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2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(1): e2212, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470019

Assuntos
Sindemia , Humanos , Vitamina D
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 5, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused substantial disruptions to health services in the low and middle-income countries with a high burden of other diseases, such as malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. METHODS: We present a data-driven method to quantify the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), could lead to the change of malaria transmission potential in 2020. First, we adopt a particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate epidemiological parameters in each country by fitting the time series of the cumulative number of reported COVID-19 cases. Then, we simulate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under two groups of NPIs: (1) contact restriction and social distancing, and (2) early identification and isolation of cases. Based on the simulated epidemic curves, we quantify the impact of COVID-19 epidemic and NPIs on the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Finally, by treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020, we evaluate the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential based on the notion of vectorial capacity. RESULTS: We conduct case studies in four malaria-endemic countries, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia, in Africa. The epidemiological parameters (i.e., the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] and the duration of infection [Formula: see text]) of COVID-19 in each country are estimated as follows: Ethiopia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Nigeria ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Tanzania ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), and Zambia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Based on the estimated epidemiological parameters, the epidemic curves simulated under various NPIs indicated that the earlier the interventions are implemented, the better the epidemic is controlled. Moreover, the effect of combined NPIs is better than contact restriction and social distancing only. By treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020 as a baseline, our results show that even with stringent NPIs, malaria transmission potential will remain higher than expected in the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: By quantifying the impact of various NPI response to the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential, this study provides a way to jointly address the syndemic between COVID-19 and malaria in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. The results suggest that the early intervention of COVID-19 can effectively reduce the scale of the epidemic and mitigate its impact on malaria transmission potential.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/terapia , /transmissão , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Cadeias de Markov , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sindemia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
4.
Nurse Pract ; 46(2): 44-49, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475330

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis are common problems in healthcare and are typically related to patient, provider, and socioeconomic factors. A syndemics model of COVID-19 is used to analyze the synergistic relationship between diseases and influences that impact patients' living conditions and health. NPs can use this approach to promote patient safety and equitable healthcare.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Erros de Diagnóstico , /enfermagem , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sindemia
6.
Metabolism ; 114: 154408, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080269

RESUMO

While substantial evidence points towards obesity and associated cardiometabolic disorders being a major factor for poor outcomes in SARS-CoV2 infections (COVID-19), the complexity of the interplay between these two pandemics is becoming apparent. Indeed, as previously defined, this interaction between obesity and COVID-19 represents a 'syndemic' that requires both current and ongoing attention. At a mechanistic level the chronic inflammatory environment of obesity predisposes to life threatening events such as cytokine storm and enhanced coagulopathy. Obesity and its management are affected by diverse factors manifested at societal, educational, racial, and nutritional levels. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage obese and type 2 diabetic patients, not only during the current COVID-19 crisis, but to decrease the growing burden of cardiometabolic disease and associated cardiovascular complications impacting future viral pandemics. Further, this syndemic has highlighted disparities in healthcare which need to be addressed to achieve equality in health outcomes in patients infected with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sindemia , /complicações , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias , /isolamento & purificação
7.
Cult. cuid ; 23(58): 2-6, sept.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197132

RESUMO

Ante la situación compleja y complicada en la que nos ha situado el SARS-CoV-2 proponemos un modelo de análisis antropológico, que pueda visibilizar la situación de syndemia en la que estamos inmersos. Para ello analizamos la realidad a través del complejo cronotopo y los módulos de la cultura


Faced with the complex and complicated situation in which SARS-CoV-2 has placed us, we propose an anthropological analysis model that can make visible the syndemic situation in which we are immersed. For this, we analyze reality through the complex chronotope and the modules of culture


Diante da complexa e complicada situação em que o SARS-CoV-2 nos colocou, propomos um modelo de análise antropológica que permite visualizar a situação sindêmica em que estamos imersos. Para isso, analisamos a realidade por meio do cronotopo complexo e dos módulos da cultura


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropologia Cultural , Sindemia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fatores Culturais , Cronologia como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(5): 460-464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372924

RESUMO

A syndemic is the convergence of two or more diseases in the same space and time. In Mexico, the dengue epidemic is active and predominates in areas of the Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico; in turn, the COVID-19 epidemic severely affects the same areas as dengue fever. Given that both these diseases share many clinical manifestations, in areas where tropical diseases are endemic, it is important to make careful evaluations of the patient who consults for fever in order to establish a timely diagnosis. Laboratory diagnostic tests are necessary to take the pertinent measures for each patient. In Mexico, the risk of a syndemic between COVID-19 and dengue fever is high, and thus it that can collapse health systems. The states of southeastern Mexico and the Pacific region require special attention, since they have geographic, environmental and climatic conditions that favor the rapid spread of dengue and COVID-19. Simultaneous infection will worsen the epidemiological situation, and complicate the diagnosis, control and treatment of both diseases.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Sindemia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
9.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; dez. 14, 2020. 363 p. ^emapasgraf..(Série Informação para ação na COVID-19).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, BDS | ID: biblio-1140816

RESUMO

Organizada por Paulo Marchiori Buss e Luiz Eduardo Fonseca, coordenadores do Centro de Relações Internacionais em Saúde da Fiocruz, esta obra reúne as análises produzidas sobre as respostas do multilateralismo ao novo coronavírus. Dividida em três partes, a coletânea viabiliza o acesso do público a um panorama de ações internacionais promovidas para o enfrentamento da crise sanitária. A publicação engloba renomados pesquisadores das mais diversas áreas de saúde, diplomacia e relações internacionais, examinando as ações de órgãos e agências, como OMS, ONU e OCDE, além de iniciativas multilaterais, como G20 e países do BRICS. Os capítulos abordam ainda as respostas de diferentes países e regiões do mundo, incluindo Brasil, China, Estados Unidos, África, Oriente Médio, Europa, América Latina e Caribe, além de instituições financeiras internacionais,como FMI e Banco Mundial. Primeiro livro da série "Informação para Ação na Covid-19", que tem como objetivo reunir o conjunto de respostas, pesquisas e ações técnicas produzidas pela Fiocruz durante a pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus. Publicada em coedição por Observatório Covid-19 Fiocruz e Editora Fiocruz, com apoio da Rede SciELO Livros, a série estará disponível exclusivamente em formato digital e acesso aberto.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Recursos Financeiros em Saúde/economia , Diplomacia em Saúde/políticas , Agências Internacionais , Saúde Global , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Sindemia
10.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(5): 556-560, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028465

RESUMO

People who use drugs (PWUD) face concurrent public health emergencies from overdoses, HIV, hepatitis C, and COVID-19, leading to an unprecedented syndemic. Responses to PWUD that go beyond treatment--such as decriminalization and providing a safe supply of pharmaceutical-grade drugs--could reduce impacts of this syndemic. Solutions already implemented for COVID-19, such as emergency safe-supply prescribing and providing housing to people experiencing homelessness, must be sustained once COVID-19 is contained. This pandemic is not only a public health crisis but also a chance to develop and maintain equitable and sustainable solutions to the harms associated with the criminalization of drug use.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Sindemia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Criminosos , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prescrições , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Public Health Service
15.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1093-1098, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696248

RESUMO

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and related policies have led to an unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. For Black women and birthing people, endemic vulnerabilities and disparities may exacerbate deleterious COVID-19 impacts. Historical and ongoing macro-level policies and forces over time have induced disproportionately higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality among Black women and birthing people, and contemporary macroeconomic and healthcare policies and factors continue to hold particular consequence. These factors induce detrimental psychological, health, and behavioral responses that contribute to maternal health disparities. The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to disproportionately impact Black women and birthing people, as policy responses have failed to account for the their unique socioeconomic and healthcare contexts. The resulting consequences may form a 'vicious cycle', with upstream impacts that exacerbate upstream macro-level policies and forces that can further perpetuate the clustering of maternal morbidity and mortality in this population. Understanding the impacts of COVID-19 among Black women and birthing people requires theoretical frameworks that can sufficiently conceptualize their multi-level, interacting, and dynamic nature. Thus, we advocate for the proliferation of syndemic perspectives to guide maternal disparities research and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. These perspectives can enable a holistic and nuanced understanding of the intersection of endemic and COVID-19-specific vulnerabilities and disparities experienced by Black women and birthing people. Syndemic-informed research can then lead to impactful multi-level prevention strategies that simultaneously tackle both endemic and COVID-19-specific factors and outcomes that lead to the clustering of vulnerabilities and disparities over time.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Saúde Materna , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Pesquisa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sindemia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629920

RESUMO

The HIV epidemic has dramatically changed over the past 30 years; there are now fewer newly infected people (especially children), fewer AIDS-related deaths, and more people with HIV (PWH) receiving treatment. However, the HIV epidemic is far from over. Despite the tremendous advances in anti-retroviral therapies (ART) and the implementation of ART regimens, HIV incidence (number of new infections over a defined period of time) and prevalence (the burden of HIV infection) in certain regions of the world and socio-economic groups are still on the rise. HIV continues to disproportionally affect highly marginalized populations that constitute higher-risk and stigmatized groups, underserved and/or neglected populations. In addition, it is not uncommon for PWH to suffer enhanced debilitating conditions resulting from the synergistic interactions of both communicable diseases (CDs) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). While research utilizing only a comorbidities framework has advanced our understanding of the biological settings of the co-occurring conditions from a molecular and mechanistic view, harmful interactions between comorbidities are often overlooked, particularly under adverse socio-economical and behavioral circumstances, likely prompting disease clustering in PWH. Synergistic epidemics (syndemics) research aims to capture these understudied interactions: the mainly non-biological aspects that are central to interpret disease clustering in the comorbidities/multi-morbidities only framework. Connecting population-level clustering of social and health problems through syndemic interventions has proved to be a critical knowledge gap that will need to be addressed in order to improve prevention and care strategies and bring us a step closer to ending the HIV epidemic.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Infecções por HIV , Sindemia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos
17.
Alcohol ; 87: 25-27, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505493

RESUMO

Methanol poisoning has been a significant public health challenge for several decades in Iran. Even though alcohol use is highly criminalized, people consume illicit alcohol, which tends to be predominantly homemade and often contains methanol. Consequently, thousands of individual poisonings and hundreds of deaths annually are attributable to methanol poisoning. From February 19, 2020 through April 27, 2020, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic rapidly expanded in Iran, and has been associated with 90,481 confirmed cases and 5710 confirmed deaths. Secondary to misinformation about the potential for alcohol to neutralize SARS-CoV-2, there has also been a significant escalation in methanol-related morbidity and mortality, with over 5000 people poisoned and over 500 confirmed deaths for the same period from February through April 2020. In some provinces, the case-fatality rate of methanol poisoning was higher than that from COVID-19. The high morbidity and mortality associated with methanol poisoning preceding and exacerbated by COVID-19 highlight the potential population level health impacts of the implementation of evidence-based education and harm reduction strategies focused on alcohol use across Iran.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Metanol/envenenamento , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Sindemia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 572-577, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484155

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, have surpassed 5 million cases globally. Current models suggest that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) will have a similar incidence but substantially lower mortality rate than high-income countries. However, malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are prevalent in LMICs, and coinfections are likely. Both malaria and parasitic NTDs can alter immunologic responses to other infectious agents. Malaria can induce a cytokine storm and pro-coagulant state similar to that seen in severe COVID-19. Consequently, coinfections with malaria parasites and SARS-CoV-2 could result in substantially worse outcomes than mono-infections with either pathogen, and could shift the age pattern of severe COVID-19 to younger age-groups. Enhancing surveillance platforms could provide signals that indicate whether malaria, NTDs, and COVID-19 are syndemics (synergistic epidemics). Based on the prevalence of malaria and NTDs in specific localities, efforts to characterize COVID-19 in LMICs could be expanded by adding testing for malaria and NTDs. Such additional testing would allow the determination of the rates of coinfection and comparison of severity of outcomes by infection status, greatly improving the understanding of the epidemiology of COVID-19 in LMICs and potentially helping to mitigate its impact.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sindemia , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Medicina Tropical
19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 47: 1-3, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419765

RESUMO

Black communities in the United States are bearing the brunt of the COVID-19 pandemic and the underlying conditions that exacerbate its negative consequences. Syndemic theory provides a useful framework for understanding how such interacting epidemics develop under conditions of health and social disparity. Multiple historical and present-day factors have created the syndemic conditions within which black Americans experience the lethal force of COVID-19. These factors include racism and its manifestations (e.g., chattel slavery, mortgage redlining, political gerrymandering, lack of Medicaid expansion, employment discrimination, and health care provider bias). Improving racial disparities in COVID-19 will require that we implement policies that address structural racism at the root of these disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Sindemia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Racismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
AIDS Behav ; 24(11): 3264-3278, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410049

RESUMO

Interventions addressing syndemics and ART adherence are needed for individuals with uncontrolled HIV and psychosocial problems. Twenty-seven participants with detectable HIV plasma viral load (PVL) or recent STI participated in an open trial of transdiagnostic adherence counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy. Outcomes were collected at baseline, 4-, and 8-months. Log PVL improved from baseline to 4-month (γ = - 1.13, 95% CI - 1.72, - 0.55, p < 0.001) and 8-month (γ = - 0.93, 95% CI - 1.57, - 0.30, p = 0.006), with more participants suppressed at 4- (χ2(1) = 9.09, p = 0.001) and 8-month (χ2(1) = 5.14, p = 0.016). Self-reported adherence improved across major assessments (γ = 0.87, 95% CI 0.28, 1.46, p = .005); Wisepill adherence did not. Negative affect declined during treatment (γ = - 0.28, 95% CI - 0.40, - 0.16, p < 0.001), with improvement at 4- (γ = - 4.34, 95% CI - 6.99, - 1.69, p = 0.002) but not 8-month. Positive affect trended positively during treatment and from baseline to 4-month, with significant 8-month improvement (γ = 3.84, 95% CI 0.33, 7.44, p = 0.04). Depressive symptoms did not change. In a complicated sample of participants selected for uncontrolled HIV, the intervention yielded improved PVL and self-reported adherence. Efforts to end HIV should improve upon strategies such as these, addressing syndemics. Registration: clinicaltrial.gov: NCT02696681.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Sindemia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
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