Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.845
Filtrar
1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 297, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103092

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and bioeconomic potential of rehydrated ground grain corn silage (RGGCS), at different storage times associated with proportions of concentrates for better starch utilization by lambs. Forty Dorper-Santa Inês crossbred lambs were used, with an average body weight of 24 ± 3.9 kg, and an average age of 90 days. The lambs were feedlot for 63 days in experiment design completely randomized, with eight repetitions and five experimental diets: Diet 1: 850 g/kg concentrate including dry ground corn; diet 2: 850 g/kg concentrate including RGGCS ensiled for 45 days; diet 3: 650 g/kg concentrate including RGGCS ensiled for 90 days; diet 4: 650 g/kg concentrate including RGGCS ensiled for 45 days; diet 5: 850 g/kg concentrate including RGGCS ensiled for 45 days. As roughage, silage corn whole plant. Starch intake was higher (P < 0.05) with the dry ground corn diet; however, digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) for most nutrients compared to the RGGCS diet. A smaller amount of starch in the feces of animals that received the RGGCS diet was found. A diet with 850 g/kg of concentrate, including RGGCS ensiled for 45 days, generates higher net income, increases nutrient intake, and could be an alternative during the fluctuation of corn prices.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão , Grão Comestível , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Silagem/análise , Amido
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8099-8114, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055850

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect on dairy cows of the partial replacement of whole plant corn silage (WPCS) with corn ear fibrous coproduct (CEFC) in diets with concentrate coproducts from citrus and corn on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance, digestibility, and chewing behavior. Holstein dairy cows (n = 20) in 5, 4 × 4 Latin squares (21-d periods) were fed a combination of strategies for feeding fibrous coproducts in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of the following treatments: (1) forage feeds: the partial replacement of WPCS (CS) with CEFC (CO), and (2) concentrate feeds: the partial replacement of wet corn gluten feed (GF) with a blend of pelleted citrus and corn distillers dried grains (CD) to have isonitrogenous diets. The concentrations of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (NDF; peNDF>8) were (% of dry matter): 21.8% for CS, 19.2% for CO, 20.7% for GF, and 20.2% for CD. Cows fed diet CS-CD had the highest yield of energy-corrected milk (30.0 kg/d) relative to the other diets (28.4 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was reduced on CO relative to CS. Cows fed the CO diets had higher DMI (21.2 vs. 20.2 kg/d) and digestible organic matter intake and tended to have a lower ratio of energy-corrected milk to DMI than cows fed CS. Diets CO reduced the daily intake of peNDF>8 and the intake as percent of body weight of peNDF>8, forage NDF, and total NDF relative to CS. Cows fed CO had greater meal frequency and lower daily meal time, meal duration, meal size, and duration of the largest meal than cows fed CS. The CO diet reduced rumination and total chewing in minutes per day and minutes per kilogram of DMI. When expressed per unit of peNDF>8 intake, rumination and total chewing were not affected by forage source. The total-tract starch digestibility coefficient was lower for cows fed CO than CS, but the intake of digestible starch was higher on CO than CS. Cows fed GF had reduced milk yield (29.6 vs. 30.8 kg/d), tended to have reduced DMI (20.4 vs. 21.0 kg/d), and had reduced digestible organic matter intake than cows fed CD. Feed efficiency was not affected by source of concentrate. The type of concentrate did not affect the intake of forage NDF and peNDF>8, but cows fed GF had higher intake of total NDF as percent of body weight than cows fed CD. The GF increased meal frequency and reduced meal size and largest meal duration and size. Cows fed GF had higher rumination and total chewing than cows fed CD (min/d, min/kg of DMI, and min/kg peNDF>8). Starch digestibility was higher and the intake of digestible starch tended to be higher on cows fed GF than CD. Plasma urea-N was higher, milk urea-N tended to be higher, and N utilization efficiency tended to be lower on cows fed GF than CD. Ruminal microbial yield was not affected by any treatment. All strategies evaluated were nutritionally viable and CEFC was a feasible partial replacement for WPCS.


Assuntos
Citrus , Zea mays , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Detergentes , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Feminino , Glutens , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen , Silagem/análise , Amido , Ureia
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8036-8053, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055851

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to quantify the effects on dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, gas exchange, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows fed fresh grass harvested at different maturity stages. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows in mid-lactation were divided into 4 blocks and used in 4 incomplete 4 × 2 Latin squares with 2 periods of 21 d. The cows received 1 of 4 treatments in each period, resulting in 8 cows per treatment, as follows: grass-clover silage supplemented with 6 kg/d concentrate pellets (SILc), fresh grass harvested at late maturity stage supplemented with 6 kg/d concentrate pellets (LATc), fresh grass harvested at late maturity stage (LAT), and fresh grass harvested at early maturity stage (ERL). The cows were housed in tiestalls and milked twice daily. The cows had ad libitum access to the forage, and concentrate pellets were divided into equal amounts and fed separately in the morning and afternoon. Fecal samples were collected to determine apparent total-tract digestibility, and samples of rumen fluid were collected for determination of short chain fatty acid composition. Halters were used for measuring eating and rumination time. Gas exchange was measured in open-circuit respiration chambers. Total DMI was higher in LATc and ERL (16.9 ± 0.45 and 15.5 ± 0.39 kg/d, respectively) compared with LAT (14.1 ± 0.42 kg/d). Relative to SILc, cows fed fresh grass experienced a convex pattern in DMI during the experiment. The changes in DMI were related to changes in leaf to stem ratio, fiber concentration, and organic matter digestibility determined in vitro in samples of the fresh grass harvested throughout the experiment. The apparent total-tract digestibility of organic matter was higher in SILc and LAT compared with LATc. Methane yield was lower for LATc compared with LAT (19.5 ± 0.61 vs. 22.6 ± 0.55 g of CH4/kg of DMI), and was not different between LAT and ERL. Compared with LAT, milk yield was higher for ERL (21.1 ± 1.14 vs. 23.4 ± 1.11 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was higher for LATc (21.5 ± 0.99 vs. 25.3 ± 1.03 kg/d). We detected no differences in milk or ECM yield between SILc and LATc. Milk protein yield was higher and milk fat concentration was lower in LATc compared with LAT. The fatty acid percentages of ∑C4-C14:1 and ∑C16 in milk were higher for SILc compared with LATc, signifying pronounced de novo synthesis. The n-6:n-3 ratio in milk fatty acids was lower for SILc and LAT compared with LATc, indicating improved nutritional quality for SILc and LAT. However, retinol concentration in milk was lower in SILc compared with all other treatments. The study implies that feeding silage instead of fresh grass has no effect on DMI, ECM yield, or CH4 yield, and that concentrate supplementation can increase milk production, affects milk quality, and reduces the effect on climate, whereas feeding less mature grass increases DMI and milk yield, but has no effect on CH4 yield.


Assuntos
Metano , Silagem , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Poaceae/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Vitamina A , Zea mays/metabolismo
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 283, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076095

RESUMO

Maize silage is appreciated for dairy cows due to its high energy content. Mexico is a centre of origin for maize and small-scale dairy farmers use landrace 'criollo' maize silages to feed their herds. However, the characteristics of landrace 'criollo' maize silages in terms of starch content, which defines their nutritional value in terms of energy, are not known. The objective was to characterise criollo maize silages in terms of starch content. Seventy-seven silage samples from 2011 to 2015 were analysed for contents of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), and starch content. A factor analysis using principal component analysis as an extraction method was undertaken, and a hierarchical cluster analysis performed. Five factors affected the starch content of silages and five maize silage clusters identified. There was a positive association between IVDMD and metabolisable energy and between crude protein and acid detergent fibre; moreover, a positive relation was found between dry matter and maize starch contents. Significant differences were found (P < 0.001) for the contents of IVDMD, ME, ashes, OM, DM, and starch. The DM content of group 1 silage did not show any significant differences from other groups, except with group 2 silage, which had the lowest contents of DM and starch. Therefore, group 1 and 5 silage had the highest DM and starch contents, while group 3 silage had the highest IVDMD values and ME contents; finally, group 4 had the highest ash contents. Starch content in criollo maize silages was higher that reports for other maize races and is influenced by climate conditions and dry matter content.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Carboidratos , Bovinos , Detergentes , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação , México , Silagem/análise , Amido
5.
Animal ; 16(9): 100606, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970105

RESUMO

Whole-plant faba bean silage has a high content in indigestible fiber. Improvement of fiber digestibility of faba bean silage would benefit animal production. However, there is no study on pretreating fibrolytic enzyme in whole-plant faba bean silage-based diet for dairy cows on animal performance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of pretreating whole-plant faba bean silage-baseddiet with fibrolytic enzyme (a mixture of xylanase and cellulase; AB Vista, UK) derived from Trichoderma reesei(FETR) on lactational performance, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and feeding behavior of dairy cows. The animal trial was conducted using eight lactating Holstein cows (BW = 710 ±â€¯44 kg and Days in Milk (DIM) = 121 ±â€¯17 days) with four levels of FETR (0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mL of FETR/kg DM of silage) in a replicated Latin square design. These enzyme treatments were selected based on the previous in situ and in vitro findings that showed positive responses to the whole-plant faba bean silage. The enzyme treatments were directly applied on the silage prior to mixing process. The total mixed rations contained 31% of faba bean silage, 14% of grass hay, 3.5% of straw, 30% of barley and corn grain and 21.5% of concentrate. There was no significant difference of applying FETR on nutrient intake (P > 0.05) except for CP intake, which was reduced in FETR group compared to control (P < 0.01, 4.4 vs 4.54 kg/d). There was a linear effect found in NDF digestibility when treated with FETR, where maximum improvement was achieved with 0.5 mL of FETR application. The milk fat yield, percentage of milk fat and fat-corrected milk were linearly affected by the increasing level of enzyme. The cows fed a diet supplemented with enzymes tended to have a lower milk fat. Feed efficiency linearly responded to incremental levels of FETR. There was no enzyme effect on feeding behavior and nitrogen balance and utilization. Results from this study indicated that supplementing fibrolytic enzyme on whole-plant faba bean silage diets for dairy cows improved lactational performance, intake and digestibility with 0.5 mL of FETR application. However, adding higher enzyme level resulted in negative effects on animal performance.


Assuntos
Celulases , Vicia faba , Animais , Bovinos , Celulases/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(9): 3143-3160, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918515

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Calibrating a genomic selection model on a sparse factorial design rather than on tester designs is advantageous for some traits, and equivalent for others. In maize breeding, the selection of the candidate inbred lines is based on topcross evaluations using a limited number of testers. Then, a subset of single-crosses between these selected lines is evaluated to identify the best hybrid combinations. Genomic selection enables the prediction of all possible single-crosses between candidate lines but raises the question of defining the best training set design. Previous simulation results have shown the potential of using a sparse factorial design instead of tester designs as the training set. To validate this result, a 363 hybrid factorial design was obtained by crossing 90 dent and flint inbred lines from six segregating families. Two tester designs were also obtained by crossing the same inbred lines to two testers of the opposite group. These designs were evaluated for silage in eight environments and used to predict independent performances of a 951 hybrid factorial design. At a same number of hybrids and lines, the factorial design was as efficient as the tester designs, and, for some traits, outperformed them. All available designs were used as both training and validation set to evaluate their efficiency. When the objective was to predict single-crosses between untested lines, we showed an advantage of increasing the number of lines involved in the training set, by (1) allocating each of them to a different tester for the tester design, or (2) reducing the number of hybrids per line for the factorial design. Our results confirm the potential of sparse factorial designs for genomic hybrid breeding.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Zea mays , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Silagem , Zea mays/genética
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(9): 7373-7385, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931484

RESUMO

Ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) reduces absorption of essential FA and can result in formation of bioactive FA that cause milk fat depression. Rates of biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA are commonly observed using in vitro systems and are not well described in vivo. Seven ruminally cannulated cows were enrolled in a 3 × 3 Latin square design study to quantify biohydrogenation of 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 using a recently developed in vivo BH assay. All cows were fed a common high corn silage basal diet. Biohydrogenation was quantified using a perturbation model that consisted of a bolus dose of 200 g of an oil enriched in each unsaturated FA (oleic acid, OA = 87% 18:1n-9 sunflower oil; linoleic acid, LA = 70% 18:2n-6 safflower oil; and α-linolenic acid, ALA = 54% 18:3n-3 flaxseed oil) and 12 g of 17:0 as a marker of rumen outflow. Rumen contents were sampled before and after the bolus and enrichment of the bolused FA modeled. Using first-order kinetics to model FA disappearance, the fractional rates of disappearance of 18:1n-9 was 0.597 per hour, 18:2n-6 was 0.618 per hour, and 18:3n-3 was 0.834 per hour, similar to rates previously reported with this approach. Rumen turnover of 17:0 was 0.123 per hour, 0.065 per hour, and 0.106 per hour during the OA, LA, and ALA treatments, respectively. The extents of BH were calculated to be 82.8, 90.4, and 88.6% for 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, respectively. Finally, compartmental modeling was used to quantify the amount of each unsaturated FA metabolized through trans-10 and trans-11 BH pathways. The recently developed in vivo BH assay was able to predict rates of BH and provide insight into rumen metabolism of individual FA and may be useful to future investigations.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Ácido alfa-Linolênico , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Hidrogenação , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Ácido alfa-Linolênico/metabolismo
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(9): 7416-7431, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931490

RESUMO

Methane mitigation in dairy cows is an essential part of combating global warming. Governments and consumers have become increasingly interested in herbage-based feeding, and premium prices are often paid for these types of dairy products. However, this feeding strategy is presumed to produce more methane per unit of feed or milk than corn silage- or concentrate-based diets due to higher fiber intakes. Immature herbage is preferred to maintain dairy cow performance, but the high content of N and digestible fiber may increase methane and urine N emissions compared with more mature herbage. Tannin-containing feeds, such as vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), may help to combat the emissions associated with feeding immature herbage. Our study aimed to evaluate differences between early-stage (ES; 21 d of regrowth) versus late-stage (LS; 42 d) herbage and the effects of vine leaves on methane and nitrogenous emissions and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. Twenty-four mid- to late-lactating dairy cows were randomized to 4 dietary groups (n = 6) in a factorial study design. Each of the 4 diets contained 69% fresh mixed legume-grass herbage, 13% grass hay, and 5% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Two diets were based on immature fresh mixed legume-grass herbage and grass hay (ES), and 2 contained more mature fresh mixed legume-grass herbage and grass hay (LS). Of these, 1 contained 13% vine leaves (VL+) and the other an additional 13% hay (VL-). No significant differences were observed in DM intake or milk yield across the diets. Methane emission intensity was lowest with ES-VL+ diets compared with LS-VL- diets (-30%; 17.1 vs. 24.5 mg/kg of energy-corrected milk). Methane yield decreased by 17% and 20% when related to the intake of DM and digested organic matter for ES-VL+ compared with LS-VL- diets (16.9 vs. 20.3 g/kg of DM intake; 23.5 vs. 29.3 g/kg of digestible organic matter). Immature grass and vine leaf addition each caused about half of the respective declines. Cows consuming any of the ES diets and the LS-VL+ diet consumed and excreted (urinary N) significantly more N than those consuming LS diets. However, when related to N intake, no differences were recorded. Unexpectedly, vine leaves did not mitigate urine N excretion; however, they lowered the n-6:n-3 ratio and increased concentrations of vaccenic and rumenic acids in both ES and LS diets. Our results demonstrate that feeding immature herbage in combination with vine leaves reduces methane yield; however, the associated high urinary N losses need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Metano , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação , Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 261, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953622

RESUMO

The work aimed to investigate the effects of four organic acid salts on fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and in vitro rumen digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage prepared with citric acid residue, wet brewers' grains, and Napier grass. The TMR was ensiled with the following: (1) no additives (control), (2) 0.1% sodium benzoate (SB), (3) 0.1% potassium sorbate (PS), (4) 0.5% sodium diacetate (SDA), (5) 0.5% calcium propionate (CAP) on a fresh weight basis. All silos (10 L) were opened after 60 days of ensiling to determine fermentation profiles and in vitro rumen digestibility, and then were subjected to a 9-day aerobic stability test. Four organic acid salts significantly (p < 0.05) increased dry matter contents, lactic acid bacteria count, and decreased ethanol content and yeast count compared with the control. The SDA and CAP significantly (p < 0.05) increased water-soluble carbohydrates, lactic acid, and crude protein contents, and decreased pH, ammonia nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, and hemicellulose contents compared with other TMR silages after 60 days of ensiling. Organic acid salts significantly (p < 0.05) prolonged the hours of aerobic stability and significantly (p < 0.05) increased cumulative gas production and potential gas production compared with the control. The treatments of SDA and CAP significantly (p < 0.05) improved aerobic stability as indicated by higher (p < 0.05) lactic acid and water-soluble carbohydrates contents, and lower (p < 0.05) pH, ammonia nitrogen, ethanol contents, and yeast count compared with the control. The treatments of SDA and CAP significantly (p < 0.05) increased in vitro rumen parameters, as indicated by higher (p < 0.05) in vitro digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber after 60 days of ensiling. Overall, these results indicated that the addition of SDA and CAP could ensure the good fermentation quality and improve aerobic stability of TMR silages. By comprehensive consideration, CAP was recommended for improving fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and in vitro rumen digestibility of TMR silages prepared with wet brewers' grains, citric acid residue, and Napier grass.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Silagem , Aerobiose , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Carboidratos , Ácido Cítrico , Detergentes/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sais , Silagem/análise , Água
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 255, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948817

RESUMO

The silage process is an efficient way of storing nutrients for animal nutrition. Our hypothesis was that the Baru pulp can be preserved in the form of silage, regardless of the use of additives to aid the process. Silages of Baru pulp containing different additives were evaluated through in vitro analysis, fermentation parameters, and composition and thermal analysis including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The treatments consisted of (1) silage with Baru pulp (BP) in natura without additive; (2) BP in natura with acetic acid; (3) BP in natura with formic acids; and (4) BP in natura added with microbial inoculums in a randomized experimental design with three replications per treatment and analyzed in duplicate. The ensiled material was kept in anaerobic conditions for a period of 30 days. BP before and after the silage process presented averages of 67.31 and 66.24% for in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD). Microbial inoculant additive was the most effective in reducing pH, followed by acetic acid and formic acid. There were effects of additives on silages for all degradation parameters in ruminal liquid in vitro. It was observed that BP before ensiling had the highest A fraction (7.9 mL gas/100 mg DM), without differing from the silage treated with formic acid (7.1 mL gas/100 mg DM). Similar effects were observed on mass loss (TG) and heat flux (DSC) between the silages. Our findings suggest that Baru pulp with formic acid is more efficient in the conservation and preservation of fermentable carbohydrates as well as in silage production.


Assuntos
Prunus dulcis , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fermentação , Silagem/análise , Zea mays/química
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13630, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948608

RESUMO

Modern agri-food systems generate large amounts of crop-based biomass that are unfit for direct human consumption but potentially suitable for livestock feeding in production of meats, milk, and eggs. This study aims to develop novel feeds for cattle from some of those biomass materials through the natural microbial-driven processes of ensiling. Fruit and vegetables resembling supermarket discards were ensiled alone or co-ensiled with corn crop residues, mushroom wastes, etc. via laboratory experiments. Longitudinal sample analyses showed that (co-)ensiling was successful, with pH and fermentation acids changing rapidly into desirable ranges (pH < 4.5, the acids 5-13% DM with lactic acid dominating). The (co-)ensiled products had key nutritional parameters comparable to those of good quality forages commonly used on dairy farms. Additionally, in vitro incubation experiments indicated that the ensiled products could substitute certain conventional feeds while maintaining diet digestibility. Findings from this pilot study provide a proof of principle that quality novel feeds for cattle can be generated by co-ensiling food discards and low-value crop residues. Future research and animal feeding trials to demonstrate the utility of this approach can help societies more effectively utilize untapped biomass resources, strengthening the regenerative capacity of agri-food systems towards a more sustainable food future.


Assuntos
Leite , Silagem , Animais , Biomassa , Bovinos , Digestão , Fermentação , Humanos , Gado , Projetos Piloto , Silagem/análise , Zea mays/química
12.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13758, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932203

RESUMO

Oilseed cakes can partially replace corn or soy used in the diet without losing animal performance. The objective was to carry out a meta-analysis and principal component analysis to evaluate the effects of cakes on the intake and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter (DM) and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The data set used in the meta-analysis came from 51 studies published between 2009 and 2019, which resulted in 119 studies with 18 types of cakes evaluated in 1350 cows. Cows fed with cakes increased dry matter intake (DMI) by 0.366 kg d-1 (P < 0.001) and DMI as a function of the animal's body weight by 0.103% (P < 0.0001) compared with the diet without cake. The milk protein content decreased by 0.050% (P < 0.010). The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (26%-%) and ether extract (EE) (3%-7%) of the cake diets did not affect ADCDM. Cakes with contents between 10% and 30% can replace corn or soy in the diet without affecting milk production, components (fat, protein, and lactose), and contents (fat and lactose), but it can reduce the milk protein content of milk.


Assuntos
Lactação , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Feminino , Lactose , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
13.
mSphere ; 7(4): e0016822, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862805

RESUMO

To characterize the effects of time of day for harvest on the fermentation parameters, bacterial community, and metabolic characteristics of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (SSG) silage, SSG (vegetative stage) harvested at 7:00 (AM), 12:00 (M), and 17:00 (PM) on three sunny days were ensiled for 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days. Compared to AM silage, M and PM silages were characterized by delayed fermentation, unnormal lower final pH, and lower acetic acid production. In addition, PM silage contained higher residual water-soluble carbohydrates than other silages. After 60 days of ensiling, AM silage was dominated by Lactobacillus, whereas the bacterial communities of M and PM silages were complex and mainly composed of bacteria such as Delftia, Methylobacterium-Methylorubrum, Enhydrobacter, Acinetobacter, and Bacillus. The harvest time affected a wide range of metabolic pathways including "Metabolism" and "Cellular Processes" and "Organismal Systems" in SSG silage. Particularly, at the late stage of ensiling M silage exhibited highest relative abundances of amino acid metabolisms including "glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism," "phenylalanine metabolism," and lowest relative abundances of "lysine biosynthesis." These results suggest that the time of day for harvest could affect the fermentation parameters, bacterial community, and metabolic characteristics of SSG silage. Better SSG silage characteristics could be achieved through morning harvest. IMPORTANCE Ensiling is a common way for preserving green forages worldwide. Silage fermentation quality can vary greatly depending on the chemical and microbial characteristics of forage crop being ensiled. It is well documented that forages exhibit considerable variations in chemical composition and epiphytic microbiota during daylight. However, the effects of the time of day for harvest on silage fermentation is less investigated. Our results demonstrate that the time of day for harvest could affect the fermentation parameters, bacterial community, and metabolic characteristics of SSG hybrid silage. Harvesting SSG late in the day delayed fermentation process, lowered acetic acid production and final pH, and increased the residual water-soluble carbohydrates content in silage. Moreover, the delayed harvest time increased the relative abundances of bacteria such as Delftia, Methylobacterium-Methylorubrum, Acinetobacter, Enhydrobacter, and Bacillus, and amino acid metabolisms at the late stage of SSG ensiling. This study highlights the importance of diurnal changes in forage to fermentation characteristics, providing a strategy to improve silage quality through optimizing the harvest time.


Assuntos
Silagem , Sorghum , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Fermentação , Silagem/análise , Sorghum/metabolismo , Água
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 361: 127664, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872271

RESUMO

Flexible biogas production can enable demand-oriented energy supply without the need for expensive gas storage expansions, but poses challenges to the stability of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this work, biogas production of laboratory-scale AD of maize silage and sugar beets was optimized to cover the residual load of an electricity self-sufficient community using a simple process model based on first-order kinetics. Experiments show a good agreement between biogas demand, predicted, and measured biogas production. By optimizing biogas conversion schedules based on the measured gas production, a gas storage capacity of 7-8 h was identified for maximum flexibility, which corresponds to typical gas storage sizes at industrial biogas plants in Germany. Various stability indicators were continuously monitored and proved resilient process conditions. These results demonstrate that demand-oriented biogas production using model predictive control is a promising approach to enable existing biogas plants to provide balancing energy.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Eletricidade , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Cinética , Metano , Silagem , Zea mays
15.
Animal ; 16(8): 100583, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797749

RESUMO

In the current economic and environmental context, the selection of livestock phenotypes combining high feed efficiency (FE) and low greenhouse gas emissions is interesting. This study aimed to quantify methane (CH4) emissions and other gas flows (carbon dioxide (CO2) and dihydrogen (H2) emissions, oxygen (O2) consumption) in growing bulls fed with two contrasting diets in order to (i) evaluate the persistence of individual variability in gas flows through time, and (ii) assess the inter-individual relationship between gas flows and FE across diets. Charolais bulls were fattened for 6 months during two consecutive years in two independent batches (50-51 per year). In each batch, half of the animals received a total mixed ad libitum ration either based on maize silage (62% dietary DM) or high-starch concentrate (MS-S), and half based on grass silage (59% dietary DM) and high-fibre concentrate (GS-F). The absolute gas flows (g/d) were individually measured with 2 GreenFeed systems during 88 days (group 1) and 64 days (group 2). All gas flows were also expressed in g/kg DM intake (gas yield), in g/kg average daily gain (CH4 intensity) and residual of daily emissions for CH4 (R CH4). Different FE metrics (residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE)) were investigated during the same period. The relationships between gas flows and FE metrics were tested by linear regression with the diet as fixed effect. For both diets, we observed a consistent individual variability over the measurement period for absolutes values (g/d) of CH4, CO2, and O2 (repeatability >0.7 for GS-F and >0.6 for MS-S). Gas flows (g/d) were positively correlated with RFI with both diets: animals that ingested food in excess of their theoretical maintenance and growth requirements emitted more CH4, CO2 and consumed more O2. The positive relationship between absolute CH4 emissions and RFI highlighted the interest for low-CH4 emitters and efficient growing bulls when fed with high-energy diets rich in starch or fibre. For both diets, RCH4, CH4 yield and CH4 intensity were not related to RFI whereas a significant negative relationship was reported between CH4 intensity and RG, and FCE. These data suggest that intake is the main driver of the phenotypic relationships between CH4 traits and RFI. Further studies including larger numbers of animals on highly contrasting energy diets are needed to investigate the underlying biological regulatory mechanisms of the methanogenic potential of an animal in relation to production traits.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Metano , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Masculino , Silagem/análise , Amido
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0155422, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862964

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are recognized as contaminants due to their potential risk for human and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of pyroligneous acid (PA), a waste of biochar production, on fermentation characteristics, diversity, and dynamics of ARGs during ensiling of alfalfa using metagenomic analysis. The results indicated that PA decreased (P < 0.05) dry matter loss, pH value, gas production, coliform bacteria count, protease activity, and nonprotein-N, ammonia-N, and butyric acid contents and increased (P < 0.05) lactic acid content during ensiling. During fermentation, Bacteria, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus were the most abundant at kingdom, phylum, and genus levels, respectively. Pyroligneous acid reduced the relative abundance of Bacteria and Firmicutes and increased that of Lactobacillus. The detected ARGs belonged to 36 drug classes, including mainly macrolides, tetracycline, lincosamides, and phenicol. These types of ARGs decreased during fermentation and were further reduced by PA. These types of ARGs were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with fermentation parameters like pH value and ammonia-N content and with bacterial communities. At the genus level, the top several drug classes, including macrolide, tetracycline, lincosamide, phenicol, oxazolidinone, streptogramin, pleuromutilin, and glycopeptide, were positively correlated with Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Clostridium, and Enterobacter, the potential hosts of ARGs. Overall, ARGs in alfalfa silage were abundant and were influenced by the fermentation parameters and microbial community composition. Ensiling could be a feasible way to mitigate ARGs in forages. The addition of PA could not only improve fermentation quality but also reduce ARG pollution of alfalfa silage. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are considered environmental pollutants posing a potential human health risk. Silage is an important and traditional feed, mainly for ruminants. ARGs in silages might influence the diversity and distribution of ARGs in animal intestinal and feces and then the manure and the manured soil. However, the diversity and dynamics of ARGs in silage during fermentation are still unknown. We ensiled alfalfa, one of the most widely used forages, with or without pyroligneous acid (PA), which was proved to have the ability to reduce ARGs in soils. The results showed that ARGs in alfalfa silage were abundant and were influenced by the fermentation parameters and microbial community. The majority of ARGs in alfalfa silage reduced during fermentation. The addition of PA could improve silage quality and reduce ARG pollution in alfalfa silage. This study can provide useful information for understanding and controlling ARG pollution in animal production.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa , Silagem , Amônia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fermentação , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Silagem/análise , Silagem/microbiologia , Terpenos , Tetraciclinas
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 231, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857136

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of regrowth ages and the use of powdered molasses on nutritional characteristics of Zuri grass (Megathyrsus maximus) silages. A completely randomized design was used, in a 3 × 3 factorial scheme: three regrowth ages (65, 80, and 95 days) and three inclusion levels of powdered molasses of sugarcane (0, 20, and 40 g), with four replications. The chemical composition, fermentation parameters, in vitro digestibility, and in vitro degradation kinetics of the silages were evaluated. Greater dry matter (DM) contents were observed in silages with 95 days with 40 g of molasses. The 65 days of regrowth silages with 40 g of molasses had greater in vitro digestibility of dry matter compared to other treatments. However, lower pH values, N-NH3, DM losses, gas losses, and density were observed in silages with 95 days of regrowth with 40 g of molasses. It is recommended to cut the Zuri grass in the range of 80 to 95 days of regrowth with the addition of 40 g/kg of molasses in powders for the production of silages.


Assuntos
Melaço , Silagem , Animais , Fermentação , Cinética , Valor Nutritivo , Poaceae , Pós , Silagem/análise
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 360: 127611, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840025

RESUMO

In a two-stage CSTR system, the anaerobic digestion effluent from the second stage (methane reactor) can be used for pH-control in the acidification reactor. But using batch leach bed reactors, controlling the pH-value is key affecting factor due to dynamic process conditions. The aim of this work was to study, an automatized technical-scale leach bed reactor system for VFA-production with pH-dependent flushing. It was developed and tested at mesophilic and thermophilic operating conditions and compared to a time-controlled flushing mode. The reactors were fed with grass silage and the experiments were run for 35 days. Total cumulative VFA yields up to 270 g kg-1VS were achieved and extracted from the reactor. The methane formation in the leach bed reactors was successfully suppressed with a pH-controlled flushing mode. As a result of the extraction of the VFA from the leach bed reactors, the methane potential decreased by up to 50 %.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Anaerobiose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metano , Silagem
19.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13755, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791793

RESUMO

The objective of the work is to evaluate the effects of four chemical additives on fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and in vitro ruminal digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage. TMR containing 15% spent mushroom substrate, 25% soybean sauce residue, 45% napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schum.), and 15% concentrate was ensiled with the following: (1) no additives (control), (2) potassium sorbate (PS, 0.1%), (3) sodium benzoate (SB, 0.1%), (4) sodium diacetate (SDA, 0.5%), and (5) calcium propionate (CAP, 0.5%) based on fresh weight. All silos (10 L) were opened for fermentation quality, in vitro ruminal digestibility analysis after 60 days of ensiling, and then subjected to aerobic stability test for 9 days. All TMR silages were well-conserved, as indicated by low pH, butyric acid, and ammonia nitrogen contents. During aerobic exposure, SDA was more stable with higher (p < 0.05) lactic acid and acetic acid contents and lower (p < 0.05) yeast counts than other TMR silages. In addition, SDA significantly (p < 0.05) increased cumulate gas production and in vitro dry matter digestibility compared with the control. Overall, SDA is recommended as additives to improve fermentation quality, in vitro ruminal digestibility, and aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with local food by-products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Silagem , Ácido Acético , Animais , Fermentação , Nitrogênio , Silagem/análise
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830433

RESUMO

To prevent soil pollution caused by polyethylene (PE) films in the central region of Gansu, China, liquid mulching made from cow dung (CDLM) was trailed in silage maize fields. The degradation of CDLM and PE films, soil temperature, soil organic matter content, silage maize yield and water use efficiency (WUE) were evaluated for three years (2018-2020). The degradability of CDLM has been found to be much stronger than the one of PE films, with CDLM degrading 40-60 days after sowing and finishing around 100 days. CDLM had a lower insulating impact than PE films but a higher insulating effect than non-mulching films as the control (CK); CDLM could successfully increase soil organic matter, with a total increase of 1.01% over three years. CDLM increased silage maize yield by 6.2% compared to PE films and 17.2% compared to CK. Consequently, CDLM may be an interesting alternative to PE films for enhancing silage maize yield while decreasing soil contamination.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Polietileno , Animais , Bovinos , China , Polietileno/metabolismo , Silagem , Solo , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...