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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142014, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920389

RESUMO

COVID-19 has been sweeping the world. The overall number of infected persons has been increased from 5 M in March 2020 to over 22 M in August 2020 and growing, which seems not to get its peak at the current stage. This has contributed to waste generation and different phases of challenges in waste management practices. The impacts including change in waste amount, composition, timing/frequency (temporal), distribution (spatial) and risk, which affects the handling and treatment practices. Recent impacts, challenges and developments on waste management in the response of COVID-19 have been assessed in this update. Singapore, the cities of Shanghai in China and Brno in the Czech Republic (a member state of the European Union), representing different pandemic development situation and also various cultural attitudes, are specifically analysed and discussed with current data. However, it should be noted that it is still fast developing. A varying trend in term of the waste amount is identified. Shanghai is showing a ~23% decline in household waste amount; however, Singapore is showing a ~3% increase, and Brno is showing a ~1% increase in household waste amount but ~40% decline in business and industrial waste. Manual sorting and recycling have been reported as restricted due to safety precaution. This is supported by the interview communication with ZEVO SAKO (the largest incineration plant in the Czech Republic). This study highlighted that the practices or measures at each place could serve as a guideline and reference. However, adaption is required according to the geographical and socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Betacoronavirus , China , Cidades , República Tcheca , Humanos , Reciclagem , Singapura , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153079

RESUMO

The need for healthcare workers (HCWs) to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic heightens their risk of thermal stress. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HCWs from India and Singapore regarding PPE usage and heat stress when performing treatment and care activities. One hundred sixty-five HCWs from India (n = 110) and Singapore (n = 55) participated in a survey. Thirty-seven HCWs from Singapore provided thermal comfort ratings before and after ice slurry ingestion. Differences in responses between India and Singapore HCWs were compared. A p-value cut-off of 0.05 depicted statistical significance. Median wet-bulb globe temperature was higher in India (30.2 °C (interquartile range [IQR] 29.1-31.8 °C)) than in Singapore (22.0 °C (IQR 18.8-24.8 °C)) (p < 0.001). Respondents from both countries reported thirst (n = 144, 87%), excessive sweating (n = 145, 88%), exhaustion (n = 128, 78%), and desire to go to comfort zones (n = 136, 84%). In Singapore, reports of air-conditioning at worksites (n = 34, 62%), dedicated rest area availability (n = 55, 100%), and PPE removal during breaks (n = 54, 98.2%) were higher than in India (n = 27, 25%; n = 46, 42%; and n = 66, 60%, respectively) (p < 0.001). Median thermal comfort rating improved from 2 (IQR 1-2) to 0 (IQR 0-1) after ice slurry ingestion in Singapore (p < 0.001). HCWs are cognizant of the effects of heat stress but might not adopt best practices due to various constraints. Thermal stress management is better in Singapore than in India. Ice slurry ingestion is shown to be practical and effective in promoting thermal comfort. Adverse effects of heat stress on productivity and judgment of HCWs warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde , Temperatura Alta , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Singapura/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(8): 561-572, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164026

RESUMO

Singapore, an island country with 5.6 million population and a large volume of tourists from mainland China, was one of the first countries to report imported COVID-19 cases and had the highest number of cases outside mainland China for a time in February 2020. The government responded with a series of broadscale public health measures and managed to contain this first wave of infection. Notwithstanding that, an evolving pandemic situation in other countries eventually triggered a second, and much larger, wave of infection. This case study narrates the developments, influencing factors, and outcomes related to events starting from Singapore's first response to COVID-19 and up to the point of its entry into Circuit Breaker. It serves as a reference for the understanding and analysis of developments in an evolving pandemic and a nation's response from a systems level perspective.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Singapura/epidemiologia
9.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(8): 530-537, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study, a comparison of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory parameters between symptomatic and asymptomatic children with SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from all children with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKH), Singapore, from January to May 2020 were analysed. RESULTS: Of the 39 COVID-19 children included, 38.5% were asymptomatic. Household transmission accounted for 95% of cases. The presenting symptoms of symptomatic children were low-grade fever (54.2%), rhinorrhoea (45.8%), sore throat (25%), diarrhoea (12.5%) and acute olfactory dysfunction (5.4%). Children of Chinese ethnicity (37.5% vs 6.7%), complete blood count (45.8% vs 6.7%) and liver enzyme abnormalities (25% vs 7.7%) were more common in symptomatic versus asymptomatic children. All children had a mild disease course and none required oxygen supplementation or intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of asymptomatic infected children coupled with household transmission as the main source of paediatric COVID-19 infection underscores the importance of early screening and isolation of children upon detection of an index case of COVID-19 in a household. Symptomatic children were more likely to have abnormal laboratory parameters but they did not have a poorer outcome compared to asymptomatic cases.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Singapura , Avaliação de Sintomas
10.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(8): 538-542, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is affecting hospital admissions of stroke patients. This, in turn, will reduce the use of proven stroke treatments, which will result in poorer stroke outcomes. We examined local stroke admissions before, during, and after the 2003 outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (these periods being defined in both the Singapore and worldwide contexts), to extrapolate stroke admission patterns in Singapore during the current COVID-19 crisis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National inpatient admission data from the Ministry of Health (MOH), Singapore, and death data from the Registry of Births and Deaths (RBD), Singapore, were analysed. Trends of local stroke admissions and stroke-related mortality pre-SARS, during SARS, and post-SARS periods, both in the Singapore and worldwide contexts, were analysed using time series plot in monthly time units. Differences between periods were presented as percentage change between: (1) SARS and pre-SARS periods, and (2) post-SARS and SARS periods and compared using two-sample t-tests. RESULTS: There was a 19% decline in stroke admissions into all local hospitals during the Singapore SARS period (P = 0.002) and a 13% reduction during the worldwide SARS period (P = 0.006). Stroke admissions increased by 18% after the Singapore SARS period was over (P = 0.003) and rose by a further 8% when the worldwide SARS period ended (P = 0.046). Stroke-related mortality remained stable throughout. CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS pandemic, there was a reduction in the number of stroke admissions, and this was apparent during both the local SARS and worldwide SARS outbreak periods. We should take appropriate steps through public education to minimise the expected reduced stroke admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, inferred from the findings during the SARS pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(8): 543-552, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the level of anxiety and knowledge regarding COVID-19 amongst antenatal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, from 31 March to 25 April 2020 to assess pregnant women's knowledge of COVID-19, their perceptions of its impact upon pregnancy and psychological impact using the validated Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21). RESULTS: Of the 324 women who participated in the study, the mean age was 31.8 years (range, 20-45). The majority (53.7%) were multiparous with mean gestational age of 23.4 weeks (SD 10). The commonest sources of information were Internet-based social media platforms. A significant proportion were unaware, or associated COVID-19 infection during pregnancy with fetal distress (82.1%), intrauterine death (71.3%), fetal anomalies (69.8%), miscarriages (64.8%), preterm labour (67.9%) and rupture of membranes (61.4%). A total of 116 (35.8%) women screened positive for anxiety, 59 (18.2%) for depression, and 36 (11.1%) for stress. There was a significant association between household size and stress scores [B = 0.0454 (95% CI, 0.0035-0.0873)]. Women who associated COVID-19 infection with fetal anomalies and intrauterine fetal death had significantly higher anxiety scores [B = -0.395 (95% CI, -0.660 to -0.130) and B = -0.291 (95% CI, -0.562 to -0.021) respectively]. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that a lack of timely and reliable information on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy and its outcomes results in increased levels of depression, anxiety and stress. The healthcare provider must address these issues urgently by providing evidence-based information using Internet-based resources and psychological support.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Emoções , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Singapura , Mídias Sociais , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 675, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may predispose pregnant women to higher risks of severe disease and poorer neonatal outcome. Psychological sequalae of this pandemic may pose a greater conundrum than its clinical aspects. It is currently unknown that how pregnant women cope with this global pandemic and its ramifications. The aims of the study are to understand the attitudes and precaution practices of non-infected pregnant women towards the COVID-19 outbreak in Singapore. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey of COVID-19 awareness among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Singapore was conducted. An internet link was provided to complete an online electronic survey on Google platform using a quick response (QR) code on mobile devices. The online survey consists of 34 questions that were categorized into 4 main sections, namely 1) social demographics 2) attitude on safe distancing measures 3) precaution practices and 4) perceptions of COVID-19. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine women's precaution practices among six independent socio-demographic variables, including age, ethnicity, education, front-line jobs, history of miscarriage and type of antenatal clinic (general, high risk). RESULTS: A total of 167 survey responses were obtained over 8 weeks from April to June 2020. The majority of women were aged ≤35 years (76%, n = 127), were of Chinese ethnicity (55%, n = 91), attained tertiary education (62%, n = 104) and were not working as frontline staff (70%). Using multiple linear regression models, Malay ethnicity (vs. Chinese, ß 0.24; 95% CI 0.04, 0.44) was associated with higher frequency of practicing social distancing. Malay women (ß 0.48; 95% CI 0.16, 0.80) and those who worked as frontline staff (ß 0.28; 95% CI 0.01, 0.56) sanitized their hands at higher frequencies. Age of ≥36 years (vs. ≤30 years, ß 0.24; 95% CI 0.01, 0.46), Malay (vs. Chinese, ß 0.27; 95% CI 0.06, 0.48) and Indian ethnicity (vs. Chinese, ß 0.41; 95% CI 0.02, 0.80), and attendance at high-risk clinic (vs. general clinic, ß 0.20; 95% CI 0.01, 0.39) were associated with higher frequency of staying-at-home. CONCLUSION: Social demographical factors including age > 36 years old, Malay ethnicity, employment in front line jobs and attendance at high-risk clinics are likely to influence the attitudes and precaution practices among pregnant women towards COVID-19 in Singapore. Knowledge gained from our cross-sectional online survey can better guide clinicians to communicate better with pregnant women. Hence, it is important for clinicians to render appropriate counselling and focused clarification on the effect of COVID-19 among pregnant women for psychological support and mental well being.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Singapura
13.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1494-1509, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a global impact, and Singapore has seen 33,000 confirmed cases. Patients with cancer, their caregivers, and health care workers (HCWs) need to balance the challenges associated with COVID-19 while ensuring that cancer care is not compromised. This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effect of COVID-19 on these groups and the prevalence of burnout among HCWs. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of patients, caregivers, and HCWs at the National Cancer Centre Singapore was performed over 17 days during the lockdown. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to assess for anxiety and burnout, respectively. Self-reported fears related to COVID-19 were collected. RESULTS: A total of 624 patients, 408 caregivers, and 421 HCWs participated in the study, with a response rate of 84%, 88%, and 92% respectively. Sixty-six percent of patients, 72.8% of caregivers, and 41.6% of HCWs reported a high level of fear from COVID-19. The top concern of patients was the wide community spread of COVID-19. Caregivers were primarily worried about patients dying alone. HCWs were most worried about the relatively mild symptoms of COVID-19. The prevalence of anxiety was 19.1%, 22.5%, and 14.0% for patients, caregivers, and HCWs, respectively. Patients who were nongraduates and married, and caregivers who were married were more anxious. The prevalence of burnout in HCWs was 43.5%, with more anxious and fearful HCWs reporting higher burnout rates. CONCLUSION: Fears and anxiety related to COVID-19 are high. Burnout among HCWs is similar to rates reported prepandemic. An individualized approach to target the specific fears of each group will be crucial to maintain the well-being of these vulnerable groups and prevent burnout of HCWs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Institutos de Câncer/organização & administração , Institutos de Câncer/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevalência , Singapura/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008719, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119609

RESUMO

An estimated 105 million dengue infections occur per year across 120 countries, where traditional vector control is the primary control strategy to reduce contact between mosquito vectors and people. The ongoing sars-cov-2 pandemic has resulted in dramatic reductions in human mobility due to social distancing measures; the effects on vector-borne illnesses are not known. Here we examine the pre and post differences of dengue case counts in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and estimate the effects of social distancing as a treatment effect whilst adjusting for temporal confounders. We found that social distancing is expected to lead to 4.32 additional cases per 100,000 individuals in Thailand per month, which equates to 170 more cases per month in the Bangkok province (95% CI: 100-242) and 2008 cases in the country as a whole (95% CI: 1170-2846). Social distancing policy estimates for Thailand were also found to be robust to model misspecification, and variable addition and omission. Conversely, no significant impact on dengue transmission was found in Singapore or Malaysia. Across country disparities in social distancing policy effects on reported dengue cases are reasoned to be driven by differences in workplace-residence structure, with an increase in transmission risk of arboviruses from social distancing primarily through heightened exposure to vectors in elevated time spent at residences, demonstrating the need to understand the effects of location on dengue transmission risk under novel population mixing conditions such as those under social distancing policies.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Singapura/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Tailândia/epidemiologia
17.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058404

RESUMO

With coronavirus disease 2019 declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, occupational health services in a tertiary hospital in Singapore stepped up via a three-pronged approach, namely, protection of individual staff, protection of staff workforce, and prevention of nosocomial spread so as to support business continuity plans. Despite the multiple new challenges brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, the hospital's occupational health services were able to adapt and keep all employees and patients safe with strong support from senior management and close collaboration with various departments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Singapura/epidemiologia
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(10): e23148, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective contact tracing is labor intensive and time sensitive during the COVID-19 pandemic, but also essential in the absence of effective treatment and vaccines. Singapore launched the first Bluetooth-based contact tracing app-TraceTogether-in March 2020 to augment Singapore's contact tracing capabilities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the performance of the contact tracing app-TraceTogether-with that of a wearable tag-based real-time locating system (RTLS) and to validate them against the electronic medical records at the National Centre for Infectious Diseases (NCID), the national referral center for COVID-19 screening. METHODS: All patients and physicians in the NCID screening center were issued RTLS tags (CADI Scientific) for contact tracing. In total, 18 physicians were deployed to the NCID screening center from May 10 to May 20, 2020. The physicians activated the TraceTogether app (version 1.6; GovTech) on their smartphones during shifts and urged their patients to use the app. We compared patient contacts identified by TraceTogether and those identified by RTLS tags within the NCID vicinity during physicians' 10-day posting. We also validated both digital contact tracing tools by verifying the physician-patient contacts with the electronic medical records of 156 patients who attended the NCID screening center over a 24-hour time frame within the study period. RESULTS: RTLS tags had a high sensitivity of 95.3% for detecting patient contacts identified either by the system or TraceTogether while TraceTogether had an overall sensitivity of 6.5% and performed significantly better on Android phones than iPhones (Android: 9.7%, iPhone: 2.7%; P<.001). When validated against the electronic medical records, RTLS tags had a sensitivity of 96.9% and specificity of 83.1%, while TraceTogether only detected 2 patient contacts with physicians who did not attend to them. CONCLUSIONS: TraceTogether had a much lower sensitivity than RTLS tags for identifying patient contacts in a clinical setting. Although the tag-based RTLS performed well for contact tracing in a clinical setting, its implementation in the community would be more challenging than TraceTogether. Given the uncertainty of the adoption and capabilities of contact tracing apps, policy makers should be cautioned against overreliance on such apps for contact tracing. Nonetheless, leveraging technology to augment conventional manual contact tracing is a necessary move for returning some normalcy to life during the long haul of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Sistemas Computacionais , Busca de Comunicante/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura/epidemiologia
19.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(8): 1280-1284, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report bilateral follicular conjunctivitis in two confirmed Coronavirus (COVID-19) patients with the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in conjunctival swab specimens. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Two unrelated patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and bilateral acute conjunctivitis were examined. Conjunctival swabs were assessed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture. RESULTS: Both patients developed eye redness 3 days after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Slit lamp examination showed bilateral acute follicular conjunctivitis, which was resolved within 6 days. RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in conjunctival specimens from both eyes, which was unrelated to viral RNA from throat swabs. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 may cause ocular manifestations such as viral conjunctivitis. Conjunctival sampling may be useful for infected patients with conjunctivitis and fever. Precautionary measures are recommended when examining infected patients throughout the clinical course of the infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Conjuntivite Viral/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Adulto , Conjuntivite Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções Oculares Virais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Singapura/epidemiologia
20.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(4): 260-262, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049102

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic causes much disruption globally on sociopolitical, economic and healthcare fronts. While much of the impact has focused on the epidemiology and medical management of the pandemic, more need to be focused on the mental health impact of COVID-19. This article describes the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Singapore's schools and the response and adaptation of the school community mental health services. Singapore's response is one of balancing the needs of the population and demands in this crisis, with the utilization of technology and outbreak and support control measures. Further consideration needs to be afforded to increase capacity of the school and mental health services to support youth and tapping on technological innovations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Singapura
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