enrolled in exp. 2 for 82 d. In exp. 1, treatment without a protein supplement (SMnf) had a lower content of CP, soluble CP, NH3-N, pH, and Clostridium count compared with U (P ≤ 0.03). Lactic acid concentrations tended to be reduced for SMnf compared with U (P = 0.09). Ethanol concentration was reduced in SG compared with SM (P < 0.01). 1,2-Propanediol concentration was increased in SMnf compared with U (P < 0.01), reduced in SM compared with SMnf (P = 0.02), and increased in SG compared with SM (P = 0.02). Dry matter (DM) loss during fermentation was low and similar among treatments (~3.7%). All silages remained stable during 10 d of aerobic exposure after feed out. Considering fermentation traits, such as pH (≤4.72), NH3-N (<10% of N, except for U treatment), butyric acid (<0.05 % DM), and DM losses (<3.70% DM), all silages can be considered well conserved. In exp. 2, diets were isonitrogenous because soybean meal was added to SMnf before feeding. Compared with SM, cattle fed SG made more meals per day (P = 0.04) and tended to have a decreased intermeal interval (P = 0.09). DM intake, average daily gain, final SBW, hot carcass weight, Biceps femoris fat thickness, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were increased for SG compared with SM (P ≤ 0.05). In brief, TMR silages exhibited an adequate fermentation pattern and high aerobic stability. The supplementation of true protein did not improve animal performance, whereas the addition of soybean grain as a lipid source improved the performance of finishing cattle fed TMR silages.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Silagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fermentação , Lipídeos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313749

RESUMO

Objectives of this study were to evaluate apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and purine derivative (PD) excretion in dairy heifers limit-fed diets containing wet brewer's grains (WBG) treated with salt. A 12-wk replicated 4 × 4 Latin square was conducted using 8 Holstein heifers of 224.5 ± 19.4 d of age, and body weight (BW) of 219.2 ± 28.1 kg (mean ± SD). Fresh WBG were treated with 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% salt and stored for 4 d before being fed. Salt was added either to the WBG or separately to equalize the amount of salt in the diet. The diet contained 9% grass silage, 47% corn silage, 19% corn meal, 17.6% WBG and salt, 2% soybean meal, and 3% mineral mix. Diets were formulated to be limit-fed at 2.15% of BW, provide 14% crude protein (CP) and 2.27 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM). Heifers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily during the collection week while BW was recorded once a week. Urine and fecal samples were collected during the last 4 d of the collection period. Acid insoluble ash was used as an internal marker to determine apparent nutrient digestibility. Weight loss of WBG during storage was determined from days 1 to 11 and initial and final yeast and mold counts were determined. Final yeast counts were similar among treatments while final mold counts tended to be lesser (P = 0.07) for the 0.8% and 1.6% salt treatments. Urinary volume was similar among treatments while allantoin (P = 0.14), and uric acid (P < 0.01) and total PD excretion tended to increase (P = 0.13) quadratically. DMI was varied by treatment (linear, quadratic, and cubic effects P < 0.01). Heifers fed the 0.8% treatment had the least DMI. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) digestibility linearly decreased (P < 0.04) as salt increased. Digestibilities of DM, and organic matter (OM), tended to decrease (P < 0.10) with increasing levels of salt added to WBG. Fat digestibility was quadratic with the greatest value for the 1.6% treatment. Treating WBG with salt reduced its deterioration based on lesser mold counts for the 0.8% and 1.6% treatments. These treatments had resulted in greater fat digestibility and tended to have increased PD excretion suggesting improved microbial protein synthesis.


Assuntos
Digestão , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Nutrientes , Purinas , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13463, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222395

RESUMO

To effectively utilize crop by-product resources for ruminant feed in semi-arid West Africa, we studied the chemical composition, characteristics concerned with fermentative quality, and microbial population of ensiled pearl millet stover (PMS) and sorghum stover (SS) in Mozambique. After panicle harvest, the PMS and SS were exposed in the field for 7, 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 120 days under natural weather conditions. The fresh stover silages were prepared and stored for 120 days. With increased exposure time, the dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen contents increased, whereas the crude protein, ether extract, gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and true protein contents decreased. After 120 days of field exposure, aerobic bacteria dominated both stovers, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) decreased to below detectable levels. After 120 days of ensiling, LAB dominated the silage of both crops, while the harmful microorganisms as aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast, and mold were reduced or below detectable levels. Both silages did not produce more lactic acid to reduce the pH value, but they preserved nutrients well during ensiling. Therefore, PMS and SS can be prepared as silage for ruminant feed in semi-arid West Africa.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Pennisetum , Silagem , Sorghum , Bactérias Aeróbias , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillales , Lignina/análise , Moçambique , Nitrogênio/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Silagem/análise , Silagem/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1298-1309, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016457

RESUMO

Tillage incorporation of manure can mitigate nutrient loss but increases erosion potential and damages cover crops. More information on the effects of low-disturbance manure application (LDMA) on corn yield, cover crop establishment, and soil properties is needed to better predict manure management practice trade-offs. Here, corn silage (Zea mays L.) yield, winter rye (Secale cereale L.) establishment, and soil nitrate concentrations were compared for a range of manure application methods, including broadcast incorporation, broadcast/disk, fertilizer N (spring applied at 67, 134, and 202 kg N ha-1 ), and a no-manure control, at the University of Wisconsin's Marshfield Agricultural Research Station from 2012 to 2015. Compared with the control, manure and fertilizer N treatments increased corn yield by an average of 1.1- to 1.6-fold and 1.4- to 1.6-fold, respectively. Of the LDMA treatments (sweep-, strip till-, and coulter-injection; aerator/band; broadcast), corn yield was greatest for sweep injection, which did not differ from the high N fertilizer rate (P < .0001). Corn yield averaged across LDMA treatments did not differ from the 134 or 202 kg N ha-1 yields. Compared with disking, LDMA maintained more crop residue (P < .0001), with levels comparable to the control. Soil nitrate-N at depths of 0-30 and 30-60 cm was influenced by LDMA and fertilizer N; however, leaching to 60-90 cm was comparable among treatments. Results indicate that LDMA with injection conserved more N, caused less damage to winter rye, and had similar yields to fertilizer N treatments with improved soil aggregate stability and higher total carbon content.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Esterco , Secale , Solo
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1236-1250, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016461

RESUMO

A critical question is whether there are agricultural management practices that can attain the multiple management goals of increasing yields, preventing nutrient losses, and suppressing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. No-till and manure application methods, such as manure injection, can enhance nutrient retention, but both may also enhance emissions of nitrous oxide (N2 O), a powerful GHG. We assessed differences in soil N2 O and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions, nitrate and ammonium retention, and crop yield and protein content under combinations of vertical-till, no-till, manure injection, and manure broadcast without incorporation in a corn (Zea mays L.) silage system. During the growing seasons of 2015-2017, GHG emissions and soil mineral nitrogen (N) were measured every other week or more frequently after management events. Crop yield and protein content were measured annually at harvest. No-till reduced CO2 emissions but had no impact on N2 O emissions relative to vertical-till. Manure injection increased N2 O and CO2 emissions, with the magnitude of this effect being greatest for 1 mo post-application. Manure injection also increased soil ammonium and nitrate but did not increase yield or crop quality relative to broadcast application. Similarly, tillage did not affect crop yield or protein content. Despite the tradeoffs between mineral N retention and elevated GHG emissions, manure injection in no-till systems benefits farmers by reducing soil carbon losses as CO2 , retaining mineral N, and maintaining crop yields and quality.


Assuntos
Esterco , Silagem , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo , Zea mays
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13473, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078508

RESUMO

Dairy cows often suffer metabolic disorders due to the challenges of the transition period. The aim of study was to determine the effects of feeding pomegranate by-product silage (PBS) on feed intake and some blood parameters, such as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA), interleukin-1 (IL-1), serum amyloid-A (SAA), prostaglandin F2α metabolites (PGFM), and progesterone (P4) in fresh Holstein cows. The experimental groups were as follows: CON (0 g PBS of DM) and PBS (120 g PBS of DM). Results showed that replacing corn silage with PBS had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) throughout the study. The CON group had highest (p < .05) NEFA at 14 d postpartum and serum BHBA was decreased by feeding PBS, especially on days 21 (p < .05) and 28 (p < .05) and the entire study (p < .01). Cows fed PBS had lower (p < .05) serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) than CON cows at different times. Feeding PBS decreased (p < .01) serum IL-1 compared to CON group (216.7 versus. 515.5 Pg/ml) at 28 d postpartum, and also cows fed 120 g PBS had higher (p < .01) serum P4. It was concluded that feeding PBS had no adverse effect on feed intake, milk production, and some reproductive parameters. Moreover, PBS positively affected serum metabolites in fresh dairy cows.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Romã (Fruta) , Silagem , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Inflamação , Interleucina-1/sangue , Lactação , Malondialdeído/sangue , Reprodução
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110990, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888601

RESUMO

The presence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in croplands has become an international concern. The environmental behavior and fate of SMX in agricultural soils are not well understood, especially when the adsorption behavior is disturbed by the dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by crop straw. As canola straw is one of the biomasses widely returned to farmlands, we characterized DOM derived from pristine and decomposed canola straw, and explored the effects and mechanisms of the DOMs on regulating SMX adsorption to purple paddy soils. The spectral analysis showed that the molecular weight, aromaticity, and hydrophobicity of canola straw-derived DOM increased as decomposition proceeded. These physicochemical properties collectively determined the effects of the DOM on SMX adsorption. The DOM derived from pristine canola straw increased SMX maximum adsorption capacity of the soils by approximately 2.6 times, but this positive effect gradually decreased to a steady state by day 90 in the straw decomposition period. Nevertheless, the SMX adsorption behavior in the soils was invariably determined by the DOM extracts. These adsorption processes of SMX were well fitted by the double-chamber kinetics model and the Langmuir and Freundlich thermodynamic models. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that SMX adsorption onto the soils was spontaneous and endothermic, and this adsorption characteristics was not significantly (p > 0.05) changed by the DOM extracts. However, the adsorption kinetics were altered by those DOMs, i.e., the fast and slow adsorption processes were both diminished. Correspondingly, co-adsorption and cumulative adsorption were identified as the main mechanisms determining SMX adsorption to the purple paddy soils in the presence of the straw-derived DOMs. These results collectively indicated that the DOMs released by straw in croplands may decrease the ecological risks of organic pollutants by inhibiting their migration processes.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Sulfametoxazol/química , Adsorção , Agricultura , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silagem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115513, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891044

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a new experimental setup to determine parallel the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silage during the opening as well as the subsequent aerobic storage phase of the complete bale without wrapping film. For this purpose, a special silage respiration chamber was used in which a silage bale could be examined. The gas analysis (CO2, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate) of inlet, ambient and outlet air of the silage respiration chamber was carried out by photoacoustic spectroscopy. The gas samples taken inside the bale were analysed by gas chromatography for CO2, O2, CH4, and N2O. Three silage bales (grass and lucerne) as the smallest silage unit commonly used in practice were examined. The emission behaviour of the bales was recorded during experimental periods up to 55 days. The results allow a differentiation of the outgassing processes. On the one hand, gases produced during the anaerobic ensiling process (CO2, CH4, N2O) are released once in a large amount during the first experimental hours after opening the silage. On the other hand, a continuous outgassing process takes place, which is particularly true for the VOCs ethanol, methanol, and ethyl acetate, whereby VOC emissions increase with rising ambient air temperatures. In this study, the emissions during the first 600 experimental hours from the grass silage bale and lucerne silage bale were 2313 g and 2612 g CO2, 17.6 g and 145.2 g methanol, 132.3 g and 675.9 g ethanol, 55.1 g and 66.2 g ethyl acetate, respectively. Nevertheless, the focus of this study was on the technical recording of gas concentrations inside the silage bale itself and the emissions in the ambient air of the bale. For a better interpretation of the data, additional factors should be considered in further investigations.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gases/análise , Medicago sativa , Metano/análise , Silagem/análise
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123910, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750640

RESUMO

The present study investigated the bacterial community, metabolome and biotransformation of phenolic compounds in sainfoin silage inoculated either with or without Lactobacillus plantarum. Our results revealed that the epiphytic microbiota of wilted sainfoin mainly comprised Acinetobacter, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Delftia and Aquabacterium. After ensiling, L. acetotolerans, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, L. pentosus and Clostridium tyrobutricum were the dominant species. Compared to the control, the inoculant L. plantarum increased the relative abundance of L. buchneri while decreased that of the other dominant species. The ensiling process increased the concentrations of 21 flavones, 16 flavonols, 16 flavonoids, 14 flavanones and 9 isoflavones while decreased other 32 flavones and 11 anthocyanins, which mainly modulated by the "isoflavonoid biosynthesis" and "flavonoid biosynthesis" pathways. The inoculant L. plantarum mainly reduced the concentrations of 10 flavones. Compared with the control, the inoculant L. plantarum mainly affected the metabolism pathways related to carbohydrates and nitrogen.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum , Microbiota , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Metaboloma , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815992

RESUMO

Stress negatively affects the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) barrier function, resulting in compromised animal health. A deeper understanding of how diet and stress impacts the GIT barrier function in feedlot cattle is needed. Aspirin decreases mucus production and mucosal repair in the GIT and could be used as a model for GIT barrier dysfunction research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aspirin to induce GIT barrier dysfunction in beef cattle. In experiment 1, sixteen crossbred heifers (425.0 ± 8.6 kg) were allotted to 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) aspirin doses based on BW. Experiment 1 consisted of two periods separated by 4 wk where four heifers per treatment received the same aspirin dose during each period. Heifers were fed a 49.4% corn silage and 50.6% concentrate diet. The 200 mg/kg BW aspirin treatment was dosed as a 100 mg/kg BW aspirin oral bolus 36 and 24 h prior to Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) dosing (1 liter; 180 mM). The 50 and 100 mg/kg BW aspirin treatments were dosed as an oral bolus 24 h prior to Cr-EDTA dosing. Urine was collected every 3 h for 48 h and analyzed for Cr. Serum was collected at 0 and 48 h and analyzed for lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, and aspartate aminotransferase. In experiment 2, sixteen crossbred steers (576.0 ± 14.2 kg) fed a similar diet were allotted by BW to the 0 and 200 mg/kg BW aspirin treatments (eight steers/treatment) and were slaughtered 24 h after the last dose. Jejunal tissues were collected, and claudin (CLDN) 1, 2, and 3, occludin, and zonula occludens tight junction messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was determined. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Urinary Cr excretion increased linearly at hours 3, 6, 9, and 12 (P ≤ 0.04) as aspirin dose increased from 0 to 200 mg/kg. Aspirin linearly increased Cr absorption (P = 0.02) and elimination (P = 0.04) rates and linearly decreased mean retention time of Cr (P = 0.02). Aspirin increased SAA (P = 0.04) and tended to increase LBP (P = 0.09) in serum but did not affect any other serum inflammatory marker (P ≥ 0.19). Aspirin tended to increase jejunal CLDN-1 mRNA expression (P = 0.10) but did not affect the mRNA expression of other genes regulating tight junction function (P ≥ 0.20). Results from this study indicate that aspirin disrupts the GIT barrier function in beef cattle and has a potential as a model in GIT permeability research.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Cromo/urina , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Masculino , Silagem/análise , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/patologia , Zea mays
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141239, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745864

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ensiling on vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol) contents in the total mixed ration (TMR) containing different types of herbage. Oat hay (O-TMR), alfalfa hay (A-TMR) and oat hay + alfalfa hay (OA-TMR) were separately mixed with soybean milk residue, corn meal, soybean meal, salt and a vitamin-mineral supplement to make the TMR. The TMR was sampled after 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of ensiling. The fermentation quality, chemical composition and contents of vitamins A and E were determined. The vitamin A content was affected by the ensiling and herbage type (p < 0.05). After 56 days of ensiling, the three TMR silages had good fermentation quality, but the vitamin A content of O-TMR, OA-TMR and A-TMR decreased by 59.4%, 58.1% and 53.7%, respectively. Moreover, the content of vitamin A was positively correlated with the pH and negatively correlated with the lactic acid content during the 56 days of ensiling of the TMR silages. However, there were no effects of ensiling and herbage type on the vitamin E content. Thus, the preservation strategy for vitamin A in the TMR during ensiling requires further study.


Assuntos
Silagem/análise , Vitamina A , Animais , Fermentação , Medicago sativa , Leite
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20190030, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756843

RESUMO

Effects of different nitrogen doses and sources applied as top-dressing on dry matter yield and quality of maize silage were investigated in this study. Along with 7.5 kg N da-1 application as starter at sowing in the form of 15-15-0+Zn, nitrogen doses of 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 kg da-1 were applied as top-dressing at 6-leaf stage of plants in the forms of ammonium nitrate, urea, DMPP blended ammonium sulphate nitrate and urea with NBPT urease inhibitor. Experiments were conducted in randomized blocks-factorial experimental design with 3 replicates in 2013 and 2014. The greatest dry matter yield were obtained from 15 and 22.5 kg N da-1 in 2013 and from 22.5 kg N da-1 in 2014. Nitrogen sources had also significant effects on dry matter yield. According to the average of two years, both DMPP blended ammonium sulphate nitrate and urea with NBPT urease inhibitor increased yield respectively by 7 and 3% as compared to ammonium nitrate and urea fertilizers. Nitrogen doses significantly improved the silage quality attributes. Nitrogen treatments increased silage protein ratio and decreased ADF and NDF ratios of silage samples. The greatest relative feed value was obtained from 15 kg N da-1 treatment. It was concluded based on present findings that besides the nitrogen doses, nitrogen sources also significantly improved yield.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756961

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of a chemical additive on the microbial communities, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of whole-plant corn silage with or without air stress during storage. Whole-plant corn was either untreated or treated with a chemical additive containing sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite at 2 or 3 liters/t of fresh forage weight. Ten individually treated and replicated silos (7.5 liters) were made for each treatment. Half of the silos remained sealed throughout a 63-d storage period, and the other half was subjected to air stress for 2 h/wk. The composition of the bacterial and fungal communities of fresh forage and silages untreated or treated with 2 liters/t of fresh forage weight was analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing. Treated silage had greater (P < 0.05) aerobic stability than untreated, even when subjected to air stress during storage, but the numbers of yeasts culturable on selective agar were not affected. However, the additive reduced the relative abundance (RA) of the lactating-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis (P < 0.01). In air-stressed silages, untreated silage had a greater (P < 0.05) RA of Pichia kudriavzevii (also a lactate assimilator) than treated silage, whereas treated silage was dominated by Candida humilis, which is usually unable to assimilate lactate or assimilates it slowly. The additive improved the aerobic stability by specifically preventing the dominance of yeast species that can consume lactate and initiate aerobic spoilage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that identifies the specific action of this additive on shifting the microbial communities in corn silage.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoato de Sódio/farmacologia , Nitrito de Sódio/farmacologia , Ácido Sórbico/farmacologia , Animais , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Silagem/análise , Benzoato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Benzoato de Sódio/química , Nitrito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Nitrito de Sódio/química , Ácido Sórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Sórbico/química , Zea mays/química
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123773, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645569

RESUMO

To effectively preserve nutrients, alfalfa silage was treated without (control) or with Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and their mixture (LP + SBP). Results showed that SBP decreased (P < 0.05) final pH value and ammonia-N of total N, increased (P < 0.05) lactic, acetic and propionic acid contents, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrate and crude protein contents and less fiber content in relative to control. Moreover, SBP decreased (P < 0.05) the number of observed species, richness index of ACE and diversity index of Shannon at early stage of ensiling, while Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and/or Lactobacillus brevis dominated in silages. In particular, LP + SBP enhanced the growth of Lactococcus lactic at early stage and Lactobacillus plantarum at late stage of ensiling, resulting in higher lactic and acetic acid contents and lower propionic acid content as compared with LP. These confirmed that SBP could be used as an additive for improving silage quality of alfalfa.


Assuntos
Hippophae , Lactobacillus plantarum , Fermentação , Medicago sativa , Silagem/análise
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123606, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629380

RESUMO

The study investigated the effects of transplantation and reconstitution of indigenous and exogenous epiphytic microbiota on the fermentation quality and microbial community of red clover silage. Sterile red clover was inoculated with distilled water (RC0), extracted epiphytic microbiota of red clover (RC), maize (MZ), and sorghum (SG). RC inoculation rapidly decreased pH at the onset of ensiling. The LA concentration and ratio of LA/AA were higher in RC silage during entire ensiling while MZ silage during late phase of ensiling. Pediococcus was dominant in RC early silage, while Lactobacillus was abundant in MZ final silage. The SG terminal silage had higher pH (>4.50) and dominated by Sphingomonas, Enterobacter, and Novosphingobium. RC and MZ microbiota were beneficial in enhancing fermentation quality and microbial community in red clover silage. Transplantation and reconstitution of epiphytic microbiota can be a successful method to assess the effective and eco-friendly additive for the targeted crop.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Trifolium , Fermentação , Lactobacillus , Silagem/análise
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123821, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683292

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of chemical additive vanillin (V), homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), and heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis (LB) on the distribution of the metabolome, microbial communities, viruses, and antibiotic-resistance genes in high-moisture corn kernel silage. LP and LB improved lactic acid production, whereas V and LB inhibited protein degradation. A significant difference was observed between the metabolite profiles of silage treated with additives and a control. In silage, the Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the main hosts of antibiotic-resistance genes, primarily antibiotic efflux. The additives significantly affected the virus content in silage, and LB-treated silage featured the lowest virus content. Overall, these findings suggest that the application of the additive LB to high-moisture corn kernel silage impacts antibiotic-resistance gene reduction and virus distribution within the silage.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Silagem/análise , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fermentação , Metaboloma , Zea mays
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123881, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731157

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of antibacterial peptide-producing Bacillus subtilis (BS), Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), or their combination on fermentation, proteolysis, aerobic stability, and microbial communities during ensiling and aerobic exposure phases of alfalfa silage. The results showed that the BS-treated silage displayed a higher lactic acid concentration, less proteolysis, and higher aerobic stability than those in the control silage. Both LB and BS treatments increased Lactobacillus and Ascochyta abundance, and decreased Enterococcus and Sporormiacea abundance after 60 d of fermentation. LB and BS also inhibited the growth of Enterococcus after 3 d of aerobic exposure but similar to the control silage, the fungal community of BS silage was dominated by Candida and Pichia after 9 d of aerobic exposure. Therefore, inoculation of BS improved silage fermentation quality, aerobic stability and bacterial community during ensiling and after 3 d of aerobic exposure.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Silagem/análise , Aerobiose , Antibacterianos , Bacillus subtilis , Fermentação , Lactobacillus , Medicago sativa , Zea mays
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123772, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653750

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and/or cellulase on fermentation, aerobic stability and bacterial community of mixed high-moisture amaranth (AF) and rice straw (RS) silage. The mixtures were treated with no addition (C), L. plantarum (L), cellulase (F) and their combination (LF). Additives increased the abundances of Lactobacillus and reduced the abundances of Weissella, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, decreased pH, acetic acid, ammonia nitrogen and increased lactic acid concentration as compared to C silage over the ensiling period. The LF silage had the highest lactic acid concentration among all silages over the 7 d of ensiling and also the lowest abundance of Enterobacteriaceae over 30 d of ensiling. Aerobic spoilage occurred in C and LF silages after 2 d of aerobic exposure, whereas the L and F silages remained stable > 4 d. In conclusion, silage treated with LF showed best silage quality.


Assuntos
Celulase , Lactobacillus plantarum , Oryza , Aerobiose , Fermentação , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
20.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114869, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502870

RESUMO

About 11% of the global anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions result from agricultural practices. Dairy manure (DM) application to soil is regarded as a best management practice due to C sequestration and improvement of soil physiochemical properties. However, GHGs emissions from the soil following the DM application could offset its advantages. Biochar (BC) is known to affect N transformation and GHGs emissions from soil. There had been considerably less focus on the BC amendment and its effects on GHGs emissions following DM application under field conditions. The objectives of this study were; i) to determine the temporal patterns and cumulative GHGs fluxes following DM and inorganic nitrogen (IN) application and, ii) to investigate BC amendment impact on DMY, GWP, direct N2O emission factor (EFd) and the response of CH4 emissions (RC) in DM based silage corn. To achieve these objectives a two-year field experiment was conducted with these treatments: 1) DM with high N conc. (DM1: 0.37% N); 2) DM with low N conc. (DM2: 0.13% N); 3) IN; 4) DM1+BC; 5) DM2+BC; 6) IN + BC; and 7) Control (N0); and were laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications. BC amendment to DM1, DM2 and IN significantly reduced cumulative CO2 emission by 16, 25.5 and 26.5%, CH4 emission by 184, 200 and 293% and N2O emission by 95, 86 and 93% respectively. It also reduced area-scaled and yield-scaled GWP, EFd, RC and enhanced DMY. Thus, BC application showed great potential to offset the negative effects of DM application i.e GHGs emissions from the silage corn cropping system. Further research is needed to evaluate soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics (substrates for GHG emissions) after DM and BC application on various soil types and cropping systems under field conditions.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Aquecimento Global , Esterco , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Silagem , Solo , Zea mays
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