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1.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1494-1509, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a global impact, and Singapore has seen 33,000 confirmed cases. Patients with cancer, their caregivers, and health care workers (HCWs) need to balance the challenges associated with COVID-19 while ensuring that cancer care is not compromised. This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effect of COVID-19 on these groups and the prevalence of burnout among HCWs. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of patients, caregivers, and HCWs at the National Cancer Centre Singapore was performed over 17 days during the lockdown. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to assess for anxiety and burnout, respectively. Self-reported fears related to COVID-19 were collected. RESULTS: A total of 624 patients, 408 caregivers, and 421 HCWs participated in the study, with a response rate of 84%, 88%, and 92% respectively. Sixty-six percent of patients, 72.8% of caregivers, and 41.6% of HCWs reported a high level of fear from COVID-19. The top concern of patients was the wide community spread of COVID-19. Caregivers were primarily worried about patients dying alone. HCWs were most worried about the relatively mild symptoms of COVID-19. The prevalence of anxiety was 19.1%, 22.5%, and 14.0% for patients, caregivers, and HCWs, respectively. Patients who were nongraduates and married, and caregivers who were married were more anxious. The prevalence of burnout in HCWs was 43.5%, with more anxious and fearful HCWs reporting higher burnout rates. CONCLUSION: Fears and anxiety related to COVID-19 are high. Burnout among HCWs is similar to rates reported prepandemic. An individualized approach to target the specific fears of each group will be crucial to maintain the well-being of these vulnerable groups and prevent burnout of HCWs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Institutos de Câncer/organização & administração , Institutos de Câncer/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevalência , Singapura/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
3.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(6): 613-621, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969951

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a strain on health care systems worldwide. Many hospitals experienced severe bed shortages; some had to turn patients away. In Singapore, the widespread outbreak, especially among the dormitory-based population, created a pressing need for alternative care sites. PROGRAM: The first massive-scale community care facility (CCF) was started in Singapore to address the pandemic. It served as a low-acuity primary care center that could isolate and treat COVID-19-positive patients with mild disease. This allowed decompression of the patient load in hospitals, ensuring that those with more severe disease could receive timely medical attention. IMPLEMENTATION: Various groups from the private and public sectors, including health care, construction, security, hotel management, and project coordination, were involved in the setup and operations of the CCF. A large exhibition center was converted into the care facility and segregated into zones to reduce cross-contamination. State-of-the-art technological infrastructure for health management was used. Several paraclinical services were made available. EVALUATION: The CCF was a timely and robust response that fulfilled several crucial functions, including cohort isolation, triage, basic medical care, and timely reviews and escalation of patients. It placed a unique focus on promoting patient ownership, responsibility, and mental well-being. It was largely successful, with a low hospital transfer rate of 0.37%. DISCUSSION: The success of the CCF could be attributed to the use of a facility of opportunity, strong interorganizational and cross-sector cooperation, an integrated and robust clinical system, and clear communication channels. It allows for efficient resource utilization and is valuable in future pandemics with similar disease characteristics.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Instalações de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias , Quarentena , Singapura/epidemiologia , Triagem
5.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1171-1179, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cost-effectiveness of a novel screening strategy using a microRNA (miRNA) blood test as a screen, followed by endoscopy for diagnosis confirmation in a 3-yearly population screening program for gastric cancer. METHODS: A Markov cohort model has been developed in Microsoft Excel 2016 for the population identified to be at intermediate risk (Singaporean men, aged 50-75 years with Chinese ethnicity). The interventions compared were (1) initial screening using miRNA test followed by endoscopy for test-positive individuals and a 3-yearly follow-up screening for test-negative individuals (proposed strategy), and (2) no screening with gastric cancer being diagnosed clinically (current practice). The model was evaluated for 25 years with a healthcare perspective and accounted for test characteristics, compliance, disease progression, cancer recurrence, costs, utilities, and mortality. The outcomes measured included incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, cancer stage at diagnosis, and thresholds for significant variables. RESULTS: The miRNA-based screening was found to be cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $40 971/quality-adjusted life-year. Key drivers included test costs, test accuracy, cancer incidence, and recurrence risk. Threshold analysis highlights the need for high accuracy of miRNA tests (threshold sensitivity: 68%; threshold specificity: 77%). A perfect compliance to screening would double the cancer diagnosis in early stages compared to the current practice. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reported the miRNA-based screening to be cost-effective in >95% of iterations for a willingness to pay of $70 000/quality-adjusted life-year (approximately equivalent to 1 gross domestic product/capita) CONCLUSIONS: The miRNA-based screening intervention was found to be cost-effective and is expected to contribute immensely in early diagnosis of cancer by improving screening compliance.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Endoscopia/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , MicroRNAs/economia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Singapura/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e197, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873357

RESUMO

This study estimates the incubation period of COVID-19 among locally transmitted cases, and its association with age to better inform public health measures in containing COVID-19. Epidemiological data of all PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases from all restructured hospitals in Singapore were collected between 23 January 2020 and 2 April 2020. Activity mapping and detailed epidemiological investigation were conducted by trained personnel. Positive cases without clear exposure to another positive case were excluded from the analysis. One hundred and sixty-four cases (15.6% of patients) met the inclusion criteria during the defined period. The crude median incubation period was 5 days (range 1-12 days) and median age was 42 years (range 5-79 years). The median incubation period among those 70 years and older was significantly longer than those younger than 70 years (8 vis-à-vis 5 days, P = 0.040). Incubation period was negatively correlated with day of illness in both groups. These findings support current policies of 14-day quarantine periods for close contacts of confirmed cases and 28 days for monitoring infections in known clusters. An elderly person who may have a longer incubation period than a younger counterpart may benefit from earlier and proactive testing, especially after exposure to a positive case.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8226-8231, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the climate has played a role in the COVID-19 outbreak, we compared virus lethality in countries closer to the Equator with others. Lethality in European territories and in territories of some nations with a non-temperate climate was also compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lethality was calculated as the rate of deaths in a determinate moment from the outbreak of the pandemic out of the total of identified positives for COVID-19 in a given area/nation, based on the COVID-John Hopkins University website. Lethality of countries located within the 5th parallels North/South on 6 April and 6 May 2020, was compared with that of all the other countries. Lethality in the European areas of The Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom was also compared to the territories of the same nations in areas with a non-temperate climate. RESULTS: A lower lethality rate of COVID-19 was found in Equatorial countries both on April 6 (OR=0.72 CI 95% 0.66-0.80) and on May 6 (OR=0.48, CI 95% 0.47-0.51), with a strengthening over time of the protective effect. A trend of higher risk in European vs. non-temperate areas was found on April 6, but a clear difference was evident one month later: France (OR=0.13, CI 95% 0.10-0.18), The Netherlands (OR=0.5, CI 95% 0.3-0.9) and the UK (OR=0.2, CI 95% 0.01-0.51). This result does not seem to be totally related to the differences in age distribution of different sites. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not seem to exclude that the lethality of COVID-19 may be climate sensitive. Future studies will have to confirm these clues, due to potential confounding factors, such as pollution, population age, and exposure to malaria.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , Brunei/epidemiologia , Burundi/epidemiologia , Congo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , França/epidemiologia , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Samoa/epidemiologia , São Tomé e Príncipe/epidemiologia , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical , Uganda/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 322, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11 March 2020, after the coronavirus claimed 4628 lives worldwide. Mental health challenges such as making impossible decisions and working under extreme pressures are expected to be faced by frontline healthcare workers who are directly involved in the care of COVID-19 patients. However, we question if significant stress levels might also be observed in a subspecialty musculoskeletal outpatient department, where staff are not first-line care providers of COVID-19 patients. We hypothesize that these healthcare workers also face significant psychological strain, and we aim to objectively determine the prevalence using a validated caregiver strain index. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatient musculoskeletal clinics in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. We collected basic demographic data and used a 13-question tool adapted from the validated Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) to measure psychological strain in these healthcare workers. Participants were divided into 2 groups depending on the level of strain experienced. RESULTS: A total of 62 healthcare workers volunteered for this study. There were 32 participants (51.6%) who had 7 or more positive responses (group 1) and the remaining 30 participants (48.4%) were allocated to group 2. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic data. "Work adjustments" (74.2%), "changes in personal plans" (72.6%), and finding it "confining" (72.6%) garnered the most positive responses in the questionnaire. On the other hand, "financial concerns" garnered the least positive responses (21.0%). CONCLUSION: The protracted duration of the COVID-19 outbreak and its resultant prolonged adjustments can have unintended consequences of wearing down healthcare resources otherwise allocated to chronic and elective conditions. Countries should ensure that measures are put in place to safeguard the mental well-being of our healthcare workers to avoid needing another reactive strategy in this battle against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Ortopedia/tendências , Ambulatório Hospitalar/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/psicologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet ; 396(10251): 603-611, 2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with a 382-nucleotide deletion (∆382) in the open reading frame 8 (ORF8) region of the genome have been detected in Singapore and other countries. We investigated the effect of this deletion on the clinical features of infection. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients who had been screened for the ∆382 variant and recruited to the PROTECT study-a prospective observational cohort study conducted at seven public hospitals in Singapore. We collected clinical, laboratory, and radiological data from patients' electronic medical records and serial blood and respiratory samples taken during hospitalisation and after discharge. Individuals infected with the ∆382 variant were compared with those infected with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Exact logistic regression was used to examine the association between the infection groups and the development of hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen (an indicator of severe COVID-19, the primary endpoint). Follow-up for the study's primary endpoint is completed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 22 and March 21, 2020, 278 patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were screened for the ∆382 deletion and 131 were enrolled onto the study, of whom 92 (70%) were infected with the wild-type virus, ten (8%) had a mix of wild-type and ∆382-variant viruses, and 29 (22%) had only the ∆382 variant. Development of hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen was less frequent in the ∆382 variant group (0 [0%] of 29 patients) than in the wild-type only group (26 [28%] of 92; absolute difference 28% [95% CI 14-28]). After adjusting for age and presence of comorbidities, infection with the ∆382 variant only was associated with lower odds of developing hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen (adjusted odds ratio 0·07 [95% CI 0·00-0·48]) compared with infection with wild-type virus only. INTERPRETATION: The ∆382 variant of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be associated with a milder infection. The observed clinical effects of deletions in ORF8 could have implications for the development of treatments and vaccines. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council Singapore.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Deleção de Genes , Genoma Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Singapura/epidemiologia , Replicação Viral
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008428, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853197

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Aedes-borne diseases, in particular, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika, are increasing at an alarming rate due to urbanisation, population movement, weak vector control programmes, and climate change. The World Health Organization calls for strengthening of vector control programmes in line with the Global Vector Control Response (GVCR) strategy, and many vector control programmes are transitioning to this new approach. The Singapore dengue control programme, situated within the country's larger vision of a clean, green, and sustainable environment for the health and well-being of its citizens, provides an excellent example of the GVCR approach in action. Since establishing vector control operations in the 1960s, the Singapore dengue control programme succeeded in reducing the dengue force of infection 10-fold by the 1990s and has maintained it at low levels ever since. Key to this success is consideration of dengue as an environmental disease, with a strong focus on source reduction and other environmental management methods as the dominant vector control strategy. The programme collaborates closely with other government ministries, as well as town councils, communities, the private sector, and academic and research institutions. Community engagement programmes encourage source reduction, and house-to-house inspections accompanied by a strong legislative framework with monetary penalties help to support compliance. Strong vector and epidemiological surveillance means that routine control activities can be heightened to specifically target dengue clusters. Despite its success, the programme continues to innovate to tackle challenges such as climate change, low herd immunity, and manpower constraints. Initiatives include development of novel vector controls such as Wolbachia-infected males and spatiotemporal models for dengue risk assessment. Lessons learnt from the Singapore programme can be applied to other settings, even those less well-resourced than Singapore, for more effective vector control.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Participação da Comunidade , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Singapura/epidemiologia
12.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(8): e428-e436, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases an individual's chance of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but the frequency of bystander CPR is low in many communities. We aimed to assess the cumulative effect of CPR-targeted public health interventions in Singapore, which were incrementally introduced between 2012 and 2016. METHODS: We did a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of adult, non-traumatic OHCAs, through the Singapore registry. National interventions introduced during this time included emergency services interventions, as well as dispatch-assisted CPR (introduced on July 1, 2012), a training programme for CPR and automated external defibrillators (April 1, 2014), and a first responder mobile application (myResponder; April 17, 2015). Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, we modelled the likelihood of receiving bystander CPR with the increasing number of interventions, accounting for year as a random effect. FINDINGS: The Singapore registry contained 11 465 OHCA events between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2016. Paediatric arrests, arrests witnessed by emergency medical services, and healthcare-facility arrests were excluded, and 6788 events were analysed. Bystander CPR was administered in 3248 (48%) of 6788 events. Compared with no intervention, likelihood of bystander CPR was not significantly altered by the addition of emergency medical services interventions (odds ratio [OR] 1·33 [95% CI 0·98-1·79]; p=0·065), but increased with implementation of dispatch-assisted CPR (3·72 [2·84-4·88]; p<0·0001), with addition of the CPR and automated external defibrillator training programme (6·16 [4·66-8·14]; p<0·0001), and with addition of the myResponder application (7·66 [5·85-10·03]; p<0·0001). Survival to hospital discharge increased after the addition of all interventions, compared with no intervention (OR 3·10 [95% CI 1·53-6·26]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: National bystander-focused public health interventions were associated with an increased likelihood of bystander CPR, and an increased survival to hospital discharge. Understanding the combined impact of public health interventions might improve strategies to increase the likelihood of bystander CPR, and inform targeted initiatives to improve survival from OHCA. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Clinician Scientist Award, Singapore and Ministry of Health, Health Services Research Grant, Singapore.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Singapura/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236977, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly widespread with an overall global estimated prevalence of 25%. Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a key contributor to NAFLD progression and predicts moderate-severe liver fibrosis and mortality. However, there is currently no uniform consensus on routine NAFLD screening among T2DM patients, and the risk factors of NAFLD and advanced fibrosis among T2DM patients remain to be clarified fully. AIM: We explored the prevalence, clinical spectrum, and risk factors of NAFLD and liver fibrosis among T2DM patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that enrolled subjects from a primary care clinic and a diabetes centre in Singapore. Subjects aged 21 to 70 years of all ethnic groups with an established T2DM diagnosis were included. Subjects with chronic liver diseases of other aetiologies were excluded. All subjects underwent transient elastography for hepatic steatosis and fibrosis assessment. Their demographics, anthropometric measurements and clinical parameters were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA/SE16.0 software. RESULTS: Among 449 enrolled T2DM subjects, 436 with complete data and valid transient elastography results were analysed. Overall, 78.72% (344/436) of the T2DM subjects had NAFLD, of which 13.08% (45/344) had increased liver stiffness. Higher ALT level (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03-1.14; p = 0.004), obesity (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2, OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28-5.44; p = 0.008) and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.36; 95% CI 1.40-13.58; p = 0.011) were independent factors associated with increased CAP (NAFLD). Higher AST level (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.11; p = 0.008), CAP value (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.03; p = 0.003), lower platelet count (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-1.00; p = 0.009) and concomitant hypertension (OR = 4.56; 95% CI: 1.18-17.62; p = 0.028) were independent factors associated with increased liver stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a considerably high prevalence of NAFLD among T2DM patients, with the proportion of advanced liver fibrosis among T2DM NAFLD patients much higher than the general population. Given that NAFLD is largely asymptomatic, increased awareness and vigilance for identifying NAFLD and increased liver stiffness among T2DM patients should be advocated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Public Health ; 186: 193-196, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For a large part of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Singapore had managed to keep local cases in the single digits daily, with decisive measures. Yet, we saw this critical time point when the imported cases surged through our borders. The gaps which we can and have efficiently closed, using a public health approach and global border containment strategies, are aptly illustrated through this case. This critical point of imported case surge has resulted in a large spike of daily local cases sustained through community transmission, up to 120/day within a very short time frame. We were able to rapidly bring this under control. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case study of a patient who passed through our borders, with COVID-19 masquerading as a resolved sore throat. METHODS: The events were prospectively documented. RESULTS: We present a case of a 21-year-old student returning from Nottingham. He presented with sore throat as the only symptom the few days prior his return, and on arrival at our border (day 7 from initial symptoms), his sore throat had already resolved. The events leading up to his COVID-19 diagnosis highlight the gaps of the international screening processes at the global border entry and the potential consequences of community chain transmission through imported COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: An important global border control measure to implement quickly will be to expand the symptom list to isolated sore throat and/or a prior history of recent symptoms (resolved). This may capture a larger proportion of imported cases at border entry point for more effective containment. This piece will be equally relevant to the general physicians, emergency care physicians, otolaryngologists and anaesthetists, who are at higher risk of encountering a throat visualization during intubation and routine examination. This information can be useful to countries with low resources or insufficient COVID-19 testing kits.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Faringite/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 336, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare the age, source and future risk of COVID-19 infection in Hong Kong SAR China and Singapore as of March 5, 2020. RESULTS: We find significant difference in age patterns of confirmed cases in these 2 localities early in the pandemic. CONCLUSION: We highlight the potential importance of population age structure in confirmed cases, which should be considered in evaluation of the effectiveness of control effort in different localities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Singapura/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 9(4): 285-290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657805

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has since become a global pandemic. Singapore was one of the first countries outside of China to be affected and reported its first case in January 2020. Strategies that were deployed successfully during the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome have had to evolve to contain this novel coronavirus. Like the rest of the health care services in Singapore, the practice of ophthalmology has also had to adapt to this rapidly changing crisis. This article discusses the measures put in place by the 3 largest ophthalmology centers in Singapore's public sector in response to COVID-19, and the challenges of providing eye care in the face of stringent infection control directives, staff redeployments and "social distancing." The recently imposed "circuit breaker," effectively a partial lockdown of the country, has further limited our work to only the most essential of services. Our staff are also increasingly part of frontline efforts in the screening and care of patients with COVID-19. However, this crisis has also been an opportunity to push ahead with innovative practices and given momentum to the use of teleophthalmology and other digital technologies. Amidst this uncertainty, our centers are already planning for how ophthalmology in Singapore will be practiced in this next stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, and beyond.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Oftalmologia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Setor Público , Telemedicina/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Singapura/epidemiologia
20.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between January 24, 2020 and February 15, 2020, an outbreak of COVID-19 occurred among 335 passengers on a flight from Singapore to Hangzhou in China. This study aimed to investigate the source of the outbreak and assess the risk of transmission of COVID-19 during the flight. METHOD: Using a standardized questionnaire, we collected information on the travelers' demographic characteristics and illness before, during, and after the flight. We also collected data on factors potentially associated with COVID-19 transmission during the flight. RESULTS: A total of 16 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed among all passengers; the overall attack rate was 4.8%. The attack rate among passengers who had departed from Wuhan was significantly higher than that among those who had departed from other places. One passenger without an epidemiological history of exposure before boarding developed COVID-19. During the flight, he was seated near four infected passengers from Wuhan for approximately an hour and did not wear his facemask correctly during the flight. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 transmission may have occurred during the flight. However, the majority of the cases in the flight-associated outbreak could not be attributed to transmission on the flight but were associated with exposure to the virus in Wuhan or to infected members in a single tour group.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Singapura/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
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