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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 354-361, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postharvest processing, including drying, has a significant effect on the processability of oil crop seeds. High drying air temperature may significantly affect the levels of bioactive compounds in plant raw materials. We decided to investigate the subject given the lack of data on the drying of mustard seeds. The aim was to determine the effect of drying temperature on free fatty acid, phytosterol and tocopherol levels in the oil obtained from white mustard seeds. Seeds were dried in a thin layer at 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 °C. Changes in phytosterol levels were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and changes in tocopherol levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The analysis showed that, upon completion of air drying at 40-100 °C, losses of sterols did not exceed 5%, while upon completion of drying at 120 °C and 140 °C these losses amounted to 17-50%. Our investigation also showed that during drying of white mustard seed the total tocopherol levels increased, and the higher the drying temperature, the greater the increment. In seeds air-dried at 120 °C and 140 °C, the increase in tocopherol amounted to 7-9%. CONCLUSION: We also showed that the temperature of the drying agent significantly affects the tocopherol and phytosterol levels. It was found that a maximum temperature of 100 °C provides optimal drying conditions for mustard seeds. Principal component analysis identified two subgroups of oils obtained from seeds dried at 120 °C and 140 °C, which differed considerably from the other samples in terms of their bioactive component contents. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Fitosteróis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Sinapis/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Ambiente , Vitamina E/análise
2.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104195, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175953

RESUMO

We investigated the transdermal drug permeation enhancement properties and associated mechanisms of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed volatile oil (SVO). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we showed that SVO was composed primarily of allylisothiocyanate and isothiocyanatocyclopropane. Compared with azone, SVO had better penetration-enhancing effects on three model drugs (5-Fluorouracil, Osthole, and Paeonol), with each having different oil-water partition coefficients. Histopathology showed that SVO did not induce skin irritation when the concentration was lower than 2% (v/v), and it induced less irritation than azone. According to attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, SVO induced skin lipid structural disorder and increased the distance between the stratum corneum, which is beneficial to the penetration of drugs. Cellular experiments showed that SVO inhibited Ca2+-ATPase activity, increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and changed the membrane potential in HaCaT cells, which promoted drug transfer into the skin. Our findings reveal that SVO is a safe and efficient natural product that has great potential as skin penetration enhancer.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Sinapis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/ultraestrutura , Absorção Cutânea , Testes de Toxicidade
3.
Food Res Int ; 115: 460-466, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599965

RESUMO

Nanofiltration (NF) (MWCO 150-300 Da) was evaluated for the recovery of phenolic compounds from the wastewater from the production of yellow mustard protein isolates. Rejection coefficients of 0.70 and 0.87 and transmembrane fluxes of 51.3 L/hm2 and 28.8 L/hm2 were observed under alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively. At low pH, 77% of the phenolic compounds fed to the process were recovered in the retentate. Combination of diafiltration (DF) with NF was beneficial only when processing at low pH. The permeate from the NF process a contained <100 ppm total phenolics, which suggests the possibility of recycling these effluents in the production of yellow mustard protein isolates. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the major phenolic compound found both in the waste effluent and in the products of NF processing. Sinapic acid constituted a secondary fraction, and derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol were also detected.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Sinapis/química , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Cumáricos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroxibenzoatos , Reciclagem , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Águas Residuárias
4.
Food Chem ; 273: 172-177, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292365

RESUMO

This work evaluated the influence of the cooking methods (cooked in a water bath, in a stove, and in a microwave oven) on the mineral composition of mustard leaves (Sinapis alba). So, raw and cooked samples were digested and afterward the elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, phosphor, barium and sulfur were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The experimental work involved a set of five samples from different locations, processed in triplicates. The results were evaluated employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA). All techniques showed that the mineral content of the raw and cooked samples in a water bath is different from the samples cooked in stove and microwave oven. Especially for potassium, whose content is strictly controlled for chronic renal patients, this study showed that cooking using microwave oven has the greatest efficiency for reduction.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Minerais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sinapis/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise Espectral/métodos
5.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453590

RESUMO

High Brassicaceae consumption reduces the risk of developing several cancer types, probably due to high levels of glucosinolates. Extracts from Sinapis nigra L. (S. nigra) and Sinapis alba L. (S. alba) have been obtained from leaves and seeds under different conditions using ethanol/water mixtures because their glucosinolates are well accepted by the food industry. The EtOH/H2O 8:2 mixture gives better yields in glucosinolate amounts from ground seeds, mainly, sinalbin in S. alba and sinigrin in S. nigra. The highest antiproliferative activity in both non-tumor and tumor cell lines was induced by S. alba seeds extract. To evaluate whether the effect of Sinapis species (spp) was only due to glucosinolate content or whether it was influenced by the extracts' complexity, cells were treated with extracts or glucosinolates, in the presence of myrosinase. Pure sinigrin did not modify cell proliferation, while pure sinalbin was less effective than the extract. The addition of myrosinase increased the antiproliferative effects of the S. nigra extract and sinigrin. Antiproliferative activity was correlated to Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases modulation, which was cell and extract-dependent. Cell-cycle analysis evidenced a proapoptotic effect of S. alba on both tumor cell lines and of S. nigra only on HCT 116. Both extracts showed good antimicrobial activity in disc diffusion tests and on ready-to-eat fresh salad. These results underline the potential effects of Sinapis spp in chemoprevention and food preservation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sinapis/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sementes/química , Sinapis/classificação , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Phytomedicine ; 50: 196-204, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sinapis Semen is derived from the dried mature seeds of Sinapis alba L. or Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss. Traditionally, the seeds from S. alba are called "White Sinapis Semen" while those from B. juncea are called "Yellow Sinapis Semen". PURPOSE: The present study aimed to compare the chemical composition and the anti-inflammatory effects of 50% aqueous ethanol extracts of the White Sinapis Semen (EWSS) and Yellow Sinapis Semen (EYSS) using both acute (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA)- and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced mouse ear edema) and chronic (multiple applications of croton oil (CO)) inflammatory models. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effects of EWSS and EYSS were determined by measuring the ear thickness and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanism was explored by measuring the protein and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 in the ear of the TPA-treated mice. RESULTS: The results showed that both EWSS and EYSS significantly decreased the ear thickness in both the TPA- and AA-induced acute models, as well as in the CO-induced chronic model. In addition, EWSS and EYSS could markedly inhibit the MPO activity in the ears of TPA-, AA- or CO-treated mice. Moreover, EWSS and EYSS also remarkably inhibited the protein and mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the ears of TPA-treated mice. Comparatively, EWSS exerted more potent anti-inflammatory effect than that of EYSS. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that both EWSS and EYSS are effective anti-inflammatory agents against acute and chronic inflammatory processes, and EWSS possess more potent anti-inflammatory effect than EYSS. The anti-inflammatory effect of the two herbs may be mediated, at least in part, by suppressing the mRNA expression of a panel of inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mostardeira/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sinapis/química , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico , China , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(20): 5108-5116, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624055

RESUMO

Biofumigation is an integrated pest-management method involving the mulching of a glucosinolate-containing cover crop into a field in order to generate toxic isothiocyanates (ITCs), which are effective soil-borne-pest-control compounds. Variation in biofumigation efficacy demonstrates a need to better understand the factors affecting pest-control outcomes and develop best practices for choosing biofumigants, growth conditions, and mulching methods that allow the greatest potential isothiocyanate release. We measured the glucosinolate concentrations of six different commercial varieties of three biofumigant plant species: Brassica juncea (ISCI99, Vitasso, and Scala) Raphanus sativus (Diablo and Bento), and Sinapis alba (Ida Gold). The plants were grown in the range of commercially appropriate seeding rates and sampled at three growth stages (early development, mature, and 50% flowering). Within biofumigant species, the highest ITC-release potentials were achieved with B. juncea cv. ISCI99 and R. sativus cv. Bento. The highest ITC-release potential occurred at the 50% flowering growth stage across the species. The seeding rate had a minor impact on the ITC-release potential of R. sativus but had no significant effects on the ITC-release potentials of the B. juncea or S. alba cultivars.


Assuntos
Isotiocianatos/química , Mostardeira/química , Raphanus/química , Sinapis/química , Fumigação , Glucosinolatos/química , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Pragas , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinapis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Mol Ecol ; 26(22): 6370-6383, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921776

RESUMO

Oligophagous herbivores must adjust their enzymatic machinery to the different host plant species they consume. If different hosts are used from one generation to the next, adaptation may be highly plastic, while if a single host is used over several generations, there may be a longer-term response due to natural selection. Using an experimental evolutionary approach, we investigated effects of long-term experience vs. short-term responses to different host plants in the oligophagous mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae. After 26 generations of continuous feeding on either Brassica rapa, Nasturtium officinale or Sinapis alba, freshly hatched larvae were kept on these plants or moved to one of the other host plants for ten days. Global transcriptional patterns as shown by microarrays revealed that between 1% and 16.1% of all 25,227 putative genes were differentially expressed in these treatments in comparison with the control line constantly feeding on B. rapa. A shift back from S. alba to B. rapa caused the largest changes in gene transcription and may thus represent the harshest conditions. Infection rates with a gregarine parasite were intermediate in all lines that were constantly kept on one host, but much lower or higher when short-term shifts to other host plants occurred. In conclusion, transcriptional plasticity in genes related to metabolism, digestion and general cellular processes plays a key role in long- and short-term responses of the beetle to changing host plant conditions, whereby the specific conditions also affect the interactions between the beetle host and its gregarine parasite.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Besouros/parasitologia , Genes de Insetos , Carga Parasitária , Transcriptoma , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Animais , Apicomplexa , Brassica rapa/química , Expressão Gênica , Herbivoria , Larva , Nasturtium/química , Sinapis/química , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 63(8): 42-47, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886313

RESUMO

In recent years, with increased the prevalence of viral infections and having no specific for  their treatment  and also the continuous appearance of resistant viral strains, the finding of novel antiviral agents is necessary. In this study, monoterpenes of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils from Sinapis arvensis L., Lallemantia royleana Benth. and Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro on Vero cell line CCL-81-ATCC using a plaque reduction assay. The antiviral activity of three monoterpenes (thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene) and three essential oils were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay, direct plaque test. In addition, the modes of antiviral action of these compounds were investigated during the viral infection cycle. Results showed that the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.002%, 0.037%, >0.1%, 0.035%, 0.018% and 0.001% for thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, S. arvensis oil, L. royleana oil and P. vulgaris oil, respectively. A manifestly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-1 could be exhibited for compounds tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, compounds were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the compounds, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 80% when HSV-1 was preincubated with p-cymene. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the compounds were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-1 or after the adsorption period. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that compounds affected HSV-1 mostly before adsorption and might interact with the viral envelope. Thymol exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as antiviral agent for treatment of herpetic infections.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lamiaceae/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Pulicaria/química , Sinapis/química , Timol/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero , Ensaio de Placa Viral
10.
J Chem Ecol ; 43(6): 617-629, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28620771

RESUMO

The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Oviposição , Sinapis/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Borboletas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sinapis/química
11.
Apoptosis ; 22(2): 254-264, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27787653

RESUMO

In the present study we provide cytological and biochemical evidence that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) induces programmed cell death (PCD) symptoms in two model vascular plants: the dicot white mustard (Sinapis alba) and the monocot common reed (Phragmites australis). Cytological data include chromatin fragmentation and the increase of the ratio of TUNEL-positive cells in roots, the latter being detected in both model systems studied. The strongest biochemical evidence is the elevation of the activity of several single-stranded DNA preferring nucleases-among them enzymes active at both acidic and alkaline conditions and are probably directly related to DNA breaks occurring at the initial stages of plant PCD: 80 kDa nucleases and a 26 kDa nuclease, both having dual (single- and double-stranded nucleic acid) specificity. Moreover, the total protease activity and in particular, a 53-56 kDa alkaline protease activity increases. This protease could be inhibited by PMSF, thus regarded as serine protease. Serine proteases are detected in all organs of Brassicaceae (Arabidopsis) having importance in differentiation of specialized plant tissue through PCD, in protein degradation/processing during early germination and defense mechanisms induced by a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, knowledge of the physiological roles of these proteases and nucleases in PCD still needs further research. It is concluded that CYN treatment induces chromatin fragmentation and PCD in plant cells by activating specific nucleases and proteases. CYN is proposed to be a suitable molecule to study the mechanism of plant apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/genética , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Apoptose/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Cromatina/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Serina Proteases/genética , Sinapis/química , Uracila/química , Uracila/farmacologia
12.
Anal Biochem ; 516: 37-47, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742213

RESUMO

Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites abundant in Brassica vegetables that are substrates for the enzyme myrosinase, a thioglucoside hydrolase. Enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of glucosinolates forms several organic products, including isothiocyanates (ITCs) that have been explored for their beneficial effects in humans. Myrosinase has been shown to be tolerant of non-natural glucosinolates, such as 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, and can facilitate their conversion to non-natural ITCs, some of which are leads for drug development. An HPLC-based method capable of analyzing this transformation for non-natural systems has been described. This current study describes (1) the Michaelis-Menten characterization of 2,2-diphenyethyl glucosinolate and (2) a parallel evaluation of this analogue and the natural analogue glucotropaeolin to evaluate effects of pH and temperature on rates of hydrolysis and product(s) formed. Methods described in this study provide the ability to simultaneously and independently analyze the kinetics of multiple reaction components. An unintended outcome of this work was the development of a modified Lambert W(x) which includes a parameter to account for the thermal denaturation of enzyme. The results of this study demonstrate that the action of Sinapis alba myrosinase on natural and non-natural glucosinolates is consistent under the explored range of experimental conditions and in relation to previous accounts.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Desnaturação Proteica , Sinapis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(43): 8179-8190, 2016 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27690424

RESUMO

Heat-processing of Brassica seeds led to the formation of a characteristic pleasant popcorn-like and coffee-like aroma impression compared to the mainly pea-like aroma of the corresponding raw seeds. To analyze this phenomenon on a molecular basis, raw and roasted white mustard seeds and rapeseeds were analyzed using the sensomics approach. Application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) and identification experiments to raw and roasted (140 °C, 30 min) mustard seeds revealed 36 odorants (all identified for the first time) and 47 odorants (41 newly identified), respectively. Twenty-seven odorants in raw and 43 odorants in roasted (140 °C, 60 min) rapeseeds were found, which were all described for the first time. Among the set of volatiles, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (earthy, pea-like) and 4-ethenyl-2-methoxyphenol (clove-like, smoky) showed high FD factors in both raw seeds. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel-like), 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (earthy), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage-like), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) were present at high flavor dilution (FD) factors in both roasted Brassica seeds. Odorants, differing in cAEDA or showing high FD factors in at least one of the seeds, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), followed by the calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) using odor thresholds determined in refined sunflower oil. Eighteen aroma compounds in raw and 28 in roasted mustard seeds as well as 14 in raw and 25 in roasted rapeseeds revealed OAVs ≥1. All four aroma recombinates, prepared by mixing the odorants showing OAVs ≥1 in their naturally occurring concentrations, showed a very good similarity with the original seeds and, thus, proved the successful characterization of the respective key odorants.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Odorantes/análise , Sementes/química , Sinapis/química , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Olfatometria/métodos , Técnica de Diluição de Radioisótopos , Limiar Sensorial , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(22): 22633-22646, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27557966

RESUMO

The land disposal of waste and wastewater is a major source of N2O emission. This is due to the presence of high concentrations of nitrogen (N) and carbon in the waste. Abattoir wastewater contains 186 mg/L of N and 30.4 mg/L of P. The equivalent of 3 kg of abattoir wastewater-irrigated soil was sieved and taken in a 4-L plastic container. Abattoir wastewater was used for irrigating the plants at the rates of 50 and 100 % field capacity (FC). Four crop species were used with no crop serving as a control. Nitrous oxide emission was monitored using a closed chamber technique. The chamber was placed inside the plastic container, and N2O emission was measured for 7 days after the planting. A syringe and pre-evacuated vial were used for collecting the gas samples; a fresh and clean syringe was used each time to avoid cross-contamination. The collected gas samples were injected into a gas chromatography device immediately after each sampling to analyse the concentration of N2O from different treatments. The overall N2O emission was compared for all the crops under two different abattoir wastewater treatment rates (50 and 100 % FC). Under 100 % FC (wastewater irrigation), among the four species grown in the abattoir wastewater-irrigated soil, Medicago sativa (23 mg/pot), Sinapis alba (21 mg/pot), Zea mays (20 mg/pot) and Helianthus annuus (20 mg/pot) showed higher N2O emission compared to the 50 % treatments-M. sativa (17 mg/pot), S. alba (17 mg/pot), Z. mays (18 mg/pot) and H. annuus (18 mg/pot). Similarly, pots with plants have shown 15 % less emission than the pots without plants. Similar trends of N2O emission flux were observed between the irrigation period (4-week period) for 50 % FC and 100 % FC. Under the 100 % FC loading rate treatments, the highest N2O emission was in the following order: week 1 > week 4 > week 3 > week 2. On the other hand, under the 50 % FC loading rate treatments, the highest N2O emission was recorded in the first few weeks and in the following order: week 1 > week 2 > week 3 > week > 4. Since N2O is a greenhouse gas with high global warming potential, its emission from wastewater irrigation is likely to impact global climate change. Therefore, it is important to examine the effects of abattoir wastewater irrigation on soil for N2O emission potential.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Matadouros , Irrigação Agrícola , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Helianthus/química , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinapis/química , Sinapis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 18(4): 387-92, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26552966

RESUMO

Nowadays, public concern relating to ecological deleterious effects of heavy metals is on the rise. To evaluate the potential of Rapistrum rugosum and Sinapis arvensis in lead- contaminate phytoremediate, a pot culture experiment was conducted. The pots were filled by soil treated with different rates of leadoxide (PbO) including 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg Pb per 1 kg soil. Germinated seeds were sown. Surprisingly, with increasing concentration of Pb, dry weight of R. rugosum and S. arvensis did not decrease significantly. In both of species, the concentration of Pb was higher in roots than shoots. In general, S.arvensis was absorbed more Pb compared to R. rugosum. The results revealed high potential of R. rugosum and S. arvensis in withdrawing Pb from contaminated soil. For both species, a positive linear relation was observed between Pb concentration in soil and roots. However, linear relationship was not observed between Pb concentration in the soil and shoots. Although both species test had low ability in translocation Pb from roots to shoots but they showed high ability in uptake soil Pb by roots. Apparently, these plants are proper species for using in phytoremediation technology.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Sinapis/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/instrumentação , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sinapis/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 144: 1216-23, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26465967

RESUMO

The paper presents both "good" and "bad" results obtained during speciation analysis of thallium in plant tissues of a hyperaccumulator of this metal. The object was white mustard - Sinapis alba L. In this plant there were found traces of trivalent thallium. The crucial point of this study (especially in the case of so unstable thallium form as Tl(III)) was to prove that the presence of Tl(III) was not caused by the procedure of sample preparation itself, and that the whole analytical method provides reliable results. Choice of the method for conservation of the initial speciation, extraction with the highest efficiency and proving the correctness of the obtained data were the most difficult parts of the presented study. It was found that: both freezing and drying cause significant changes in the speciation of thallium; quantitative analysis could be performed only with fresh tissues of mustard plants; only short-term storage of an extract from fresh plant tissues is possible; the methodology is not the source of thallium (III); only the presence of DTPA can greatly limit the reduction of TI(III) to TI(I) (up to 1-3%); the UV irradiation results in disintegration of TI(III)DTPA in the presence of plant matrix (reduction up to 90%).


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sinapis/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tálio/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Oxirredução , Ácido Pentético/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Padrões de Referência , Poluentes do Solo/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Tálio/química
17.
Food Funct ; 6(7): 2384-95, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26091085

RESUMO

This study investigated the structural stability of yellow mustard (YM, Sinapis alba L.) napin and the changes of its Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody-binding ability during myrosinase enzyme inactivation process. The food industry uses myrosinase-inactive non-pungent YM for uses beyond spice applications. Napin was isolated from seeds received from an industrial processor before (YM + M) and after (YM - M) myrosinase inactivation. Secondary and tertiary structural features and surface hydrophobicity parameters of napin were analyzed. The Sin a 1 content in YM seeds and the stability of Sin a 1-containing napin during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion were determined by a non-competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody (AE-Ab) as the primary Ab. YM napin retained the dominant alpha-helical components of secondary and tertiary structure folds during this process. YM - M napin showed changes in hydrophobicity parameters of the molecules and binding ability of AE-Ab: 2.19 ± 0.48 g per 100 g of YM - M seeds vs. 1.49 ± 0.16 g per 100 g YM + M seeds. YM - M proteins were more susceptible for in vitro GI digestion and also showed a 30% reduction in AE-Ab binding ability upon digestion of napins. This suggests that the myrosinase inactivation process has induced the surface modification of napin, exposing Sin a 1 epitope, leading to an increase in AE-Ab binding. However, the epitope region of YM - M napin showed improved susceptibility for hydrolysis during GI digestion resulting in fewer available epitope regions, suggesting a possible reduction in napin immune reactivity.


Assuntos
Albuminas 2S de Plantas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Plantas/química , Antígenos de Plantas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sinapis/enzimologia , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/química , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Ativação Enzimática , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sementes/química , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sinapis/química , Sinapis/genética , Sinapis/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 187: 485-90, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25977054

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Mostardeira/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sinapis/enzimologia , Estabilidade Enzimática , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Mostardeira/química , Mostardeira/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pressão , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/enzimologia , Sinapis/química , Sinapis/classificação
19.
Oecologia ; 179(2): 353-61, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26001606

RESUMO

It is well known that many parasitic wasps use herbivore-induced plant odours (HIPVs) to locate their inconspicuous host insects, and are often able to distinguish between slight differences in plant odour composition. However, few studies have examined parasitoid foraging behaviour under (semi-)field conditions. In nature, food plants of parasitoid hosts are often embedded in non-host-plant assemblages that confer both structural and chemical complexity. By releasing both naïve and experienced Cotesia glomerata females in outdoor tents, we studied how natural vegetation surrounding Pieris brassicae-infested Sinapis arvensis and Barbarea vulgaris plants influences their foraging efficiency as well as their ability to specifically orient towards the HIPVs of the host plant species on which they previously had a positive oviposition experience. Natural background vegetation reduced the host-encounter rate of naïve C. glomerata females by 47 %. While associative learning of host plant HIPVs 1 day prior to foraging caused a 28 % increase in the overall foraging efficiency of C. glomerata, it did not reduce the negative influence of natural background vegetation. At the same time, however, females foraging in natural vegetation attacked more host patches on host-plant species on which they previously had a positive oviposition experience. We conclude that, even though the presence of natural vegetation reduces the foraging efficiency of C. glomerata, it does not prevent experienced female wasps from specifically orienting towards the host-plant species from which they had learned the HIPVs.


Assuntos
Borboletas/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Barbarea/química , Borboletas/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Odorantes , Oviposição , Sinapis/química
20.
Food Chem ; 174: 75-81, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529654

RESUMO

The study compares the applicability of two commercial mustard ELISA kits (Mustard ELISA Kit-specific and Mustard ELISA Kit-total) and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays (singleplex assay for white mustard, singleplex assay for black/brown mustard and duplex assay for the detection of white, black and brown mustard). Analyses of raw and brewed model sausages containing white and black/brown mustard in the range from 1 to 50 ppm indicate that both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays allow the detection of traces of mustard in raw and in brewed sausages. The ELISAs were found to be more sensitive than the real-time PCR assays. When the ELISAs and real-time PCR assays were applied to the analysis of 15 commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling concerning mustard, in one sample mustard was detected with both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays although mustard was not indicated on the food ingredient list.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Mostardeira/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sinapis/química , Alérgenos/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mostardeira/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sinapis/genética
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