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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(6): 603-614, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052233

RESUMO

The WRKY transcription factor family is involved in responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Its members contain a typical WRKY domain and can regulate plant physiological responses by binding to W-boxes in the promoter regions of downstream target genes. We identified the sweet sorghum SbWRKY50 (Sb09g005700) gene, which encodes a typical class II of the WRKY family protein that localizes to the nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity. The expression of SbWRKY50 in sweet sorghum was reduced by salt stress, and its ectopic expression reduced the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Compared with the wild type, the germination rate, root length, biomass and potassium ion content of SbWRKY50 over-expression plants decreased significantly under salt-stress conditions, while the hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and sodium ion contents increased. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression levels of AtSOS1, AtHKT1 and genes related to osmotic and oxidative stresses in over-expression strains decreased under salt-stress conditions. Luciferase complementation imaging and yeast one-hybrid assays confirmed that SbWRKY50 could directly bind to the upstream promoter of the SOS1 gene in A. thaliana. However, in sweet sorghum, SbWRKY50 could directly bind to the upstream promoters of SOS1 and HKT1. These results suggest that the new WRKY transcription factor SbWRKY50 participates in plant salt response by controlling ion homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanisms are different in sweet sorghum and Arabidopsis, which may explain their different salt tolerance levels. The data provide information that can be applied to genetically modifying salt tolerance in different crop varieties.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biomassa , Proteínas de Transporte , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Potássio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105359, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765944

RESUMO

Carbohydrate metabolism switches from aerobic to anaerobic (glycolysis) to supply energy in response to acute hypoxic stress. Acute hypoxic stress with dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 1.2 ±â€¯0.1 mg/L for 24 h and 12 h re-oxygenation was used to investigate the response of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in Micropterus salmoides muscle. The results showed that the glucose concentration was significantly lower in muscle, while the lactic acid and pyruvic acid concentrations tended to increase during hypoxic stress. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen, and ATP content fluctuated significantly. The activities of gluconeogenesis-related enzymes were slightly elevated, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The activities of the glycolytic enzymes increased after the induction of hypoxia, such as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Curiously, phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was significantly down-regulated within 4 h during hypoxia, although these effects were transient, and most indices returned to control levels after 12 h of re-oxygenation. Upregulated hif-1α, ampkα, hk, glut1, and ldh mRNA expression suggested that carbohydrate metabolism was reprogrammed under hypoxia. Lactate transport was regulated by miR-124-5p according to quantitative polymerase chain reaction and dual luciferase reporter assays. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of hypoxia in Micropterus salmoides muscle.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Bass/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Bass/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/genética , Músculos/enzimologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17305, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574858

RESUMO

Until now, the recognition of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) deficiency has been mainly based on sporadic case reports. It was previously believed to be mildly symptomatic and resulting in mild liver dysfunction. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports about the histopathologic and ultrastructural pathologic characteristics of the disease. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical, histopathologic and ultrastructural pathologic characteristics of NTCP deficiency in 13 pediatric patients.From August 2012 to October 2018, this retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Tongji Hospital, China analyzed the data of 13 NTCP deficient patients with an SLC10A1 gene mutation. Except for NTCP deficiency, no other liver diseases were present in the patients, which was determined by both a genetic testing panel for jaundice and by reviewing medical records. The laboratory results, imaging, histopathologic, and ultrastructural pathologic information were recorded for analysis.The serum level of total bile acid was high in all 13 patients. All patients had adequate growth and development. Eight of the patients (8/13) presented with visible jaundice and 12 (12/13) were found to have hyperbilirubinemia. A needle liver biopsy was performed in 11 cases, which revealed slightly chronic inflammation in all 11 patients. One of the patients (1/13) was found to be suffering from gallstones.The data showed that although NTCP deficiency was often asymptomatic, some of the patients showed obvious clinical expressions, such as jaundice. Among the 13 pediatric patients with NTCP deficiency, both the biochemical and histopathologic features were similar to those of mild hepatocellular jaundice. In addition, it was determined that the clinical features in the patient with gallstones may have been caused by NTCP deficiency.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Icterícia , Hepatopatias , Fígado , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio , Simportadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Lactente , Icterícia/diagnóstico , Icterícia/etiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/genética , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/deficiência , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Pediatria/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Simportadores/deficiência , Simportadores/genética
4.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 73, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arabian horses are commonly believed to be one of the oldest and the most popular horse breeds in the world, characterized by favourable stamina traits and exercise phenotypes. During intensive training, the rates of lactate production and utilization are critical to avoid muscle fatigue and a decrease in exercise performance. The key factor determining transmembrane lactate transport is the monocarboxylate transporter 1 protein coded for by the SLC16A1 gene. The aim of the present research was to identify polymorphisms in the coding sequence and UTRs in the equine SLC16A1 gene and to evaluate their potential association with race performance traits in Arabian horses. Based on RNA-seq data, SNPs were identified and genotyped using PCR-RFLP or PCR-HRM methods in 254 Arabian horses that competed in flat races. An association analysis between polymorphisms and racing results was performed. RESULTS: Novel polymorphisms in the equine SLC16A1 locus have been identified (missense and 5'UTR variants: g.55601543C > T and g.55589063 T > G). Analysis showed a significant association between the 5'UTR polymorphism and several racing results as follows: the possibility of winning first or second place, the number of races in which horses started and total financial benefits. The analysis also showed differences in genotype distribution depending on race distance. In the studied population, the shorter distance races were only won by TT horses. The GG and TG horses took first and second places in middle- and long-distance races, and the percentage of winning heterozygotes increased from 19.5 to 27% at the middle and long distances, respectively. The p.Val432Ile (g.55601543C > T) polymorphism was not significantly related to the analysed racing results. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that g.55589063 T > G polymorphism affected the possibility of winning first or second place and of competing in more races. The different distribution of genotypes depending on race distance indicated the possibility of using a SNP in the SLC16A1 gene as a marker to predict the best race distance for a horse. The presented results provide a basis for further research to validate the use of the SLC16A1 gene as a potential marker associated with racing performance.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Cavalos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Simportadores/genética , Alelos , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008208, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553721

RESUMO

Variation in steroid hormone levels has wide implications for health and disease. The genes encoding the proteins involved in steroid disposition represent key determinants of interindividual variation in steroid levels and ultimately, their effects. Beginning with metabolomic data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed that genetic variants in the orphan transporter, SLC22A24 were significantly associated with levels of androsterone glucuronide and etiocholanolone glucuronide (sentinel SNPs p-value <1x10-30). In cells over-expressing human or various mammalian orthologs of SLC22A24, we showed that steroid conjugates and bile acids were substrates of the transporter. Phylogenetic, genomic, and transcriptomic analyses suggested that SLC22A24 has a specialized role in the kidney and appears to function in the reabsorption of organic anions, and in particular, anionic steroids. Phenome-wide analysis showed that functional variants of SLC22A24 are associated with human disease such as cardiovascular diseases and acne, which have been linked to dysregulated steroid metabolism. Collectively, these functional genomic studies reveal a previously uncharacterized protein involved in steroid homeostasis, opening up new possibilities for SLC22A24 as a pharmacological target for regulating steroid levels.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Androsterona/análogos & derivados , Androsterona/genética , Androsterona/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Simportadores/química , Simportadores/genética
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(4): 3820-3828, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485670

RESUMO

Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) are the 'gold standard' for investigating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and antiviral drugs. However, poor availability, variation between batches and ethical issues regarding PHHs limit their applications. The discovery of human sodium taurocholate co­transporting polypeptide (hNTCP) as a functional HBV receptor has enabled the development of a surrogate model to supplement the use of PHHs. In the present study, the evolutionary distance of seven species was assessed based on single­copy homologous genes. Based on the evolutionary distance and availability, PHHs and primary rabbit hepatocytes (PRHs) were isolated and infected with hNTCP­recombinant lentivirus, and susceptibility to HBV infection in the two cell types was tested and compared. In addition, HBV infection efficiency of hNTCP­expressing PPHs with pooled HBV­positive serum and purified particles was determined. The potential use of HBV­infected hNTCP­expressing PPHs for drug screening was assessed. The results demonstrated that pigs and rabbits are closer to humans in the divergence tree compared with mice and rats, indicating that pigs and rabbits were more likely to facilitate the HBV post­entry lifecycle. Following hNTCP complementation and HBV infection, PPHs and Huh7D human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, but not PRHs, exhibited increased hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e­antigen secretion, covalently closed circular DNA formation and infectious particle secretion. hNTCP­expressing PPHs were susceptible to infection with HBV particles purified from pooled HBV­positive sera, but were poisoned by raw HBV­positive sera. The use of HBV­infected hNTCP­expressing PPHs for viral entry inhibitor screening was revealed to be applicable and reproducible. In conclusion, hNTCP­expressing PPHs may be valuable tool for investigating HBV infection and antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatócitos/virologia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Coelhos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 357, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival of plants in response to salinity stress is typically related to Na+ toxicity, but little is known about how heterologous high-affinity potassium transporter (HKT) may help alleviate salt-induced damages in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). RESULTS: In this study, we used the Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity potassium transporter gene (AtHKT1) to enhance the capacity of potato plants to tolerate salinity stress by decreasing Na+ content and improving K+/Na+ ratio in plant leaves, while maintaining osmotic balance. Seven AtHKT1 transformed potato lines (namely T1, T2, T3, T5, T11, T13 and T15) were compared with non-transgenic control plant at molecule and whole-plant levels. The lines T3 and T13 had the highest AtHKT1 expression with the tolerance index (an quantitative assessment) being 6.8 times that of the control. At 30 days under 100 and 150 mmol L- 1 NaCl stress treatments, the T3 and T13 lines had least reductions in net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate among the seven lines, leading to the increased water use efficiency and decreased yield loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the constitutive overexpression of AtHKT1 reduces Na+ accumulation in potato leaves and promotes the K+/Na+ homeostasis that minimizes osmotic imbalance, maintains photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and increases plant productivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Expressão Gênica , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Simportadores/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Homeostase , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4095-4100, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ethacridine is used as a topical antiseptic as well as for second-trimester abortion. Recent studies showed that ethacridine is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and an activator of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). This study examined the effects of ethacridine on thyroid cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133 and SW1736) and thyroid follicular epithelial cells (Nthy-ori 3-1) were treated with ethacridine. Viability, clonogenicity, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis were evaluated. The expression of thyroid differentiation markers (TTF-1, PAX8, and NIS) was determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Ethacridine suppressed cell growth and clonogenic ability of thyroid cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). No cell-cycle arrest was found, but ethacridine dose-dependently induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells (p<0.001). The PAX8 and NIS expressions were significantly increased in SW1736 (3.41-fold and 1.53-fold, respectively) and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells (2.73-fold and 4.12-fold, respectively). CONCLUSION: Ethacridine elicits apoptotic cell death in thyroid cancer cells and promotes differentiation in a subset of thyroid follicular cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etacridina/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Simportadores/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Fator Nuclear 1 de Tireoide/genética
9.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008073, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465442

RESUMO

The microbial communities that inhabit the distal gut of humans and other mammals exhibit large inter-individual variation. While host genetics is a known factor that influences gut microbiota composition, the mechanisms underlying this variation remain largely unknown. Bile acids (BAs) are hormones that are produced by the host and chemically modified by gut bacteria. BAs serve as environmental cues and nutrients to microbes, but they can also have antibacterial effects. We hypothesized that host genetic variation in BA metabolism and homeostasis influence gut microbiota composition. To address this, we used the Diversity Outbred (DO) stock, a population of genetically distinct mice derived from eight founder strains. We characterized the fecal microbiota composition and plasma and cecal BA profiles from 400 DO mice maintained on a high-fat high-sucrose diet for ~22 weeks. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, we identified several genomic regions associated with variations in both bacterial and BA profiles. Notably, we found overlapping QTL for Turicibacter sp. and plasma cholic acid, which mapped to a locus containing the gene for the ileal bile acid transporter, Slc10a2. Mediation analysis and subsequent follow-up validation experiments suggest that differences in Slc10a2 gene expression associated with the different strains influences levels of both traits and revealed novel interactions between Turicibacter and BAs. This work illustrates how systems genetics can be utilized to generate testable hypotheses and provide insight into host-microbe interactions.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Camundongos de Cruzamento Colaborativo , Feminino , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 325, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide uptake plays an important physiological role in regulating thyroid gland function, as well as in diagnosing and treating Graves' disease and thyroid cancer. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear protein, is a positive regulator of autophagy conferring resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy in cancer cells. Here the authors intended to identify the role of HMGB1 in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS)-induced autophagy, explore NIS protein degradation through a autophagy-lysosome pathway in thyroid cancer cells and elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed for detecting the expression of HMGB1 in different tissues. HMGB1 was knocked down by lentiviral transfection in FTC-133/TPC-1 cells. Autophagic markers LC3-II, p62, Beclin1 and autophagosomal formation were employed for evaluating HMGB1-mediated autophagy in HBSS-treated cells by Western blot, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Western blot, quantitative RT-PCR and gamma counter analysis were performed for detecting NIS expression and iodide uptake in HMGB1-knockdown cells after different treatments. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, ROS-mediated LC3-II expression and HMGB1 cytosolic translocation were detected by fluorospectrophotometer, flow cytometry, Western blot and immunofluorescence. HMGB1-mediated AMPK, mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation (p-AMPK, p-mTOR & p-p70S6K) were detected by Western blot. Furthermore, a nude murine model with transplanted tumor was employed for examining the effect of HMGB1-mediated autophagy on imaging and biodistribution of 99mTcO4-. NIS, Beclin1, p-AMPK and p-mTOR were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot in transplanted tumor samples. RESULTS: HMGB1 was a critical regulator of autophagy-mediated NIS degradation in HBSS-treated FTC-133/TPC-1 cells. And HMGB1 up-regulation was rather prevalent in thyroid cancer tissues and closely correlated with worse overall lymph node metastasis and clinical stage. HMGB1-knockdown dramatically suppressed autophagy, NIS degradation and boosted iodide uptake in HBSS-treated cells. Moreover, HBSS enhanced ROS-sustained autophagy and promoted the cytosolic translocation of HMGB1. A knockdown of HMGB1 suppressed LC3-II conversion and NIS degradation via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent signal pathway through a regulation of ROS generation, rather than ATP. Furthermore, these data were further supported by our in vivo experiment of xenografts formed by HMGB1 knockdown cells reverting the uptake of 99mTcO4- as compared with control shRNA-transfected cells in hunger group. CONCLUSIONS: Acting as a critical regulator of autophagy-mediated NIS degradation via ROS/AMPK/mTOR pathway, HMGB1is a potential intervention target of radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Radioisótopos do Iodo/farmacologia , Simportadores/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Animais , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteólise/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Simportadores/química , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
11.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 79: 102346, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352162

RESUMO

Excessive red cell dehydration contributes to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). The densest fraction of sickle red cells (with the highest corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) undergoes the most rapid polymerization of deoxy-hemoglobin S, leading to accelerated cell sickling and increased susceptibility to endothelial activation, red cell adhesion, and vaso-occlusion. Increasing red cell volume in order to decrease red cell density can thus serve as an adjunct therapeutic goal in SCD. Regulation of circulating mouse red cell volume and density is mediated largely by the Gardos channel, KCNN4, and the K-Cl cotransporters, KCC3 and KCC1. Whereas inhibition of the Gardos channel in subjects with sickle cell disease increased red cell volume, decreased red cell density, and improved other hematological indices in subjects with SCD, specific KCC inhibitors have not been available for testing. We therefore investigated the effect of genetic inactivation of KCC3 and KCC1 in the SAD mouse model of sickle red cell dehydration, finding decreased red cell density and improved hematological indices. We describe here generation of mice genetically deficient in the three major red cell volume regulatory gene products, KCNN4, KCC3, and KCC1 in C57BL6 non-sickle and SAD sickle backgrounds. We show that combined loss-of-function of all three gene products in SAD mice leads to incrementally increased MCV, decreased CHCM and % hyperchromic cells, decreased red cell density (phthalate method), increased resistance to hypo-osmotic lysis, and increased cell K content. The data show that combined genetic deletion of the Gardos channel and K-Cl cotransporters in a mouse SCD model decreases red cell density and improves several hematological parameters, supporting the strategy of combined pharmacological inhibition of these ion transport pathways in the adjunct treatment of human SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desidratação/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/patologia , Humanos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária/deficiência , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária/genética , Camundongos , Simportadores/deficiência , Simportadores/genética
12.
Environ Int ; 130: 104956, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272017

RESUMO

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during pregnancy is associated with a disruption in thyroid hormone balance. The placenta serves as an important environment for fetal development and also regulates thyroid hormone supply to the fetus. However, epigenetic changes of thyroid regulating genes in placenta have rarely been studied. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between several POP concentrations in maternal serum and DNA methylation of thyroid hormone-related genes in the placenta. The placenta samples were collected from 106 Korean mother at delivery, and the promoter methylation of the placental genes was measured by a bisulfite pyrosequencing. The deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), and transthyretin (TTR) genes were selected as the target genes as they play an important role in the regulation of fetal thyroid balance. Because people are exposed to multiple chemicals at the same time, a multiple-POP model using principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to evaluate the association between the multiple POPs exposure and the epigenetic change in placenta. In addition, a single-POP model which includes one chemical each in the statistical model for association was conducted. Based on the single-POP models, serum concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) were significantly associated with an increase in placental DIO3 methylation, but only among female infants. Among male infants, a positive association between serum p,p'-DDT and MCT8 methylation level was found. According to the multiple-POP models, serum DDTs were positively associated with DIO3 methylation in the placenta of female infants, while a positive association with MCT8 methylation was observed in those of the male infants. Our observation showed that in utero exposure to DDTs may influence the DNA methylation of DIO3 and MCT8 genes in the placenta, in a sexually dimorphic manner. These alterations in placental epigenetic regulation may in part explain the thyroid hormone disruption observed among the newborns or infants followed by in utero exposure to POPs.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Exposição Materna , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Simportadores/genética , Adulto , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8941046, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240228

RESUMO

Chloride (Cl-) homeostasis is an essential process involved in neuronal signalling and cell survival. Inadequate regulation of intracellular Cl- interferes with synaptic signalling and is implicated in several neurological diseases. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system is γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA hyperpolarises the membrane potential by activating Cl- permeable GABAA receptor channels (GABAAR). This process is reliant on Cl- extruder K+-Cl- cotransporter 2 (KCC2), which generates the neuron's inward, hyperpolarising Cl- gradient. KCC2 is encoded by the fifth member of the solute carrier 12 family (SLC12A5) and has remained a poorly understood component in the development and severity of many neurological diseases for many years. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing and specific gene targeting, however, have indicated that loss of KCC2 activity is involved in a number of diseases including epilepsy and schizophrenia. It has also been implicated in neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury. Any variant of SLC12A5 that negatively regulates the transporter's expression may, therefore, be implicated in neurological disease. A recent whole exome study has discovered several causative mutations in patients with epilepsy. Here, we discuss the implications of KCC2 in neurological disease and consider the evolving evidence for KCC2's potential as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Simportadores/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Marcação de Genes , Homeostase , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Simportadores/genética
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 879-894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179847

RESUMO

Hepatocyte proliferation could result in the loss of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and the emergence of cccDNA-cleared nascent hepatocytes, which appear refractory to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection with unknown mechanism(s). Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the functional receptor for HBV entry. In this study, down-regulation of cell membrane localized NTCP expression in proliferating hepatocytes was found to prevent HBV infection in HepG2-NTCP-tet cells and in liver-humanized mice. In patients, lower NTCP protein expression was correlated well with higher levels of hepatocyte proliferation and less HBsAg expression in HBV-related focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) tissues. Clinically, significantly lower NTCP protein expression was correlated with more active hepatocyte proliferation in CHB patients with severe active necroinflammation and better antiviral treatment outcome. Mechanistically, the activation of cell cycle regulatory genes p53, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) and cyclin D1 during cell proliferation, as well as proliferative and inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) could transcriptionally down-regulate NTCP expression. From these aspects, we conclude that within the milieu of hepatocyte proliferation, down-regulation of cell membrane localized NTCP expression level renders nascent hepatocytes resistant to HBV reinfection. This may accelerate virus clearance during immune-mediated cell death and compensatory proliferation of survival hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/fisiopatologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo
15.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(3): 403-409, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209810

RESUMO

Accumulation of lactate in tumor has been linked to poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but the underlying mechanism remained largely uncertain. Previous studies have suggested that presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) closely correlated with cellular malignancy of OSCC. Here, using 3D organoid culture model, we investigated whether lactate promoted CSCs phenotype in primary OSCC cells. We generated organoids using fresh OSCC specimens and verified that organoids recapitulated histopathology and cellular heterogeneity of parental tumor. Organoids were then transfected with a Wnt reporter to visualize Wnt activity. The sphere forming assay demonstrated that high Wnt activity functionally designated CSCs population in OSCC cells. Further investigations indicated that lactate treatment promoted Wnt activity and increased the expression of CSCs (i.e. CD133+ cells) in organoids. Moreover, silencing monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), the prominent path for lactate uptake in human tumor with siRNA significantly impaired organoid forming capacity of OSCC cells. Together, our study demonstrated that lactate can promote CSCs phenotype of OSCC, and MCT1 may be a therapeutic target against OSCC growth.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Simportadores/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno AC133/genética , Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Idoso , Proteína Axina/genética , Proteína Axina/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/genética , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , Organoides/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Simportadores/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 4201-4212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147861

RESUMO

Current methods, such as serum thyroglobulin measurement and medical imaging, have limitations in the routine monitoring of the disease status and treatment response of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs), and additional methods remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in monitoring the disease status and treatment response of DTC. Blood samples were obtained from DTC patients before (1 to 3 months after total thyroidectomy) and 4 to 6 months after radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) therapy for the CTC assessments. The number, NIS expression, and EMT phenotypes of CTCs were enumerated and characterized with CanPatrol™ CTC enrichment and mRNA in situ hybridization. Postoperative NIS high expression was independently correlated with a better response to first RAI therapy and good treatment efficacy. Postoperative NIS-/epithelial-/mesenchymal+ CTCs presence was independently correlated with a worse response to first RAI therapy. The numbers of total NIS+ CTCs and NIS+/epithelial+/mesenchymal+ CTCs after first RAI therapy were negatively correlated with a better response to RAI therapy only in univariate analyses. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that a decreased or unchanged number of total NIS+ CTCs after RAI therapy may denote good efficacy and effective RAI therapy. These preliminary data suggest that assessment of the NIS expression and EMT phenotypes of CTCs may serve as potential adjuncts for predicting and monitoring the curative effect of RAI therapy in DTC patients and avoid ineffective treatment. Further validation is warranted.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/efeitos da radiação , Simportadores/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Radioterapia/métodos , Simportadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
17.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(5-6): 181-186, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241262

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Methylation is a key epigenetic modification of DNA and regarding its impact on epilepsy, it is argued that "DNA methylation may play an important role in seizure susceptibility and maintenance of the disorder". DNA methylation status of KCC2 (SCL12A5) and NKCC1 (SCL12A2) associated with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy was investigated in our study. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who were diagnosed by video EEG monitoring and 32 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Twenty-three patients in TLE group were men and the remaining 15 were women. Among them, 27 had unilateral temporal focus (9 with right; 18 with left) and 11 patients had bilateral TLE. We analyzed promoter region methylation status of the KCC2 (SCL12A5) and NKCC1 (SCL12A2) genes in the case and control groups. Gene regions of interest were amplified through PCR and sequencing was accomplished with pyro-sequencing. Results: We found a significant relationship between TLE and methylation on the NKCC1. However, there was no association between TLE and methylation on the KCC2 gene. Also, we found no association between right or left and unilateral or bilateral foci of TLE. There was no relationship between TLE and methylation on the NKCC1and KCC2 genes in terms of mesial temporal sclerosis in cranial MRI, head trauma or febrile convulsions. Conclusion: The methylation of NKCC1 can be a mecha-nism of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. There are limited findings about DNA methylation in TLE. Therefore, further studies with large sample sizes are necessary.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Simportadores/genética
18.
EBioMedicine ; 45: 231-250, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence of over 9000 people suggests that daily intake of vinegar whose principal bioactive component is acetic acid is associated with a reduced risk of nephrolithiasis. The underlying mechanism, however, remains largely unknown. METHODS: We examined the in vitro and in vivo anti-nephrolithiasis effects of vinegar and acetate. A randomized study was performed to confirm the effects of vinegar in humans. FINDINGS: We found individuals with daily consumption of vinegar compared to those without have a higher citrate and a lower calcium excretion in urine, two critical molecules for calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stone in humans. We observed that oral administration of vinegar or 5% acetate increased citrate and reduced calcium in urinary excretion, and finally suppressed renal CaOx crystal formation in a rat model. Mechanism dissection suggested that acetate enhanced acetylation of Histone H3 in renal tubular cells and promoted expression of microRNAs-130a-3p, -148b-3p and -374b-5p by increasing H3K9, H3K27 acetylation at their promoter regions. These miRNAs can suppress the expression of Nadc1 and Cldn14, thus enhancing urinary citrate excretion and reducing urinary calcium excretion. Significantly these mechanistic findings were confirmed in human kidney tissues, suggesting similar mechanistic relationships exist in humans. Results from a pilot clinical study indicated that daily intake of vinegar reduced stone recurrence, increased citrate and reduced calcium in urinary excretion in CaOx stone formers without adverse side effects. INTERPRETATION: Vinegar prevents renal CaOx crystal formation through influencing urinary citrate and calcium excretion via epigenetic regulations. Vinegar consumption is a promising strategy to prevent CaOx nephrolithiasis occurrence and recurrence. FUND: National Natural Science Foundations of China and National Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/administração & dosagem , Epigênese Genética/genética , Cálculos Renais/dietoterapia , Nefrolitíase/dietoterapia , Adulto , Animais , Cálcio/urina , Oxalato de Cálcio/urina , Claudinas/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/genética , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Renais/urina , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitíase/genética , Nefrolitíase/prevenção & controle , Nefrolitíase/urina , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Ratos , Recidiva , Simportadores/genética
19.
Life Sci ; 229: 173-179, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103606

RESUMO

AIMS: The innate immune response induced by bacterial peptidoglycan peptides, such as γ-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP), is an important host defense system. However, little is known about the innate immune response in the lung alveolar region. In this study, we examined induction of the innate immune response by iE-DAP in human alveolar epithelial cell lines, NCI-H441 (H441) and A549. MAIN METHODS: Induction of the innate immune response was evaluated by measuring the mRNA expression of cytokines and their release into the culture medium. KEY FINDINGS: iE-DAP treatment increased the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and increased release of these pro-inflammatory cytokines into the culture medium in H441 cells, but not in A549 cells. Lack of release of these cytokines in A549 cells may have been due to lack of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) function. Intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) recognizes iE-DAP and activates downstream signaling pathways to initiate the immune response. Therefore, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways was examined in H441 cells. As a result of inhibition studies, receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 and MAPK signaling pathways, such as p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase, were determined to be involved in the innate immune response in H441 cells. In addition, the nuclear factor κB pathway also played a role in the innate immune response. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicated that the innate immune response induced by bacterial peptides could occur in a PEPT2- and NOD1-dependent manner in alveolar epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Ácido Diaminopimélico/análogos & derivados , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácido Diaminopimélico/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Simportadores/genética
20.
Orv Hetil ; 160(21): 835-838, 2019 May.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104500

RESUMO

The advances in molecular genetic methods has lead to the discovery of the genetic alterations that underlie the etiology of most diseases previously held to be idiopathic. Targeted genetic examination of a pediatric male patient showing a normal intellect, an extended area of skin hypopigmentation, and suffering from generalized epilepsy displaying a switch in epilepsy syndrome during the course of the disease towards a neurocutaneous syndrome was unsuccessful. Whole-exome sequencing identified a heterozygous missense mutation in a potassium chloride cotransporter gene, which together with the phenotype underscores the diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome known in the literature as idiopathic generalized epilepsy type 14. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(21): 835-838.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada/etiologia , Canais Iônicos/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Simportadores/genética , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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