Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.813
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): 571-580, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055303

RESUMO

Objective: Iodide transport across thyrocytes constitutes a critical step for thyroid hormone biosynthesis, mediated mainly by the basolateral sodium-iodide-symporter (NIS (SLC5A5)) and the apical anion exchanger pendrin (PDS (SLC26A4)). Both transmembrane proteins have been described as autoantigens in thyroid disease, yet the reports on autoantibody (aAb) prevalence and diagnostic usefulness are conflicting. Reasons for the inconclusive findings may be small study groups and principle differences in the technologies used. Design: We decided to re-evaluate this important issue by establishing novel non-radioactive tests using full-length antigens and comparable protocols, and analyzing a large cohort of thyroid patients (n = 323) and control samples (n = 400). Methods: NIS and PDS were recombinantly expressed as fusion protein with firefly luciferase (Luc). Stably transfected HEK293 cells were used as reproducible source of the autoantigens. Results: Recombinant NIS-Luc showed iodide transport activity, indicating successful expression and correct processing. Commercial antibodies yielded dose-dependent responses in the newly established assays. Reproducibility of assay signals from patient sera was verified with respect to linearity, stability and absence of matrix effects. Prevalence of PDS-aAb was similar in thyroid patients and controls (7.7% vs 5.0%). NIS-aAb were more prevalent in patients than controls (7.7% vs 1.8%), especially in Graves' Disease (12.3%). Neither NIS-aAb nor PDS-aAb concentrations were related to TPO-aAb or TSH-receptor-aAb concentrations, or to serum zinc or selenium status. Conclusions: Our data highlight a potential relevance of autoimmunity against NIS for thyroid disease, whereas an assessment of PDS-aAb in thyroid patients seems not to be of diagnostic value (yet).


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Transportadores de Sulfato/sangue , Simportadores/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Transportadores de Sulfato/imunologia , Simportadores/imunologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1291-1299, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces neurobehavioral and neuroendocrine abnormalities in exposed male rats (generation F0) and neurobehavioral, but not neuroendocrine, abnormalities in their male, but not female, offspring (generation F1). These effects of sevoflurane are accompanied by a hypermethylated neuron-specific K-2Cl (Kcc2) Cl exporter gene in the F0 spermatozoa and the F1 male hypothalamus, while the gene's expression is reduced in the F0 and F1 hypothalamus. We investigated whether inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferases (DNMTs) before paternal sevoflurane exposure could alleviate the anesthetic's F0 and F1 effects. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were anesthetized with 2.1% sevoflurane for 5 hours on postnatal day (P) 5 and mated with control females on P90 to generate offspring. The nonselective DNMT inhibitor decitabine (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 minutes before sevoflurane exposure. The F0 and F1 male rats were evaluated in in vivo and in vitro tests in adulthood. RESULTS: Paternal exposure to sevoflurane induced impaired prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response and exacerbated corticosterone responses to stress in F0 males and impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle responses in F1 males. These effects were accompanied in both generations by reduced and increased expressions of hypothalamic Kcc2 and Dnmt3a/b, respectively. Decitabine deterred the effects of paternal exposure to sevoflurane in F0 and F1 males. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that similar decitabine-sensitive mechanisms regulating expression of multiple genes are involved in the mediation of neurobehavioral abnormalities in sires neonatally exposed to sevoflurane and in their future unexposed male offspring.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20159-20170, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747553

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, many patients do not respond or develop resistance to ICB. N6 -methylation of adenosine (m6A) in RNA regulates many pathophysiological processes. Here, we show that deletion of the m6A demethylase Alkbh5 sensitized tumors to cancer immunotherapy. Alkbh5 has effects on m6A density and splicing events in tumors during ICB. Alkbh5 modulates Mct4/Slc16a3 expression and lactate content of the tumor microenvironment and the composition of tumor-infiltrating Treg and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Importantly, a small-molecule Alkbh5 inhibitor enhanced the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Notably, the ALKBH5 gene mutation and expression status of melanoma patients correlate with their response to immunotherapy. Our results suggest that m6A demethylases in tumor cells contribute to the efficacy of immunotherapy and identify ALKBH5 as a potential therapeutic target to enhance immunotherapy outcome in melanoma, colorectal, and potentially other cancers.


Assuntos
Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Lactatos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/genética , Anticorpos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/terapia , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Processamento de RNA , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(34): 42778-42790, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748357

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common type of human malignancies, leads to increasing incidence and fairly high mortality. An increasing number of studies have verified that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) played key roles in the development of multiple human cancers. As a biomarker, SLC16A1-AS1 has been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Thus, we decided to investigate whether SLC16A1-AS1 exerts its biological function in HCC. In this study, we discovered that SLC16A1-AS1 was obviously downregulated in HCC tissues and cells. Overexpression of SLC16A1-AS1 inhibited HCC cell proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process as well as promoted cell apoptosis. Moreover, SLC16A1-AS1 was confirmed to enhance the radiosensitivity of HCC cells. Molecular mechanism exploration suggested that SLC16A1-AS1 served as a sponge for miR-301b-3p and CHD5 was the downstream target gene of miR-301b-3p in HCC cells. Rescue assays implied that CHD5 knockdown could recover the effects of SLC16A1-AS1 overexpression on HCC cellular processes. In brief, our study clarified that SLC16A1-AS1 acted as a tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting the miR-301b-3p/CHD5 axis, which may be a promising diagnostic biomarker and provide promising treatment for HCC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos , Neoplasias Bucais , Simportadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , DNA Helicases , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Simportadores/fisiologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22378-22389, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839325

RESUMO

Hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a noninvasive metabolic-imaging modality that probes carbon flux in tissues and infers the state of metabolic reprograming in tumors. Prevailing models attribute elevated hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion rates in aggressive tumors to enhanced glycolytic flux and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity (Warburg effect). By contrast, we find by cross-sectional analysis using genetic and pharmacological tools in mechanistic studies applied to well-defined genetically engineered cell lines and tumors that initial hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion rates as well as global conversion were highly dependent on and critically rate-limited by the transmembrane influx of [1-13C]pyruvate mediated predominately by monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1). Specifically, in a cell-encapsulated alginate bead model, induced short hairpin (shRNA) knockdown or overexpression of MCT1 quantitatively inhibited or enhanced, respectively, unidirectional pyruvate influxes and [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion rates, independent of glycolysis or LDHA activity. Similarly, in tumor models in vivo, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion was highly dependent on and critically rate-limited by the induced transmembrane influx of [1-13C]pyruvate mediated by MCT1. Thus, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRSI measures primarily MCT1-mediated [1-13C]pyruvate transmembrane influx in vivo, not glycolytic flux or LDHA activity, driving a reinterpretation of this maturing new technology during clinical translation. Indeed, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for patients with pancreatic, renal, lung, and cervical cancers showed that high-level expression of MCT1 correlated with poor overall survival, and only in selected tumors, coincident with LDHA expression. Thus, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRSI provides a noninvasive functional assessment primarily of MCT1 as a clinical biomarker in relevant patient populations.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/química , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Ácido Pirúvico/análise , Ácido Pirúvico/química
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): K1-K5, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805706

RESUMO

Background: Among patients with congenital hypothyroidism, 35% have dyshormonogenesis (DH) with thyroid gland in situ with or without goiter. The majority of DH cases are due to mutations in genes involved in thyroid hormone production as TG, TPO, SLC5A5/NIS, SLC26A4/PDS, IYD/DEHAL1, DUOX2, and DUOXA2, and are usually inherited on an autosomal recessive basis. Most previously reported cases of fetal hypothyroidism and goiter were related to TG or TPO mutations and recently DUOXA2. Patient: In a male patient with antenatal goiter treated with intraamniotic levothyroxine injections, whose long-term follow-up is described in detail, two novel NIS mutations were detected. Mutations of NIS were located in exon 1 (c.52G>A, p.G18R) and exon 13 (c.1546C>T, p.R516X), each mutation was inherited from parents, who are healthy carriers. The p.G18R mutation affecting the first transmembrane domain of the protein can be responsible for deficient iodide uptake. However, the second is a nonsense mutation leading probably to mRNA degradation. In addition, the patient has undergone a thyroidectomy and we have studied the thyroid tissue. The thyroid histology showed heterogeneity with large follicles, epithelial hyperplasia and many areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry with NIS specific antibody showed NIS staining at the basolateral plasma membrane of the thyrocytes. Conclusions: We report the first case of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism due to two novel NIS mutations with access to thyroid tissue of the patient, specific histology studies and long-term follow-up. This case expands our knowledge and provides further insights on molecular causes of fetal goiter in humans.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Bócio/genética , Mutação , Simportadores/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/tratamento farmacológico , Bócio/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22544-22551, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826330

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, given its growing incidence and its association with a variety of comorbidities. Weight gain results from an increase in energy intake without a concomitant increase in energy expenditure. To combat the obesity epidemic, many studies have focused on the pathways underlying satiety and hunger signaling, while other studies have concentrated on the mechanisms involved in energy expenditure, most notably adaptive thermogenesis. Hypothyroidism in humans is typically associated with a decreased basal metabolic rate, lower energy expenditure, and weight gain. However, hypothyroid mouse models have been reported to have a leaner phenotype than euthyroid controls. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we used a drug-free mouse model of hypothyroidism: mice lacking the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), the plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide uptake in the thyroid. In addition to being leaner than euthyroid mice, owing in part to reduced food intake, these hypothyroid mice show signs of compensatory up-regulation of the skeletal-muscle adaptive thermogenic marker sarcolipin, with an associated increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Neither catecholamines nor thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are responsible for sarcolipin expression or FAO stimulation; rather, thyroid hormones are likely to negatively regulate both processes in skeletal muscle. Our findings indicate that hypothyroidism in mice results in a variety of metabolic changes, which collectively lead to a leaner phenotype. A deeper understanding of these changes may make it possible to develop new strategies against obesity.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Termogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteolipídeos/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(10): 2468-2480, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The SMIT1 (sodium:myo-inositol transporter 1) regulates myo-inositol movement into cells and responses to hypertonic stimuli. Alteration of myo-inositol levels has been associated with several diseases, including hypertension, but there is no evidence of a functional role of SMIT1 in the vasculature. Recent evidence showed that in the nervous system SMIT1 interacted and modulated the function of members of the Kv7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels, which are also expressed in the vasculature where they regulate arterial contractility. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated whether SMIT1 was functionally relevant in arterial smooth muscle. Approach and Results: Immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed that SMIT1 was expressed in rat renal and mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells. Isometric tension recordings showed that incubation of renal arteries with raffinose and myo-inositol (which increases SMIT1 expression) reduced the contractile responses to methoxamine, an effect that was abolished by preincubation with the pan-Kv7 blocker linopirdine and by molecular knockdown of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5. Knockdown of SMIT1 increased the contraction of renal arteries induced by methoxamine, impaired the response to the Kv7.2-Kv7.5 activator ML213 but did not interfere with the relaxant responses induced by openers of other potassium channels. Proximity ligation assay showed that SMIT1 interacted with heteromeric channels formed by Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 proteins in both renal and mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells. Patch-clamp experiments showed that incubation with raffinose plus myo-inositol increased Kv7 currents in vascular smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSIONS: SMIT1 protein is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells where it modulates arterial contractility through an association with Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromers.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio KCNQ/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/genética , Potenciais da Membrana , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Artéria Renal/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Simportadores/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3935, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769979

RESUMO

GABAA/glycine-mediated neuronal inhibition critically depends on intracellular chloride (Cl-) concentration which is mainly regulated by the K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the adult central nervous system (CNS). KCC2 heterogeneity thus affects information processing across CNS areas. Here, we uncover a gradient in Cl- extrusion capacity across the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord (laminae I-II: LI-LII), which remains concealed under low Cl- load. Under high Cl- load or heightened synaptic drive, lower Cl- extrusion is unveiled in LI, as expected from the gradient in KCC2 expression found across the SDH. Blocking TrkB receptors increases KCC2 in LI, pointing to differential constitutive TrkB activation across laminae. Higher Cl- lability in LI results in rapidly collapsing inhibition, and a form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity expressed as a continuous facilitation of excitatory responses. The higher metaplasticity in LI as compared to LII differentially affects sensitization to thermal and mechanical input. Thus, inconspicuous heterogeneity of Cl- extrusion across laminae critically shapes plasticity for selective nociceptive modalities.


Assuntos
Sensibilização do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Cloretos/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Células do Corno Posterior/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Neurológicos , Optogenética , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo
10.
J Med Chem ; 63(15): 8231-8249, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608236

RESUMO

Sialin, encoded by the SLC17A5 gene, is a lysosomal sialic acid transporter defective in Salla disease, a rare inherited leukodystrophy. It also enables metabolic incorporation of exogenous sialic acids, leading to autoantibodies against N-glycolylneuraminic acid in humans. Here, we identified a novel class of human sialin ligands by virtual screening and structure-activity relationship studies. The ligand scaffold is characterized by an amino acid backbone with a free carboxylate, an N-linked aromatic or heteroaromatic substituent, and a hydrophobic side chain. The most potent compound, 45 (LSP12-3129), inhibited N-acetylneuraminic acid 1 (Neu5Ac) transport in a non-competitive manner with IC50 ≈ 2.5 µM, a value 400-fold lower than the KM for Neu5Ac. In vitro and molecular docking studies attributed the non-competitive character to selective inhibitor binding to the Neu5Ac site in a cytosol-facing conformation. Moreover, compound 45 rescued the trafficking defect of the pathogenic mutant (R39C) causing Salla disease. This new class of cell-permeant inhibitors provides tools to investigate the physiological roles of sialin and help develop pharmacological chaperones for Salla disease.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ratos
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3612, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681035

RESUMO

Bile acid synthesis plays a key role in regulating whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Transcriptional factor EB (TFEB) is a nutrient and stress-sensing transcriptional factor that promotes lysosomal biogenesis. Here we report a role of TFEB in regulating hepatic bile acid synthesis. We show that TFEB induces cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in human hepatocytes and mouse livers and prevents hepatic cholesterol accumulation and hypercholesterolemia in Western diet-fed mice. Furthermore, we find that cholesterol-induced lysosomal stress feed-forward activates TFEB via promoting TFEB nuclear translocation, while bile acid-induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), acting via mTOR/ERK signaling and TFEB phosphorylation, feedback inhibits TFEB nuclear translocation in hepatocytes. Consistently, blocking intestinal bile acid uptake by an apical sodium-bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibitor decreases ileal FGF15, enhances hepatic TFEB nuclear localization and improves cholesterol homeostasis in Western diet-fed mice. This study has identified a TFEB-mediated gut-liver signaling axis that regulates hepatic cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/antagonistas & inibidores , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687511

RESUMO

Loss of function mutations in the gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) lead to severe neurodevelopmental defects in humans associated with a specific thyroid hormone phenotype manifesting high serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and low thyroxine (T4) levels. Patients present a paradoxical state of peripheral hyperthyroidism and brain hypothyroidism, this last one most likely arising from impaired thyroid hormone transport across the brain barriers. The administration of thyroid hormones by delivery pathways that bypass the brain barriers, such as the intranasal delivery route, offers the possibility to improve the neurological defects of MCT8-deficient patients. In this study, the thyroid hormones T4 and T3 were administrated intranasally in different mouse models of MCT8 deficiency. We have found that, under the present formulation, intranasal administration of thyroid hormones does not increase the content of thyroid hormones in the brain and further raises the peripheral thyroid hormone levels. Our data suggests intranasal delivery of thyroid hormones is not a suitable therapeutic strategy for MCT8 deficiency, although alternative formulations could be considered in the future to improve the nose-to-brain transport.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/deficiência , Simportadores/deficiência , Hormônios Tireóideos/administração & dosagem , Hormônios Tireóideos/farmacologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Camundongos , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Simportadores/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
13.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C359-C370, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520610

RESUMO

SLC4A11 is the only member of the SLC4 family that transports protons rather than bicarbonate. SLC4A11 is expressed in corneal endothelial cells, and its mutation causes corneal endothelial dystrophy, although the mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. We previously demonstrated that the magnitude of the H+ conductance (Gm) mediated by SLC4A11 is increased by rises in intracellular as well as extracellular pH (pHi and pHe). To better understand this feature and whether it is altered in disease, we studied the pH dependence of wild-type and mutant mouse Slc4a11 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using voltage-clamp circuitry in conjunction with a H+-selective microelectrode and a microinjector loaded with NaHCO3, we caused incremental rises in oocyte pHi and measured the effect on Gm. We find that the rise of Gm has a steeper pHi dependence at pHe =8.50 than at pHe =7.50. Data gathered at pHe =8.50 can be fit to the Hill equation enabling the calculation of a pK value that reports pHi dependence. We find that mutation of lysine residues that are close to the first transmembrane span (TM1) causes an alkaline shift in pK. Furthermore, two corneal-dystrophy-causing mutations close to the extracellular end of TM1, E399K and T401K (E368K and T370K in mouse), cause an acidic shift in pK, while a third mutation in the fourth intracellular loop, R804H (R774H in mouse), causes an alkaline shift in pK. This is the first description of determinants of SLC4A11 pH dependence and the first indication that a shift in pH dependence could modify disease expressivity in some cases of corneal dystrophy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Lisina/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio Posterior/metabolismo , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Transporte de Íons/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oócitos/patologia , Sódio , Xenopus/genética
14.
Biomed Khim ; 66(3): 185-195, 2020 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588824

RESUMO

Inhibition of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, also known as IBAT - ileal bile acid transporter, SLC10A2) leads to disruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and their excretion with fecal masses. This is accompanied by cholesterol utilization for synthesis of new bile acids. ASBT inhibitors are promising drugs for the treatment of such diseases as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, necrotic enterocolitis, chronic constipation, atherosclerosis. To date the most known chemically synthesized inhibitors are: A3309, SHP626, A4250, 264W94, GSK2330672, SC-435. All of them are at different stages of clinical trials, which confirm the high efficacy and good tolerance of these inhibitors. Current trends in this field also include directed chemical synthesis of ASBT inhibitors, as well as their search among substances of plant origin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio , Simportadores , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/farmacologia , Simportadores/genética
15.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(3): 263-273, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572425

RESUMO

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system (CNS), however, it causes excitation in the immature CNS neurons. The shift from GABA-induced depolarization to hyperpolarization in postnatal brain is primarily due to progressive decrease in the expression of the Na+-K+-2Cl- symporter 1 (NKCC1) and increased expression of the K+-Cl- cotransporter 2 (KCC2). Unlike CNS neurons, both immature and mature neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are depolarized by GABA. Molecular mechanisms by which GABA excites ENS neurons are unclear. It is understood, however, that the excitatory action depends on elevated intraneuronal Cl-. We aimed to test a hypothesis that high intracellular Cl- in ENS neurons is maintained by activity of the NKCCs. We found that NKCC2 immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed in the ENS of the rat colon on postnatal day 1 (P1). The expression level of NKCC2 continuously increased and reached a steady high level on P14 and maintained at that level in adulthood. NKCC1 IR appeared in ENS on P14 and maintained through adulthood. KCC2 IR was not detectable in the ENS in any of the developmental stages. Both NKCC1 IR and NKCC2 IR were co-expressed with GABAA receptors in ENS neurons. Exogenous GABA (1 mmol/L) caused membrane depolarization in the ENS neurons. The reversal potential of GABA-induced depolarization was about -16 mV. Blockade of NKCC by bumetanide (50 µmol/L) or furosemide (300 µmol/L) suppressed the depolarizing responses to GABA. Bumetanide (50 µmol/L) shifted the reversal potential of GABA-induced depolarization in the hyperpolarizing direction. Neither the KCC blocker DIOA (20 µmol/L) nor the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger inhibitor DIDS (200 µmol/L) suppressed GABA-evoked depolarization. The results suggest that ENS neurons continuously express NKCC2 since P1 and NKCC1 since P14, which contribute to the accumulation of Cl- in ENS neurons and GABA-evoked depolarization in neonate and adult ENS neurons. These results provide the first direct evidence for the contribution of both NKCC2 and NKCC1 to the GABAA-mediated depolarization.


Assuntos
Receptores de GABA-A , Simportadores , Animais , Bumetanida , Neurônios , Ratos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
16.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(7): 594-605, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disordered thyroid hormone transport, due to mutations in the SLC16A2 gene encoding monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), is characterised by intellectual and motor disability resulting from cerebral hypothyroidism and chronic peripheral thyrotoxicosis. We sought to systematically assess the phenotypic characteristics and natural history of patients with MCT8 deficiency. METHODS: We did an international, multicentre, cohort study, analysing retrospective data from Jan 1, 2003, to Dec 31, 2019, from patients with MCT8 deficiency followed up in 47 hospitals in 22 countries globally. The key inclusion criterion was genetically confirmed MCT8 deficiency. There were no exclusion criteria. Our primary objective was to analyse the overall survival of patients with MCT8 deficiency and document causes of death. We also compared survival between patients who did or did not attain full head control by age 1·5 years and between patients who were or were not underweight by age 1-3 years (defined as a bodyweight-for-age Z score <-2 SDs or <5th percentile according to WHO definition). Other objectives were to assess neurocognitive function and outcomes, and clinical parameters including anthropometric characteristics, biochemical markers, and neuroimaging findings. FINDINGS: Between Oct 14, 2014, and Jan 17, 2020, we enrolled 151 patients with 73 different MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Median age at diagnosis was 24·0 months (IQR 12·0-60·0, range 0·0-744·0). 32 (21%) of 151 patients died; the main causes of mortality in these patients were pulmonary infection (six [19%]) and sudden death (six [19%]). Median overall survival was 35·0 years (95% CI 8·3-61·7). Individuals who did not attain head control by age 1·5 years had an increased risk of death compared with patients who did attain head control (hazard ratio [HR] 3·46, 95% CI 1·76-8·34; log-rank test p=0·0041). Patients who were underweight during age 1-3 years had an increased risk for death compared with patients who were of normal bodyweight at this age (HR 4·71, 95% CI 1·26-17·58, p=0·021). The few motor and cognitive abilities of patients did not improve with age, as evidenced by the absence of significant correlations between biological age and scores on the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Tri-iodothyronine concentrations were above the age-specific upper limit in 96 (95%) of 101 patients and free thyroxine concentrations were below the age-specific lower limit in 94 (89%) of 106 patients. 59 (71%) of 83 patients were underweight. 25 (53%) of 47 patients had elevated systolic blood pressure above the 90th percentile, 34 (76%) of 45 patients had premature atrial contractions, and 20 (31%) of 64 had resting tachycardia. The most consistent MRI finding was a global delay in myelination, which occurred in 13 (100%) of 13 patients. INTERPRETATION: Our description of characteristics of MCT8 deficiency in a large patient cohort reveals poor survival with a high prevalence of treatable underlying risk factors, and provides knowledge that might inform clinical management and future evaluation of therapies. FUNDING: Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, and the Sherman Foundation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/deficiência , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Simportadores/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Agências Internacionais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Simportadores/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 545-560, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504260

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsGTγ-2, a trihelix transcription factor, is a positive regulator of rice responses to salt stress by regulating the expression of ion transporters. Salinity stress seriously restricts rice growth and yield. Trihelix transcription factors (GT factors) specifically bind to GT elements and play a diverse role in plant morphological development and responses to abiotic stresses. In our previous study, we found that the GT-1 element (GAAAAA) is a key element in the salinity-induced OsRAV2 promoter. Here, we identified a rice OsGTγ family member, OsGTγ-2, which directly interacted with the GT-1 element in the OsRAV2 promoter. OsGTγ-2 specifically targeted the nucleus, was mainly expressed in roots, sheathes, stems and seeds, and was induced by salinity, osmotic and oxidative stresses and abscisic acid (ABA). The seed germination rate, seedling growth and survival rate under salinity stress was improved in OsGTγ-2 overexpressing lines (PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2). In contrast, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated OsGTγ-2 knockout lines (osgtγ-2) showed salt-hypersensitive phenotypes. In response to salt stress, different Na+ and K+ acclamation patterns were observed in PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2 lines and osgtγ-2 plants were observed. The molecular mechanism of OsGTγ-2 in rice salt adaptation was also investigated. Several major genes responsible for ion transporting, such as the OsHKT2; 1, OsHKT1; 3 and OsNHX1 were transcriptionally regulated by OsGTγ-2. A subsequent yeast one-hybrid assay and EMSA indicated that OsGTγ-2 directly interacted with the promoters of OsHKT2; 1, OsNHX1 and OsHKT1; 3. Taken together, these results suggest that OsGTγ-2 is an important positive regulator involved in rice responses to salt stress and suggest a potential role for OsGTγ-2 in regulating salinity adaptation in rice.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Plântula/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413057

RESUMO

The pivotal role of KCC2 and NKCC1 in development and maintenance of fast inhibitory neurotransmission and their implication in severe human diseases arouse interest in posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms such as (de)phosphorylation. Staurosporine (broad kinase inhibitor) and N-ethylmalemide (NEM) that modulate kinase and phosphatase activities enhance KCC2 and decrease NKCC1 activity. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanism for this reciprocal regulation by mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies. Our analyses revealed that application of staurosporine or NEM dephosphorylates Thr1007 of KCC2, and Thr203, Thr207 and Thr212 of NKCC1. Dephosphorylation of Thr1007 of KCC2, and Thr207 and Thr212 of NKCC1 were previously demonstrated to activate KCC2 and to inactivate NKCC1. In addition, application of the two agents resulted in dephosphorylation of the T-loop and S-loop phosphorylation sites Thr233 and Ser373 of SPAK, a critical kinase in the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling module mediating phosphorylation of KCC2 and NKCC1. Taken together, these results suggest that reciprocal regulation of KCC2 and NKCC1 via staurosporine and NEM is based on WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling. The key regulatory phospho-site Ser940 of KCC2 is not critically involved in the enhanced activation of KCC2 upon staurosporine and NEM treatment, as both agents have opposite effects on its phosphorylation status. Finally, NEM acts in a tissue-specific manner on Ser940, as shown by comparative analysis in HEK293 cells and immature cultured hippocampal neurons. In summary, our analyses identified phospho-sites that are responsive to staurosporine or NEM application. This provides important information towards a better understanding of the cooperative interactions of different phospho-sites.


Assuntos
Etilmaleimida/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Estaurosporina/farmacologia , Simportadores/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção , Proteína Quinase 1 Deficiente de Lisina WNK/metabolismo
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 561-580, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405802

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CmHKT1;1 selectively exports Na+ from plant cells. Upon NaCl stress, its expression increased in a salt-tolerant melon cultivar. Overexpression of CmHKT1;1 increased transgenic Arabidopsis salt tolerance through improved K+/Na+ balance. High-affinity K+ transporters (HKTs) are thought to be involved in reducing Na+ in plant shoots under salt stress and modulating salt tolerance, but their function in a moderately salt-tolerant species of melon (Cucumis melo L.) remains unclear. In this study, a Na+ transporter gene, CmHKT1;1 (GenBank accession number: MK986658), was isolated from melons based on genome data. The transcript of CmHKT1;1 was relatively more abundant in roots than in stems or leaves from melon seedlings. The tobacco transient expression system showed that CmHKT1;1 was plasma-membrane localized. Upon salt stress, CmHKT1;1 expression was more strongly upregulated in a salt-tolerant melon cultivar, 'Bingxuecui' (BXC) compared with a salt-sensitive cultivar, 'Yulu' (YL). Electrophysiological evidence demonstrated that CmHKT1;1 only transported Na+, rather than K+, when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Overexpression of CmHKT1;1 increased salt sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under NaCl treatments, transgenic Arabidopsis plants accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Na+ in shoots than wild type plants and showed a better K+/Na+ balance, leading to better Fv/Fm, root length, biomass, and enhanced plant growth. The CmHKT1;1 gene may serve as a useful candidate for improving crop salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clonagem Molecular , Cucumis melo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0226472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379828

RESUMO

The ParB-parS partition complexes that bacterial replicons use to ensure their faithful inheritance also find employment in visualization of DNA loci, as less intrusive alternatives to fluorescent repressor-operator systems. The ability of ParB molecules to interact via their N-terminal domains and to bind to non-specific DNA enables expansion of the initial complex to a size both functional in partition and, via fusion to fluorescent peptides, visible by light microscopy. We have investigated whether it is possible to dispense with the need to insert parS in the genomic locus of interest, by determining whether ParB fused to proteins that bind specifically to natural DNA sequences can still assemble visible complexes. In yeast cells, coproduction of fusions of ParB to a fluorescent peptide and to a TALE protein targeting an endogenous sequence did not yield visible foci; nor did any of several variants of these components. In E.coli, coproduction of fusions of SopB (F plasmid ParB) to fluorescent peptide, and to dCas9 together with specific guide RNAs, likewise yielded no foci. The result of coproducing analogous fusions of SopB proteins with distinct binding specificities was also negative. Our observations imply that in order to assemble higher order partition complexes, ParB proteins need specific activation through binding to their cognate parS sites.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Centrômero/química , Centrômero/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA