Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 666
Filtrar
1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 125-137, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541694

RESUMO

Estrus synchronization and manipulation are a tool that has been used by producers to provide uniform lamb and kid meat production and dairy sheep and goat milk production, to concentrate work and labor cost, and to plan for the lambing and kidding time. Breeders can also use estrus synchronization to stimulate ewes and does to exhibit estrus and ovulate outside of the breeding season, although both the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate may be decreased. To increase the ovulation rate outside of the breeding season, a variety of estrus synchronization methods have been used.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estações do Ano
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529208

RESUMO

Clitoral stimulation after artificial insemination (AI) in beef cattle is a common practice utilized by AI technicians; however, the effect of clitoral stimulation during fixed-time AI (TAI) is still unknown. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of clitoral stimulation on temperament responses and pregnancy rates to TAI in Bos indicus beef cows. A total of 1,186 multiparous Nellore cows across three different locations were assigned to an estradiol/progesterone-based estrus synchronization + TAI protocol (day -11 to 0). Cows were randomly assigned to receive either 3 s of clitoral stimulation (n = 602) or no clitoral stimulation (n = 584) immediately after TAI (day 0). Cow body condition score (BCS) was recorded on day -11. Estrus expression was evaluated based on estrus detection visual aid patch activation on day 0 (estrus, ≥50% activated; no estrus, <50% activated). Temperament was assessed by individual chute score based on a 5-point scale before TAI, and individual exit velocity was measured after clitoral stimulation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 30 d after TAI via transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy rate to TAI was positively affected by BCS (P < 0.01) and estrus expression (P = 0.03). Pregnancy rates of cows receiving clitoral stimulation did not differ (P = 0.39) from cows non-stimulated (47.5 ± 4.6% vs. 44.3 ± 4.6%, respectively). No interaction of clitoral stimulation and estrus expression was observed (P = 0.26). Chute score was positively correlated to exit velocity (P < 0.01; r = 0.29); however, clitoral stimulation did not affect exit velocity (P = 0.86). In summary, pregnancy rates to TAI are influenced by various factors and multiple strategies have the potential to increase the fertility of beef cows submitted to TAI; however, clitoral stimulation of Bos indicus beef cows did not improve TAI pregnancy rate.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Clitóris/fisiologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Estro/fisiologia , Detecção do Estro , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/farmacologia
3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515480

RESUMO

The knowledge surrounding the bovine vaginal microbiota and its implications on fertility and reproductive traits remains incomplete. The objective of the current study was to characterize the bovine vaginal bacterial community and estradiol concentrations at the time of artificial insemination (AI). Brangus heifers (n = 78) underwent a 7-d Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release estrus synchronization protocol. At AI, a double-guarded uterine culture swab was used to sample the anterior vaginal tract. Immediately after swabbing the vaginal tract, blood samples were collected by coccygeal venipuncture to determine concentrations of estradiol. Heifers were retrospectively classified as pregnant (n = 29) vs. nonpregnant (n = 49) between 41 and 57 d post-AI. Additionally, heifers were classified into low (1.1 to 2.5 pg/mL; n = 21), medium (2.6 to 6.7 pg/mL; n = 30), and high (7.2 to 17.6 pg/mL; n = 27) concentration of estradiol. The vaginal bacterial community composition was determined through sequencing of the V4 region from the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina Miseq platform. Alpha diversity was compared via ANOVA and beta diversity was compared via PERMANOVA. There were no differences in the Shannon diversity index (alpha diversity; P = 0.336) or Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (beta diversity; P = 0.744) of pregnant vs. nonpregnant heifers. Overall, bacterial community composition in heifers with high, medium, or low concentrations of estradiol did not differ (P = 0.512). While no overall compositional differences were observed, species-level differences were present within pregnancy status and estradiol concentration groups. The implications of these species-level differences are unknown, but these differences could alter the vaginal environment thereby influencing fertility and vaginal health. Therefore, species-level changes could provide better insight rather than overall microbial composition in relation to an animal's reproductive health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Estradiol/sangue , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Vagina/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Estrogênios , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Reprodução , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5591-5603, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253044

RESUMO

We hypothesized that delaying by approximately 12 h the artificial insemination (AI) of heifers with sex-sorted semen increases pregnancy per AI (P/AI). Holstein heifers (n = 1,207) were fitted with a collar containing an automated estrus-detection device (HR-LDn tags, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 10.7 ± 0.02 mo of age. Once they reached 330 kg, heifers were enrolled in an ovulation synchronization protocol (5-d Cosynch + controlled internal drug release; Zoetis, Parsippany-Troy Hills, NJ). Study personnel recorded the heifers that were in estrus according to the DataFlow II software (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) twice daily at 0500 and 1500 h from the day of the first PGF2α (Estrumate; Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ) injection to 72 h later. Heifers enrolled in the conventional (CONV) and early sex-sorted (SSEarly) semen treatments detected in estrus at 0500 and 1500 h were AI at 0600 and 1600 h of the same day, respectively. Heifers enrolled in the late sex-sorted (SSLate) semen treatment detected in estrus at 0500 and 1500 h were AI at 1600 h of the same day and 0600 h of the following day, respectively. All heifers not detected in estrus by 72 h after the first PGF2α injection received a GnRH (Fertagyl; Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ) injection at 0500 h. Heifers in the CONV and SSEarly treatments were AI at fixed time at 0600 h, whereas heifers in the SSLate treatment were AI at fixed time at 1600 h. Among heifers detected in estrus, the ranges of the interval from the onset of estrus to AI were 3.6 to 28.5 h, 0.0 to 25.5 h, and 9.4 to 36.8 h for the CONV, SSEarly, and SSLate treatments, respectively. Among heifers AI at fixed time, the ranges of the interval from the GnRH injection to AI were 0 h for heifers in the CONV and SSEarly treatments and 8.5 to 11.7 h for heifers in the SSLate treatment. The P/AI at 62 ± 1 d after the first AI was greater for CONV (63.1 ± 2.6%) compared with SSEarly (43.3 ± 2.6%) and SSLate (44.8 ± 2.7%). A greater percentage of heifers enrolled in the SSEarly (65.8 ± 2.5%) and SSLate (70.0 ± 2.5%) treatments produced a live female calf compared with the CONV treatment (40.5 ± 2.7%). When the values of 1-d-old female and male calves were USD $0 and the cost of replacement heifers was $750, the cost of raising heifers from enrollment to calving was lesser for the CONV treatment than the SSEarly treatment, but SSLate treatment did not differ from CONV and SSEarly treatments. When the values of a 1-d-old female calf ≥$130 and 1-d-old male calf ≥$30 and the cost of replacement ≥$1,000, no differences were observed among treatments in the cost from enrollment to calving. We conclude from this experiment that the P/AI with sex-sorted semen is not improved when insemination is delayed by approximately 12 h.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Sêmen , Pré-Seleção do Sexo/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/veterinária
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 1-6, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278134

RESUMO

The characterization of vaginal microbiota will help to understand some of the reproductive problems and mechanisms to improve cattle reproduction. The objective of this study was to characterize the vaginal microbiota of cyclical Holstein cows with different parturition orders using 16S rDNA sequencing. Animals were submitted to an estrus synchronization protocol with the use of intravaginal progesterone (P4) implants and were treated or not with ceftiofur hydrochloride. DNA samples were extracted from vaginal swabs on day 0 and 10 of the synchronization, and sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform with an average coverage rate of 10.000 reads per samples using a Single-End library for fragments of 300 bp. The main bacterial phyla found in the vaginal tract of Holstein cows, were Firmicutes (37.61%), Tenericutes (29.45%), Proteobacteria (17.47%) and Bacteriodetes (13.73%), followed by Actinobacteria (0.82%) and Spirochaetae (0.45%). The use of intravaginal P4 devices has increased the relative abundance of the genera Family XIII AD3011 and Family XIII unclassified (p < .049). We have also observed an effect of the number of calving on the vaginal microbiota composition, showing that multiparous cows have a greater bacterial diversity than primiparous animals (p < .05). The use of ceftiofur hydrochloride was effective to reduce the vaginal bacteria proliferation. This study describes for the first time the vaginal microbiota of cows synchronized with intravaginal progesterone devices, different from the traditional methods such as microbiological culture and biochemical tests. We have identified a large number of microorganisms commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of cows, colonizing the vaginal microbiota.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/farmacologia , Reprodução
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5641-5646, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307164

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the association between estrous expression, measured using a breeding indicator and an automated activity monitor (AAM), and the success of embryo collection after superovulation. Holstein heifers (n = 51; 10.5 to 14.5 mo, and 325.0 ± 21.1 kg of body weight) were superovulated (n = 69 events) for the collection of embryos using a protocol based on sequential administration of FSH for follicle superstimulation and GnRH to induce ovulation. Artificial insemination (AI) was performed twice, once at the moment of GnRH administration and again 12 h later, using thawed, sexed semen. Ovaries were scanned via ultrasonography on the day of the first AI to count the total number of preovulatory follicles and 7 d later for the total number of corpora lutea present. Embryos were collected 7 d post-AI, counted, and assessed for viability. A breeding indicator (Estrotect, Rockway Inc., Spring Valley, WI) and a collar-mounted AAM (CowScout Activity Monitoring System, GEA, Dusseldorf, Germany) were used to measure standing mounts and an algorithmic estimate of estrous expression, respectively. A score for the breeding indicator was given as follows: score 1 = 100% of the indicator was intact; score 2 = 50% of the indicator was rubbed off; score 3 = greater than 50% of the indicator was rubbed off. Estrous expression detected by the AAM was quantified through the relative increase in physical activity and duration of time spent above a set threshold. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The number of follicles present at AI was not affected by estrous expression. The mean (± SD) ovulatory response was 67.5 ± 26.3%. We found an effect of estrous expression as detected by the breeding indicator on the ovulatory response (42.1 ± 8.0, vs. 78.2 ± 9.0, vs. 74.0 ± 4.9%, for scores 1, 2, and 3, respectively) but not from the AAM. Heifers that had a score of 3 (versus those with scores of 1 and 2) on the breeding indicator had a greater number of embryos (4.1 ± 0.5, vs. 1.2 ± 1.0, vs. 1.8 ± 1.0 embryos), and a greater percentage of these embryos were viable (43.1 ± 0.05, vs. 35.5 ± 0.1, vs. 34.3 ± 0.1%). Similarly, heifers that showed a greater intensity of activity (as measured by the AAM) had a greater number of embryos collected (10.2 ± 1.2 vs. 6.0 ± 1.3 embryos), and a greater percentage of those embryos were viable (53.1 ± 5.0 vs. 23.4 ± 5.1%). Longer-duration estrus episodes were associated with a higher percentage of viable embryos (51.2 ± 5.2 vs. 25.3 ± 5.3%). In conclusion, stronger estrous intensity was associated with a greater number of total embryos collected and a greater percentage of viable embryos. These results suggest that monitoring the intensity of estrus could be used to predict superovulatory response as well as embryo quality in Holstein heifers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Estro/fisiologia , Superovulação , Animais , Corpo Lúteo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5654-5661, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307172

RESUMO

Although hormonal synchronization programs can improve reproductive efficiency of dairy herds, some farmers question the economics of these programs based on the upfront cost of hormonal treatments as opposed to the economic value of the resulting reproductive performance. Our aim was to compare the economic impact of reproductive management programs that incorporate varying degrees of detection of estrus and timed artificial insemination (AI) in dairy herds with year-round calving in confinement total mixed ration systems. A reproductive economic analysis simulation model was used to compare the economic impact of pairs of reproductive management programs. We simulated sets of scenarios for 2 analyses. In the first analysis, we calculated the economic impact of switching from a Presynch-Ovsynch program to a Double-Ovsynch program that included a second PGF2α treatment during the Breeding-Ovsynch portion of the program (Double-Ovsynch+PGF). In the second analysis, we conducted a break-even analysis in which the cost of hormonal treatments was incrementally increased within various reproductive management programs. Our analyses revealed that a Double-Ovsynch+PGF program, the most intensive program evaluated, was more profitable than other programs compared, including a Presynch-Ovsynch program with 100% timed AI or a Presynch-Ovsynch program that incorporated detection of estrus, despite the higher upfront cost incurred by using more hormonal treatments. This advantage remained until the cost of hormones was increased 5 to 14 times current US market prices and 2 to 6 times current European market prices. The cost of GnRH had a greater impact on net profit gain than the cost of PGF2α. In conclusion, more intensive reproductive programs that use more hormonal treatments but result in substantially increased reproductive performance are more profitable than less intensive programs and remain so even if hormone prices are unusually high.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/economia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/economia , Lactação
8.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 213: 106249, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987315

RESUMO

The current study was conducted to determine the optimal timing of artificial insemination and vaginal mucous characteristics relative to the onset of estrus in goats. Does (n = 257) were estrous synchronized using hormonal treatments. Intracervical inseminations with fresh semen were performed at 0, 12, 24 and 36 h after the onset of estrus. Characteristics of vaginal mucus (i.e., color, consistency, and volume) were observed and graded at the time of AI to calculate cumulative mucous score. The vaginal electrical resistance (VER) was recorded (Draminski® detector) at the time of AI. Pregnancy rate was less (P < 0.05) when inseminations occurred at 0 h (28.6%) compared with 12 (58.3%) and 24 h (56.4%) after the onset of estrus; however, pregnancy rate at 36 h (54.5%) did not differ (P> 0.05) compared with inseminations at 0, 12 or 24 h after estrous onset. Relative odds for pregnancy rate at 12, 24 and 36 h were 5.24, 5.20 and 3.29 times greater compared with 0 h. Cumulative mucous score varied (P < 0.05) relative to the onset of estrus and correlated well (P < 0.05) with the color and consistency than volume of the mucus. The VER was less (P < 0.05) at 12 than 0 and 36 h after estrous onset. In conclusion, goats can be inseminated between 12-36 h after the onset of estrus; however, the chances of pregnancy are greater with inseminations at the 12 or 24 h time periods.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Muco/fisiologia , Vagina/fisiologia , Animais , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1617-1622, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838718

RESUMO

Many protocols of estrous synchronization in ewes have been developed in the last few decades. The aim of this study was the effect of intravaginal progestogen, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sponges (a progesterone analogue) with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) in out of breeding season of fat-tailed Iranian Shaal breed anestrus ewes to estimate the conception rate in suburb of Tehran-Iran. In total, 50 non-cyclic ewes out of 85 ewes with < 0.05 ng/ml progesterone (P4) and aged 2 to > 7 years old were selected for out of breeding season program in May-June 2018. They were distributed into two groups (control and treatment). The treatment group (no. 25) received 12 days a sponge containing 60 mg MPA and 500 IU eCG on the day of sponge removal. The control group (no. 25) received 12 days of sponge containing MPA only. Rams were introduced to the flock after removal of sponges in treatment group and concomitant in control group. They remained within the flock for 40 days. The ram to ewe ratio was 1 to 6. Transabdominal ultrasonography was performed for pregnancy diagnosis. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS software version 16. The conception rate in treatment and control groups were differed significantly (P < 0.01). The conception rates in MPA and MPA+ eCG were 28% and 44%, respectively. Ewes (60%) with < 2 years old had the most conception rate. However, it was shown that use of vaginal sponges containing MPA and eCG in removal time of sponge can increase significantly the conception rate in out of breeding season fat-tail ewes Shaal breed.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Gonadotropinas Equinas/farmacologia , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/farmacologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Ovinos , Anestro , Animais , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Progestinas/farmacologia , Estações do Ano , Carneiro Doméstico
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1519-1525, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741309

RESUMO

The current study was carried out to determine the changes in serum electrolytes, liver enzymes, and hormones during breeding and non-breeding seasons in estrus-synchronized goats. Forty goats (n = 40) were synchronized by inserting the sponges intravaginally for 12 days; PMSG and PGF2α were injected on day of sponge removal. Blood samples were collected from the goats at the time of sponges insertion (day -12), estrus day (day 0), and at 15 day after sponge withdrawal (day 15). The blood samples were analyzed for glucose, cholesterol (CHO), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and progesterone (P4), calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO4), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chlorine (Cl) levels. Repeated measurements ANOVA of general linear model were used as statistical model. The results showed that seasons have an effect (p < 0.05) on glucose, Ca, Na, K, Cl, CHO, T3, and T4 levels. There was an effect (p < 0.05) of cyclicity only on P4 level. Whereas, nonpregnant, or goats carrying singlet and twin fetuses have shown variation (p < 0.05) in glucose, Ca, and P4 levels. Although, the correlations existed between different serum metabolites but strong correlations (p < 0.05) were observed either between Ca and Na or T3 and T4. In conclusion, the serum electrolytes and liver enzymes are correlated with hormones during the different seasons, pregnancy status, and fecundity. In recommendation, the results of the study could be as managemental tool to monitor the reproductive activity across seasons and to maintain pregnancy carrying twining in goat breeds.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Cabras/sangue , Cabras/fisiologia , Prenhez , Estações do Ano , Animais , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
11.
Theriogenology ; 141: 197-201, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563861

RESUMO

To minimize costs and labor for short-term ovulation synchronization protocol, we developed one wherein each treatment-drug administration and timed artificial insemination (TAI)-was performed 24 h apart. The objective of the present study was to evaluate this short-term ovulation synchronization protocol in lactating dairy cows. Data were derived from 133 inseminations performed in 120 cows (32 primiparous and 88 multiparous), and the ovaries of these cows were scanned using ultrasound. The cows detected to have a functional corpus luteum (CL) received prostaglandin F2α (PGF) as a luteolytic agent. The cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1) treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) 24 h after PGF treatment, and TAI 24-28 h after EB treatment (EB group); and (2) treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) 56 h after PGF treatment, and TAI 16-20 h after GnRH treatment (GnRH group). As a luteolytic agent, either dinoprost (DP; 25 mg) or D-cloprostenol (DCLP; 0.15 mg) was administered intramuscularly in each treatment group. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was significantly higher in the DP- or DCLP-treated cows in the EB group when compared with their counterparts in the GnRH group (64.5% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.03 in the DP-treated cows and 51.1% vs. 27.3%, P = 0.04 in the DCLP-treated cows, respectively). Regarding parity, multiparous cows had greater P/AI in the EB group than in the GnRH group (52.8% vs. 26.7%, P = 0.01), whereas primiparous cows showed no significant intergroup difference (65.2% vs. 41.7%, P = 0.28). To conclude, the use of a convenient synchronization protocol comprising the administration of PGF and EB 24 h apart, rather than PGF and GnRH 56 h apart, has greater potential to improve pregnancy rates after TAI in lactating dairy cows given that a functional CL was accurately detected. This beneficial effect of the protocol using EB was clearly demonstrated in multiparous cows.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Sincronização do Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Paridade , Gravidez , Estações do Ano
12.
Theriogenology ; 142: 229-235, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629308

RESUMO

Objectives were to 1) characterize fixed-time AI (FTAI) pregnancy rates using the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in mature, suckled Bos indicus-influenced beef cows, 2) compare FTAI pregnancy rates in the latter to a modified version (5-Day Bee Synch + CIDR; Bee Synch I) that included treatment with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at CIDR insertion on Day 0, and 3) test the hypothesis that elimination of both GnRH-1 at the onset of synchronization and the double dose of PGF on Day 5 (Bee Synch II) would not reduce FTAI pregnancy rates compared to Bee Synch I. For Experiment 1-trial 1, Brahman x Hereford (F-1) cows (n = 168) at least 40 d postpartum (PP; r = 40-92 d) at the time of CIDR insertion were administered the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol with FTAI at 72 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy rates to FTAI averaged 34.9 ± 1.9%. In Experiment 1-trial 2, fall- and spring-breeding Brahman x Hereford (F-1) beef cows (n = 269) were stratified by days PP and assigned randomly to receive either the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR (n = 136) or Bee Synch I (n = 133) protocol, with FTAI at 66 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy rate to FTAI was greater (P < 0.05) in Bee Synch I (52.6 ± 0.9%) than in the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR procedure (40.4 ± 5.7%). For Experiment 2, 422 mature Braford, Brangus, Nelore x Brahman, and Brahman crossbred cows (Bos indicus proportion unknown) at 4 locations were treated with Bee Synch I, with FTAI at 66 h. Overall FTAI pregnancy rate averaged 51.7 ±â€¯2.1%. Finally, from 2013 through spring 2018, we used a switchback design using fall- and spring-breeding herds to compare Bee Synch I (402 observations) to Bee Synch II (393 observations). Overall frequency of detected estrus at 66 h using ESTROTECT™ breeding indicator patches was 57.2 ±â€¯2.4%, conception rates of those detected in estrus was 64.4 ±â€¯3.5%, and FTAI pregnancy rates averaged 52.3 ±â€¯2.4%, none of which differed between treatments. Moreover, pregnancy rates to FTAI in both treatments did not differ in cows synchronized between 40 and 80 d PP but increased after 80 d PP (P < 0.05). Bee Synch II, which eliminates GnRH-1 and the double dose of PGF2α on Day 5, results in FTAI pregnancy rates essentially identical to Bee Synch I but reduces synchronization costs and avoids the need for off-label (double dose PGF2α) drug use.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Prenhez , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Detecção do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Injeções , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Theriogenology ; 141: 105-112, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536859

RESUMO

We hypothesized that a shortened version of a modified Ovsynch program (OVS: GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) that excluded GnRH-1 to resynchronize ovulation in cows bearing a corpus luteum (CL) after a non-pregnancy diagnosis (NPD) or including progesterone supplementation with the OVS treatment for cows without a CL would produce shorter inter-insemination intervals and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) not different from that of cows treated with the OVS treatment. Of the 1697 lactating Holstein cows enrolled in this experiment, complete data were available for only 1584 cows because the remainder was not treated, inseminated per treatment design, left the herd before pregnancy diagnosis, or some other outcome was missing. Cows were enrolled in the study and assigned to either of three treatments at NPD (32 ±â€¯3 d after AI [Day 0]). Cows with a detected CL were assigned randomly to: (1) a modified Ovsynch (OVS; GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) or (2) Short Synch (SS; PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI). Cows with no CL were assigned to OVS plus a progesterone insert (CIDR). Blood was collected at NPD to measure progesterone concentration and determine accuracy of treatment assignment (progesterone ≥ 1 ng/mL for a functional CL). Overall progesterone concentration at NPD was less in OVS + CIDR cows (1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL) than in OVS (5.2 ± 0.2 ng/mL) or SS cows (3.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL). No differences in luteolytic risk (progesterone < 0.5 ng/mL at 72 h after PGF2α-1) were detected after PGF2α (>96.7%) and ovulation risk after GnRH-2 was 93.8, 91.7, and 86.2% for SS, OVS, and OVS + CIDR, respectively. Mean and median inter-insemination interval were less in SS (mean = 34.3 ± 0.05 d [median = 35 d] than OVS cows (40.2 ± 0.05 d [42 d]), but that in OVS cows did not differ from OVS + CIDR cows (41.4 ± 0.05 d [42 d]). Technicians were more accurate in visually detecting a functional CL than a non-functional CL (81.2 vs. 61.1%). Sensitivity of detecting a functional CL by technicians averaged 91.2%, but specificity was 39.8%. Pregnancy per AI at 32 ± 3 d after AI was less for SS (16.5% [n = 115]) than OVS (29.3% [n = 133] when a functional CL was inaccurately detected, but did not differ when a functional CL was detected accurately (27.6% [n = 561] vs 30.3% [508]). Pregnancy per AI did not differ between OVS and OVS + CIDR cows regardless of CL status. Short synch is an alternative to the entire modified Ovsynch program to produce similar P/AI when the CL status was detected accurately, and regardless of functional CL status, SS reduced inter-insemination intervals by 7 d.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11730-11735, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629526

RESUMO

The objectives were to evaluate pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI), days to first AI, and proportion pregnant within 7 d of AI eligibility in dairy heifers subjected to presynchronization compared with dairy heifers not presynchronized. Thirty days before AI eligibility, Holstein heifers were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: 14-d controlled internal drug release (CIDR; containing progesterone) presynchronization, PGF2α presynchronization, or control (no presynchronization). Heifers in the 14-d CIDR presynchronization treatment (n = 119) received a CIDR on d -30, which was removed on d -16, followed by an injection of PGF2α upon entry to the breeding program (d 0). Heifers in the PGF2α presynchronization treatment (n = 118) received an injection of PGF2α on d -11 and d 0. Control heifers (n = 121) were not presynchronized and received an injection of PGF2α on d 0. All heifers received tail paint on d 0 to facilitate once-daily detection of estrus (based on paint removal). Heifers detected in estrus received AI with conventional semen on the same morning as detected estrus. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess mean treatment differences. Following PGF2α treatment on d 0, more heifers were detected in estrus in the first 7 d after eligibility in the 14-d CIDR group (95.8%) compared with the PGF2α (74.6%) and control (66.9%) groups. Days to first AI differed between treatments (14-d CIDR = 3.6 d vs. PGF2α = 5.0 d vs. control = 6.8 d). Pregnancy per AI for first AI within 7 d of eligibility was 71.9% (14-d CIDR), 58.0% (PGF2α), and 61.7% (control), and differed between 14-d CIDR and PGF2α heifers. Presynchronization with a 14-d CIDR increased the proportion of heifers pregnant in the first 7 d of eligibility (14-d CIDR = 68.9% vs. PGF2α = 43.2% vs. control = 41.3%). Projected days on feed (d 0 to projected calving date) were 295 (14-d CIDR), 302 (PGF2α), and 305 (control), and were different between the 14-d CIDR and control heifers. The potential economic benefit to the producer was $15.85 per heifer presynchronized with a 14-d CIDR protocol compared with the control group. Treatment of dairy heifers with a 14-d CIDR effectively presynchronized estrus, resulting in a greater proportion detected in estrus, reduced days to first AI, and an increased proportion of heifers pregnant within the first 7 d after breeding eligibility compared with heifers presynchronized with a single PGF2α injection and control heifers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cruzamento , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Detecção do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Sêmen
15.
J Reprod Dev ; 65(6): 507-514, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619595

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of two hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), on ovulatory responses during different diestrous stages in lactating dairy cows. Estrous cycles of 21 cows were synchronized and were enrolled in stage 1 of the experiment. The cows were treated with a prostaglandin (PG) F2α analog either 9 to 10 days [mid-diestrus (MD) group] or 5.5 to 6.5 days [early-diestrus (ED) group] after synchronized ovulation (day 0 = first PGF2α administration). On day 2, the cows were administrated 250 µg GnRH or 3000 IU hCG. Ovulation was determined every 2 h from 24 to 36 h after GnRH or hCG administration, and then every 4 h up to 72 h until ovulation. Cows in stage 2 were administered these treatments in the reverse order. The results indicated that average ovulation times in cows treated with GnRH in the MD group (GnRH-MD group) and cows treated with GnRH in the ED group (GnRH-ED group) were 30.0 ± 1.0 h and 28.8 ± 0.4 h, respectively. However, ovulation times for cows treated with hCG in the MD group (hCG-MD group) and cows treated with hCG in the ED group (hCG-ED group) were 35.8 ± 4.6 h and 32.8 ± 2.2 h, respectively, and ovulation occurred significantly later in the hCG-treated groups than in the GnRH-treated groups. In summary, we found that hCG-induced ovulation occurred later than GnRH-induced ovulation regardless of different diestrous peroids; however, the two treatments did not differ in terms of percentage of ovulation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Sincronização do Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/fisiologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 210: 106191, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635781

RESUMO

A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a single injection of prostaglandin after initiation of the breeding season on ewe estrous synchronization. Rambouillet ewes (n = 101; Year 1 = 52; Year 2 = 49) assigned to one of three treatments: untreated (CON); 12-d CIDR insert (CIDR); or 1 injection of prostaglandin at d 2.5 (1 PG) after rams were placed with ewes. Rams were placed with ewes at the time of CIDR removal (d 0) and remained with ewes during a 35-d breeding season. Both the CIDR- (94%) and 1 PG (73.5%) treatment groups had a larger number (P ≤ 0.01) of ewes bred in the first 5 d of the breeding season compared to ewes of the control (33%) group. As expected, CIDR-treated ewes had a shorter time to mating, than 1 PG-treated ewes and ewes of the control group had a longer interval to mating than both CIDR- and 1 PG-treated ewes (P ≤ 0.01). The number of lambs born per ewe and kg of lamb weaned per ewe was not different (P ≥ 0.31) among treatment groups. Additionally, there was no difference (P =  0.78) in net profit per ewe among treatment groups. Based on these data, utilizing a single injection of PG 2.5 d after initiation of the breeding season resulted in similar pregnancy rates at d 5 of the breeding season when compared with CIDR-treated ewes indicating the potential utilization of the 1PG protocol in a confinement setting as a viable method for estrous synchronization.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/farmacologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/economia , Masculino , Gravidez
17.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106165, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514926

RESUMO

A reciprocal crossbred embryo production approach was used to assess effects of maternal breed on embryo development in tropical conditions (average temperature 22.0 °C and 77.9% relative humidity). Oocytes were recovered by ovum pick-up (OPU) from Gyr and Holstein donors (n = 90 Holstein and 83 Gyr OPUs). Female F1 embryos were produced by fertilization with sperm bearing X-chromosomes from Holstein semen (n = 615 Gyr oocytes) or Gyr semen (n = 255 Holstein oocytes). Blastocysts were transferred to recipients 168 h post-insemination (h.p.i.) (n = 70-144) and there were assessments of pregnancies until birth. Oocyte number per OPU (Gyr 10.0 ±â€¯0.7 compared with Holstein 6.3 ±â€¯0.4) and percentage viable oocytes (Gyr 78.8 ±â€¯1.9% compared with Holstein 71.2 ±â€¯2.2%) were less for Holstein donor animals. There was a 2.8 fold fewer total number of F1 blastocysts when Holstein donors were used (Gyr: 260, Holstein: 91). Pregnancy assessment during the different stages of gestation indicated the percentage pregnancy was less when embryos were produced from Holstein oocytes (Gyr and Holstein respectively: early pregnancy, 47.9% compared with 38.6%; mid-pregnancy, 44.4% compared with 31.4%; late pregnancy, 41.0% compared with 22.9%). Pregnancy length was also affected by maternal breed (Gyr: 280.8 ±â€¯0.6, Holstein: 286.3 ±â€¯0.7). It is concluded that in a tropical environment the maternal breed affects crossbred embryo development with pregnancy rates during the latter stages of gestation being greater when Gyr oocytes are used for production of embryos.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/citologia , Bovinos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Hibridização Genética/fisiologia , Mães , Oócitos/citologia , Animais , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Bovinos/embriologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Sincronização do Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Masculino , Mães/classificação , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Recuperação de Oócitos/veterinária , Oócitos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106172, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514929

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of two administrations of d-cloprostenol at different intervals to synchronize the time of estrus and ovulation among estrous cyclic goats. In Experiment 1, 32 does were treated with 30 µg d-cloprostenol at 7.5 (T7.5, n = 16) or 11.5-day (T11.5, n = 16) intervals. In Experiment 2, the same treatments were administered and there was AI of the does (T7.5, n = 40 and T11.5, n = 38). In Experiment 1, ultrasonic assessments of ovaries were conducted at the time of the second administration of d-cloprostenol, every 12 h until detection of ovulation, and 7 days after estrous onset to detect the corpora lutea, as well as for pregnancy diagnosis 40 days after AI. In Experiment 1, the estrous response (90.6%, 29/32) was similar (P > 0.05) in both groups. Diameter of the largest follicle at the time of administration of the second dose was larger (P = 0.01) in the T7.5 than T11.5 group (7.0 compared with 5.7 mm), while the values for ovarian variables were similar (P > 0.05). In Experiment 2, the greatest (P < 0.001) synchrony in timing of initiation of estrus in does (T7.5 = 83.3% and T11.5 = 50.0%) occurred after the second day (36-48 h). The pregnancy rate tended (P = 0.0836) to be greater for does in the T7.5 (71.4%, 40/56) than T11.5 (55.6%, 30/54) group. With use of both protocols, there were acceptable estrous synchronization and pregnancy rates in estrous cyclic dairy goats.


Assuntos
Cloprostenol/administração & dosagem , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Cabras , Inseminação Artificial , Taxa de Gravidez , Prenhez , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Esquema de Medicação/veterinária , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Prenhez/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106141, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514931

RESUMO

This study aimed to minimize the number of times cattle need to be confined during protocols for TAI in beef cows treated for induction of ovulation with EB at the time of P4 device removal (P4r). In Experiment 1, cows were treated with P4 plus EB (Day 0; AM) and were allocated to one of three groups at P4r: EB8.5, EB at P4r on Day 8.5 (PM; three confinements); EB9, EB 24 h after P4r on Day 8 (AM; four confinements) and EC8, EC at P4r on Day 8 (AM; positive control; three confinements). At P4r, cows were treated with PGF2a plus eCG. Ultrasonography was performed from D8 to D12. The interval from P4r to ovulation was less in the EB8.5 compared to EB9 and EC8 group. There was no difference in the ovulation rate between groups. The variability of ovulation was greater in the EB8.5 and EC8 compared to EB9 group. In Experiment 2, cows of EC8 and EB9 groups were submitted to TAI 48 to 52 h (AM) or 54 to 58 h (PM) after P4r (D10). Cows of the EB8.5 group were submitted to TAI 38 to 42 h (AM) or 44 to 48 h (PM) after P4r (D10). There was no interaction between treatments and timing of AI and no treatment effect and timing of AI on P/AI. In conclusion, the delay compared to what typically occurs by 10 h of P4r concomitant with EB administration (Day 8.5) reduced the frequency of animal confinement for the TAI protocol without affecting the reproductive efficiency and the flexibility to perform the TAI in suckled beef cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Inseminação Artificial , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Indução da Ovulação , Animais , Remoção de Dispositivo/veterinária , Estradiol/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/veterinária , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 209: 106164, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514938

RESUMO

A common reproductive disease in dairy cattle is Cystic Ovarian Disease. To study its development, there was use of an experimental model of follicular persistence to detect hemodynamic changes occurring in ovaries by using Doppler ultrasonography. After estrous synchronization, control cows received no additional treatment and were evaluated at proestrus (CG), whereas treated cows (PG) received sub-luteal doses of progesterone for 15 days and were evaluated at proestrus, and after 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of follicular persistence. Spectral Doppler was used to evaluate blood flow in the ovarian artery, and power Doppler for evaluation of blood flow in the ovarian parenchyma and follicular wall of persistent and dominant preovulatory follicles. Findings using power Doppler signals indicated there were no differences between groups in the parenchyma of both right (P =  0.455) and left (P =  0.762) ovaries. In contrast, power Doppler signals of blood flow were less in walls of persistent follicles from day 0 to 15 when there was follicular persistence than in dominant follicles of the CG (P <  0.001). Blood flow in ovarian arteries was less (P <  0.05) in diastolic velocity and time averaged maximum velocity in all PG groups than in the CG. Peak systolic velocity was less (P <  0.05) in all PG than in the CG, with the exception of P15 (P >  0.05). These findings indicate there are marked changes in blood irrigation area of walls of persistent follicles during the 15 days of follicular persistence.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Cistos Ovarianos/diagnóstico , Ovário/irrigação sanguínea , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Progressão da Doença , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/veterinária , Cistos Ovarianos/patologia , Cistos Ovarianos/fisiopatologia , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/patologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...