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1.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 118918, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227850

RESUMO

To understand how climate change stressors might affect marine organisms and support adequate projections it is important to know how multiple stressors may be modulated by the presence of other species. We evaluated the direct effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) together with non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of the predatory crab Acanthocyclus hassleri on early ontogeny fitness-related traits of the commercially important rocky-shore keystone gastropod Concholepas concholepas. We measured the response of nine traits to these stressors at either the organismal level (survival, growth, feeding rates, tenacity, metabolic rate, calcification rate) or sub-organismal level (nutritional status, ATP-supplying capacity, stress condition). C. concholepas survival was not affected by any of the stressors. Feeding rates were not affected by OW or OA; however, they were reduced in the presence of crab NCEs compared with control conditions. Horizontal tenacity was affected by the OA × NCEs interaction; in the presence of NCEs, OA reduced tenacity. The routine metabolic rate, measured by oxygen consumption, increased significantly with OW. Nutritional status assessment determined that carbohydrate content was not affected by any of the stressors. However, protein content was affected by the OA × NCEs interaction; in the absence of NCEs, OA reduced protein levels. ATP-supplying capacity, measured by citrate synthase (CS) activity, and cellular stress condition (HSP70 expression) were reduced by OA, with reduction in CS activity found particularly at the high temperature. Our results indicate C. concholepas traits are affected by OA and OW and the effects are modulated by predator risk (NCEs). We conclude that some C. concholepas traits are resilient to climate stressors (survival, growth, horizontal tenacity and nutritional status) but others are affected by OW (metabolic rate), OA (ATP-supplying capacity, stress condition), and NCEs (feeding rate). The results suggest that these negative effects can adversely affect the associated community.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Água do Mar
2.
J Clin Invest ; 132(15)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912856

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a worldwide public health issue despite direct-acting antivirals. A substantial proportion of infected individuals (15%-45%) spontaneously clear repeated HCV infections with genetically different viruses by generating broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, translating this response into an effective vaccine strategy has been unsuccessful. In this issue of the JCI, Frumento and colleagues report on their study of bNAb evolution longitudinally in convalescent individuals with repeated infections. Using pseudotyped viruses, well-characterized monoclonal antibodies, and complex modeling, the authors show that multiple exposures to antigenically related, antibody-sensitive viral envelope proteins induced potent bNAbs. This work provides valuable insight into the best strategies for developing HCV vaccines in the future that may successfully reproduce the immunity induced during natural exposures.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Vacinas , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Convalescença , Sinais (Psicologia) , Hepacivirus , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Humanos , Vacinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4613, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941114

RESUMO

To navigate towards a food source, animals frequently combine odor cues about source identity with wind direction cues about source location. Where and how these two cues are integrated to support navigation is unclear. Here we describe a pathway to the Drosophila fan-shaped body that encodes attractive odor and promotes upwind navigation. We show that neurons throughout this pathway encode odor, but not wind direction. Using connectomics, we identify fan-shaped body local neurons called h∆C that receive input from this odor pathway and a previously described wind pathway. We show that h∆C neurons exhibit odor-gated, wind direction-tuned activity, that sparse activation of h∆C neurons promotes navigation in a reproducible direction, and that h∆C activity is required for persistent upwind orientation during odor. Based on connectome data, we develop a computational model showing how h∆C activity can promote navigation towards a goal such as an upwind odor source. Our results suggest that odor and wind cues are processed by separate pathways and integrated within the fan-shaped body to support goal-directed navigation.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Olfato , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Drosophila , Olfato/fisiologia , Vento
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1980): 20221230, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946160

RESUMO

A person's focus of attention is conveyed by the direction of their eyes and face, providing a simple visual cue fundamental to social interaction. A growing body of research examines the visual mechanisms that encode the direction of another person's gaze as we observe them. Here we investigate the spatial receptive field properties of these mechanisms, by testing the spatial selectivity of sensory adaptation to gaze direction. Human observers were adapted to faces with averted gaze presented in one visual hemifield, then tested in their perception of gaze direction for faces presented in the same or opposite hemifield. Adaptation caused strong, repulsive perceptual aftereffects, but only for faces presented in the same hemifield as the adapter. This occurred even though adapting and test stimuli were in the same external location across saccades. Hence, there was clear evidence for retinotopic adaptation and a relative lack of either spatiotopic or spatially invariant adaptation. These results indicate that adaptable representations of gaze direction in the human visual system have retinotopic spatial receptive fields. This strategy of coding others' direction of gaze with positional specificity relative to one's own eye position may facilitate key functions of gaze perception, such as socially cued shifts in visual attention.


Assuntos
Movimentos Sacádicos , Percepção Visual , Adaptação Fisiológica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Olho , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
5.
Front Neural Circuits ; 16: 944895, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958042

RESUMO

In many animal species, males and females exploit different mating strategies, display sex-typical behaviors, and use distinct systems to recognize ethologically relevant cues. Mate selection thus requires mutual recognition across diverse social interactions based on distinct sensory signals. These sex differences in courtship and mating behaviors correspond to differences in sensory systems and downstream neural substrates engaged to recognize and respond to courtship signals. In many rodents, males tend to rely heavily on volatile olfactory and pheromone cues, while females appear to be guided more by a combination of these chemosensory signals with acoustic cues in the form of ultrasonic vocalizations. The mechanisms by which chemical and acoustic cues are integrated to control behavior are understudied in mating but are known to be important in the control of maternal behaviors. Socially monogamous species constitute a behaviorally distinct group of rodents. In these species, anatomic differences between males and females outside the nervous system are less prominent than in species with non-monogamous mating systems, and both sexes engage in more symmetric social behaviors and form attachments. Nevertheless, despite the apparent similarities in behaviors displayed by monogamous males and females, the circuitry supporting social, mating, and attachment behaviors in these species is increasingly thought to differ between the sexes. Sex differences in sensory modalities most important for mate recognition in across species are of particular interest and present a wealth of questions yet to be answered. Here, we discuss how distinct sensory cues may be integrated to drive social and attachment behaviors in rodents, and the differing roles of specific sensory systems in eliciting displays of behavior by females or males.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Corte , Feminino , Masculino , Roedores , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Olfato
6.
PLoS Genet ; 18(8): e1010331, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913986

RESUMO

The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to adapt to its surrounding environment is critical for the bacterium to successfully colonize its host. Transcriptional changes are a vital mechanism by which Mtb responds to key environmental signals experienced, such as pH, chloride (Cl-), nitric oxide (NO), and hypoxia. However, much remains unknown regarding how Mtb coordinates its response to the disparate signals seen during infection. Utilizing a transcription factor (TF) overexpression plasmid library in combination with a pH/Cl--responsive luciferase reporter, we identified the essential TF, PrrA, part of the PrrAB two-component system, as a TF involved in modulation of Mtb response to pH and Cl-. Further studies revealed that PrrA also affected Mtb response to NO and hypoxia, with prrA overexpression dampening induction of NO and hypoxia-responsive genes. PrrA is phosphorylated not just by its cognate sensor histidine kinase PrrB, but also by serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) at a second distinct site. Strikingly, a STPK-phosphoablative PrrA variant was significantly dampened in its response to NO versus wild type Mtb, disrupted in its ability to adaptively enter a non-replicative state upon extended NO exposure, and attenuated for in vivo colonization. Together, our results reveal PrrA as an important regulator of Mtb response to multiple environmental signals, and uncover a critical role of STPK regulation of PrrA in its function.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Serina/metabolismo , Treonina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951499

RESUMO

Evolutionary theories of disease avoidance propose that humans have a set of universal psychological processes to detect environmental cues indicative of infectious disease. These processes then initiate cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses that function to limit contact with harmful pathogens. Here, we study the conditions under which people exhibit behavioral avoidance of others with a contagious illness or a physical injury (i.e., a broken leg), and the potential mechanisms that underlie this behavior. Across three studies, participants were given the option of sitting at one of two workstations previously occupied by two confederates, one of whom either showed visible symptoms of a cold (contagion condition), wore a lower-leg orthopedic boot and used crutches (broken leg condition), or showed no signs of illness or physical injury (control). We found strong evidence that adults explicitly avoid contact with individuals who show symptoms of a contagious illness. Further, we provide some evidence that adults also avoid individuals with a physical injury, but that this behavior might be driven by implicit, unconscious processes. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for the healthy avoidance of contagion, and the risk for potential stigmatization of non-contagious groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Emoções , Adulto , Doenças Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Estereotipagem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954927

RESUMO

The present study investigates the effects of peripheral spatial cues and optically distorting augmentations over eccentric vision mechanisms in normally sighted participants with simulated scotoma. Five different augmentations were tested inside a virtual reality (VR)-gaming environment. Three were monocular spatial cues, and two were binocular optical distortions. Each was divided into three conditions: baseline with normal viewing, augmentation with one of the assistance methods positioned around the scotoma, and one with only the simulated central scotoma. The study found that the gaming scenario induced eccentric viewing for the cued augmentation groups, even when the peripheral assistance was removed, while for the optical distortions group, the eccentric behavior disappeared after the augmentation removal. Additionally, an upwards directionality of gaze relative to target during regular gaming was found. The bias was maintained and implemented during and after the cued augmentations but not after the distorted ones. The results suggest that monocular peripheral cues could be better candidates for implementing eccentric viewing training in patients. At the same time, it showed that optical distortions might disrupt such behavior. Such results are noteworthy since distortions such as zoom are known to help patients with macular degeneration see targets of interest.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Jogos de Vídeo , Realidade Virtual , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Escotoma
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955725

RESUMO

The complexity of auxin signaling is partially due to multiple auxin receptors that trigger differential signaling. To obtain insight into the subcellular localization of auxin-binding sites, we used fluorescent auxin analogs that can undergo transport but do not deploy auxin signaling. Using fluorescent probes for different subcellular compartments, we can show that the fluorescent analog of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) associates with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and tonoplast, while the fluorescent analog of indole acetic acid (IAA) binds to the ER. The binding of the fluorescent NAA analog to the ER can be outcompeted by unlabeled NAA, which allows us to estimate the affinity of NAA for this binding site to be around 1 µM. The non-transportable auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) interferes with the binding site for the fluorescent NAA analog at the tonoplast but not with the binding site for the fluorescent IAA analog at the ER. We integrate these data into a working model, where the tonoplast hosts a binding site with a high affinity for 2,4-D, while the ER hosts a binding site with high affinity for NAA. Thus, the differential subcellular localization of binding sites reflects the differential signaling in response to these artificial auxins.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212918, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913228

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a major role in bone tissue engineering (BTE) thanks to their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and being easily available. In vivo, MSCs are exposed to an electroactive microenvironment in the bone niche, which has piezoelectric properties. The correlation between the electrically active milieu and bone's ability to adapt to mechanical stress and self-regenerate has led to using electrical stimulation (ES) as physical cue to direct MSCs differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage in BTE. This review summarizes the different techniques to electrically stimulate MSCs to induce their osteoblastogenesis in vitro, including general electrical stimulation and substrate mediated stimulation by means of conductive or piezoelectric cell culture supports. Several aspects are covered, including stimulation parameters, treatment times and cell culture media to summarize the best conditions for inducing MSCs osteogenic commitment by electrical stimulation, from a critical point of view. Electrical stimulation activates different signaling pathways, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) Smad-dependent or independent, regulated by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38. The roles of voltage gate calcium channels (VGCC) and integrins are also highlighted according to their application technique and parameters, mainly converging in the expression of RUNX2, the master regulator of the osteogenic differentiation pathway. Despite the evident lack of homogeneity in the approaches used, the ever-increasing scientific evidence confirms ES potential as an osteoinductive cue, mimicking aspects of the in vivo microenvironment and moving one step forward to the translation of this approach into clinic.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteogênese , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estimulação Elétrica , Osteogênese/fisiologia
11.
Nat Neurosci ; 25(8): 1009-1013, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915173

RESUMO

Overconsumption of palatable food may initiate neuroadaptive responses in brain reward circuitry that may contribute to eating disorders. Here we report that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption impedes threat-cue-induced suppression of sucrose-seeking in mice. This compulsive sucrose-seeking was due to enhanced cue-triggered neuronal activity in the anterior paraventricular thalamus (aPVT) resulting from HFD-induced microglia activation. Thus, metabolic inflammation in the aPVT produces an adaptive response to threat cues, leading to compulsive food-seeking.


Assuntos
Núcleos Anteriores do Tálamo , Sacarose , Animais , Comportamento Compulsivo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Recompensa , Sacarose/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926001

RESUMO

Manuscript symbols can be stored, recognized and retrieved from an entropic digital memory that is associative and distributed but yet declarative; memory retrieval is a constructive operation, memory cues to objects not contained in the memory are rejected directly without search, and memory operations can be performed through parallel computations. Manuscript symbols, both letters and numerals, are represented in Associative Memory Registers that have an associated entropy. The memory recognition operation obeys an entropy trade-off between precision and recall, and the entropy level impacts on the quality of the objects recovered through the memory retrieval operation. The present proposal is contrasted in several dimensions with neural networks models of associative memory. We discuss the operational characteristics of the entropic associative memory for retrieving objects with both complete and incomplete information, such as severe occlusions. The experiments reported in this paper add evidence on the potential of this framework for developing practical applications and computational models of natural memory.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Entropia , Memória
13.
Trends Hear ; 26: 23312165221117081, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929144

RESUMO

Non-traumatic noise exposure has been shown in animal models to impact the processing of envelope cues. However, evidence in human studies has been conflicting, possibly because the measures have not been specifically parameterized based on listeners' exposure profiles. The current study examined young dental-school students, whose exposure to high-frequency non-traumatic dental-drill noise during their course of study is systematic and precisely quantifiable. Twenty-five dental students and twenty-seven non-dental participants were recruited. The listeners were asked to recognize unvoiced sentences that were processed to contain only envelope cues useful for recognition and have been filtered to frequency regions inside or outside the dental noise spectrum. The sentences were presented either in quiet or in one of the noise maskers, including a steady-state noise, a 16-Hz or 32-Hz temporally modulated noise, or a spectrally modulated noise. The dental students showed no difference from the control group in demographic information, audiological screening outcomes, extended high-frequency thresholds, or unvoiced speech in quiet, but consistently performed more poorly for unvoiced speech recognition in modulated noise. The group difference in noise depended on the filtering conditions. The dental group's degraded performances were observed in temporally modulated noise for high-pass filtered condition only and in spectrally modulated noise for low-pass filtered condition only. The current findings provide the most direct evidence to date of a link between non-traumatic noise exposure and supra-threshold envelope processing issues in human listeners despite the normal audiological profiles.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fala
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272320, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930533

RESUMO

Making decisions is an important aspect of people's lives. Decisions can be highly critical in nature, with mistakes possibly resulting in extremely adverse consequences. Yet, such decisions have often to be made within a very short period of time and with limited information. This can result in decreased accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we explore the possibility of increasing speed and accuracy of users engaged in the discrimination of realistic targets presented for a very short time, in the presence of unimodal or bimodal cues. More specifically, we present results from an experiment where users were asked to discriminate between targets rapidly appearing in an indoor environment. Unimodal (auditory) or bimodal (audio-visual) cues could shortly precede the target stimulus, warning the users about its location. Our findings show that, when used to facilitate perceptual decision under time pressure, and in condition of limited information in real-world scenarios, spoken cues can be effective in boosting performance (accuracy, reaction times or both), and even more so when presented in bimodal form. However, we also found that cue timing plays a critical role and, if the cue-stimulus interval is too short, cues may offer no advantage. In a post-hoc analysis of our data, we also show that congruency between the response location and both the target location and the cues, can interfere with the speed and accuracy in the task. These effects should be taken in consideration, particularly when investigating performance in realistic tasks.


Assuntos
Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(1): 437, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931550

RESUMO

Animals localise sound by making use of acoustical cues resulting from space and frequency dependent filtering of sound by the head and body. Sound arrives at each ear at different times, with different intensities, and with varying spectral content, all of which are affected by the animal's head and the relative sound source position. Location cues in mammals benefit from structures (pinnae) that modify these cues and provide information that helps resolve the cone of confusion and provide cues to sound source elevation. Animals without pinnae must rely on other mechanisms to solve localisation problems. Most non-mammals lack pinna-like structures, but some possess other anatomical features that could influence hearing. One such animal is the frill-necked lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii). The species' elaborate neck frill has been speculated to act as an aid to hearing, but no acoustical measurements have been reported. In this study, we characterise the frill's influence on the acoustical information available to the animal. Results suggest that the change in binaural cues is not sufficiently large to impact localisation behavior within the species' likely audiometric range; however, the frill does increase gain for sounds directly in front of the animal similar to a directional microphone.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Localização de Som , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Audição , Mamíferos , Som
16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(1): 368, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931552

RESUMO

This paper investigates the influence of visual cues in the perception of the /r/-/w/ contrast in Anglo-English. Audio-visual perception of Anglo-English /r/ warrants attention because productions are increasingly non-lingual, labiodental (e.g., [ʋ]), possibly involving visual prominence of the lips for the post-alveolar approximant [ɹ]. Forty native speakers identified [ɹ] and [w] stimuli in four presentation modalities: auditory-only, visual-only, congruous audio-visual, and incongruous audio-visual. Auditory stimuli were presented in noise. The results indicate that native Anglo-English speakers can identify [ɹ] and [w] from visual information alone with almost perfect accuracy. Furthermore, visual cues dominate the perception of the /r/-/w/ contrast when auditory and visual cues are mismatched. However, auditory perception is ambiguous because participants tend to perceive both [ɹ] and [w] as /r/. Auditory ambiguity is related to Anglo-English listeners' exposure to acoustic variation for /r/, especially to [ʋ], which is often confused with [w]. It is suggested that a specific labial configuration for Anglo-English /r/ encodes the contrast with /w/ visually, compensating for the ambiguous auditory contrast. An audio-visual enhancement hypothesis is proposed, and the findings are discussed with regard to sound change.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Ruído , Percepção Visual
17.
J Behav Addict ; 11(2): 506-519, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895611

RESUMO

Background and aims: Problematic pornography use can be conceptualized as an impulse control disorder or alternatively as a behavioral addiction. Stress is an important trigger in addiction, but less is known about the neural effect of stress in problematic pornography use. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the effect of stress during the anticipation and viewing of sexually explicit material while considering person characteristics related to potentially being at risk for developing problematic pornography use. Methods: In an fMRI study (n = 157 men, age: mean = 25.46, SD = 4.11) we used a sexual incentive delay task. A social stress test was used to induce stress in half of the participants. Salivary cortisol was repeatedly measured and person characteristics were considered moderating the effects of cortisol response. Results: We found no group differences in the neural responses during the anticipation phase, but a higher reactivity to sexual stimuli in the dACC in the stress group. Acute stress activated a pronounced cortisol response, which positively correlated with neural activations in the reward system (NAcc, dACC) to sexual cues. Further, the individual time spent on pornography use moderated the effect of cortisol in some regions of the reward system (dACC, mOFC). Discussion and conclusions: Our results suggest that acute stress related increases in cortisol can enhance the incentive value of cues announcing sexual stimuli. This might explain why acute stress is considered a trigger of pornography use and relapse and why individual stress response might be a risk factor for developing a problematic pornography use.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Hidrocortisona , Literatura Erótica , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia
18.
Essays Biochem ; 66(2): 111-121, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880291

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational signal that allows cells to adapt and respond to environmental stimuli. Substrate modifications range from a single ubiquitin molecule to complex polyubiquitin chains, where diverse chain topologies constitute a code that is utilized to modify the functions of proteins in numerous cellular signalling pathways. Diverse ubiquitin chain topologies are generated by linking the C-terminus of ubiquitin to one of seven lysine residues or the N-terminal methionine 1 residue of the preceding ubiquitin. Cooperative action between a large array of E2 conjugating and E3 ligase enzymes supports the formation of not only homotypic ubiquitin chains but also heterotypic mixed or branched chains. This complex array of chain topologies is recognized by proteins containing linkage-specific ubiquitin-binding domains and regulates numerous cellular pathways. Although many functions of the ubiquitin code in plants remain unknown, recent work suggests that specific chain topologies are associated with particular molecular processes. Deciphering the ubiquitin code and how plants utilize it to cope with the changing environment is essential to understand the regulatory mechanisms that underpin myriad stress responses and establishment of environmental tolerance.


Assuntos
Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina , Ubiquitina , Sinais (Psicologia) , Poliubiquitina/química , Poliubiquitina/genética , Poliubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/química , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
19.
Learn Mem ; 29(8): 203-215, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882502

RESUMO

Inclusion of male and female subjects in behavioral neuroscience research requires a concerted effort to characterize sex differences in standardized behavioral assays. Sex differences in hippocampus-dependent assays have been widely reported but are still poorly characterized. In the present study, we conducted a parametric analysis of spontaneous alternation, object recognition, and fear conditioning in a commonly used control strain, C57BL/6NTac. Our findings show largely similar performance between males and females across the majority of behavioral end points. However, we identified an important difference in nonassociative fear sensitization, whereby females showed an enhanced fear response to the 75-dB tone that is used as the conditional stimulus. In addition, we observed an impairment in object location performance in females that was ameliorated by more extensive habituation to handling. Together, these findings argue that sex differences in nonassociative fear responses to both novel auditory cues and novel objects need to be considered when designing and interpreting cognitive assays in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, this elevated fear sensitization could serve as a novel approach to model the increased incidence of anxiety disorders in women.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Medo , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 139: 104759, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780975

RESUMO

Sense of Agency (SoA) refers to the feeling of control over voluntary actions and the outcomes of those actions. Several brain disorders are characterized by an abnormal SoA. To date, there is no robust treatment for aberrant agency across disorders; this is, in large part, due to gaps in our understanding of the cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of the SoA. This apparent gap stems from a lack of synthesis in established findings. As such, the current review reconciles previously established findings into a novel neurocognitive framework for future investigations of the SoA in brain disorders, which we term the Agency in Brain Disorders Framework (ABDF). In doing so, we highlight key top-down and bottom-up cues that contribute to agency prospectively (i.e., prior to action execution) and retrospectively (i.e., after action execution). We then examine brain disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and cortico-basal syndrome (CBS), within the ABDF, to demonstrate its potential utility in investigating neurocognitive mechanisms underlying phenotypically variable presentations of the SoA in brain disorders.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Encéfalo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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