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1.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(11): e932-e941, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported positive associations between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and air pollutant concentrations, but there are inconsistencies across studies. We aimed to investigate the association between pollutant concentrations and the risk of OHCA in Singapore. METHODS: We did a time series analysis of all cases of OHCA in Singapore reported between July 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2018, to the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), a prospective, population-based registry. Using multivariable fractional polynomial modelling, we investigated the immediate (day 0) and lagged (up to 5 days after exposure) association between 10 µg/m3 increases in concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter of 2·5 µm or smaller (PM2·5), particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or smaller (PM10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and 1 mg/m3 increase in carbon monoxide (CO) and relative risk (RR) of OHCA. FINDINGS: We extracted data for 18 131 cases of OHCA. The median age of this cohort of cases was 65 years (IQR 56-80), 6484 (35·8%) were female, 11 647 (64·2%) were male, 12 270 (67·7%) were Chinese, 2873 (15·8%) were Malay, and 2010 (11·1%) were Indian. Every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2·5 was associated with increased risk of OHCA (RR 1·022 [95% 1·002-1·043]) over the next 2 days, which decreased over the subsequent 3 days (3-5 days after exposure; 0·976 [0·955-0·998]). For PM10, O3, NO2, and SO2, we did not observe any associations between increased concentration and risk of OHCA on day 0 or cumulative risk over time (ie, at 0-1 days, 0-2 days, 0-3 days, 0-4 days, 0-5 days, and 3-5 days after exposure). For CO, we observed a cumulative decreased risk of OHCA across 0-5 days after exposure (0·876 [0·770-0·997]) and at days 3-5 after exposure (0·810 [0·690-0·949]). We observed effect modification of the association between increasing PM2·5 concentration and OHCA 0-2 days after exposure by cardiac arrest rhythm (non-shockable 1·027 [1·004-1·050] vs shockable 1·002 [0·956-1·051]) and location of OHCA (at home: 1·033 [1·008-1·057] vs not at home 0·955 [0·957-1·035]). In hypothetical modelling, the number of OHCA events associated with PM2·5 could be reduced by 8% with a 1 µg/m3 decrease in PM2·5 concentrations and by 30% with a 3 µg/m3 decrease in PM2·5 concentrations. INTERPRETATION: Increases in PM2·5 concentration were associated with an initial increased risk of OHCA and a subsequent reduced risk from 3-5 days after exposure, suggesting a short-term harvesting effect. A decrease in PM2·5 concentrations could reduce population demand for emergency health services. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Singapore, under the Clinician Scientist Award, Singapore and the Singapore Translational Research Investigator Award (MOH-000982-01).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
2.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(4): 348-369, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present the local evidence and final recommendations of the Clinical Practice Guidelines workgroup convened by the Chapter of Geriatricians and the Society for Geriatric Medicine Singapore. The aim is to develop contextualized evidence-based recommendations that facilitate adoption of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2019 consensus into current practice in Singapore. METHODS: The workgroup drew upon the AWGS'2019 consensus, updated literature review of Singapore studies till 31 Dec 2020, and evidence from recent systematic reviews. From 40 local studies included for data extraction, we constructed evidence tables organized as: definition and epidemiology; diagnosis and evaluation; and treatment and intervention. Twenty recommendations - case-finding, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, research - were developed, and graded for strength and quality using the GRADE approach. Consensus from an expert panel(N=23) was achieved after two rounds of the modified Delphi process. RESULTS: The local prevalence of sarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults ranged from 13.6% to 25%. Most studies adopted the AWGS'2019 and AWGS'2014 criteria. Reported case finding tools include SARC-F, calf circumference (CC) and SARC-CalF. Gender-specific AWGS cut-offs for appendicular skeletal mass were used to define low muscle mass. Different protocols and dynamometers were used to assess handgrip strength, whilst gait speed and 5-times chair stand were commonly used to assess physical performance. RECOMMENDATIONS: We conditionally recommend a case-finding approach in at-risk older adults using validated case-finding tools. Screen-positive individuals should be assessed for 'possible sarcopenia' and underlying causes. For diagnosis, we conditionally recommend using the AWGS'2019 algorithm, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry when necessary to determine low lean mass for a confirmatory diagnosis of sarcopenia. For treatment, we strongly recommend resistance-based exercises and conditionally recommend a quality protein-rich diet/protein supplementation, with Vitamin D supplementation for insufficiency (<30 micrograms/L). For prevention, we recommend regular resistance-based physical activity and adequate protein intake (≥1.0g/kg bodyweight). We encourage more research to address local evidence gaps.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Humanos , Idoso , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Força da Mão , Singapura/epidemiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos
3.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(11): 1038-1043, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343271

RESUMO

In mid-2022, the COVID-19 cases have reached close to 562 million, but its overall infection rate is hard to confirm. Even with effective vaccines, break-through infections with new variants occur, and safe and reliable testing still plays a critical role in isolation of infected individuals and in control of an outbreak of a COVID-19 pandemic. In response to this urgent need, the diagnostic tests for COVID-19 are rapidly evolving and improving these days. The health authorities of many countries issued requirements for detecting SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis tests during the pandemic and have timely access to these tests to ensure safety and effectiveness. In this study, we compared the requirements of EUA in Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States. For the performance evaluations of nucleic acid extraction, inclusivity, limit of detection (LoD), cross-reactivity, interference, cutoff, and stability, the requirements are similar in the three countries. The use of natural clinical specimens is needed for clinical evaluation in Taiwan and the United States. However, carry-over and cross-contamination studies can be exempted in Taiwan and the United States but are required in Singapore. This review outlines requirements and insight to guide the test developers on the development of IVDs. Considering the rapidly evolving viruses and severe pandemic of COVID-19, timely and accurate diagnostic testing is imperative to the management of diseases. As noted above, the performance requirements for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests are similar between Taiwan, Singapore and the United States. The differences are mainly in two points: the recommended microorganisms for cross-reactivity study, and the specimen requirement for clinical evaluation. This study provides an overview of current requirements of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ácidos Nucleicos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Teste para COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366548

RESUMO

Dengue is a major vector-borne disease worldwide. Here, we examined the spatial distribution of extreme weekly dengue outbreak risk in Singapore from 2007 to 2020. We divided Singapore into equal-sized hexagons with a circumradius of 165 m and obtained the weekly number of dengue cases and the surface characteristics of each hexagon. We accounted for spatial heterogeneity using max-stable processes. The 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-year return levels, or the weekly dengue case counts expected to be exceeded once every 5, 10, 20, and 30 years, respectively, were determined for each hexagon conditional on their surface characteristics remaining constant over time. The return levels were higher in the country's east, with the maximum weekly dengue cases per hexagon expected to exceed 51 at least once in 30 years in many areas. The surface characteristics with the largest impact on outbreak risk were the age of public apartments and the percentage of impervious surfaces, where a 3-year and 10% increase in each characteristic resulted in a 3.8% and 3.3% increase in risk, respectively. Vector control efforts should be prioritized in older residential estates and places with large contiguous masses of built-up environments. Our findings indicate the likely scale of outbreaks in the long term.


Assuntos
Dengue , Humanos , Idoso , Dengue/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361096

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Healthcare workers all over the world were prioritized for vaccination against COVID-19 in view of the high-risk nature of their job scopes when vaccines were first available in late 2020. Vaccine hesitancy was an important problem to tackle in order to achieve a high vaccination rate, especially for vaccines that were developed using mRNA technology. We aimed to use the '3Cs' model to address vaccine hesitancy to ensure maximal uptake of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine among healthcare workers in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. METHODS: Various measures were used to reduce the confidence, complacency, and convenience barriers. The staff vaccination clinic was on-site and centralized, with appointments given in advance to ensure vaccine availability and to reduce wait time, providing convenience to staff. Direct and repeated communications with the staff via multiple channels were used to address vaccine safety and efficacy so as to promote confidence in the vaccines and overcome complacency barriers. To further encourage staff to get vaccinated, staff were allowed time off for vaccination when at work. Staff with a high risk of exposure to COVID-19 or those caring for immunocompromised patients were prioritized to take the vaccines first. The collection of data on adverse events was via on-site monitoring and consultation at Occupational Health Clinic (OHC). RESULTS: Nearly 80% of staff had completed vaccination when the vaccination exercise ended at the end of March 2021. With the loosening of the contraindications to vaccination over time, staff vaccination rates reached 89.3% in early July and nearly 99.9% by the end of the year. No major or serious vaccine-related medication or administration errors were reported. No staff had anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: By using the '3Cs' model to plan out the vaccination exercise, it is possible to achieve a high vaccination rate coupled with effective and customized communications. This multi-disciplinary team approach can be adapted to guide vaccination efforts in various settings in future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Singapura/epidemiologia , Vacinação
6.
Intern Med J ; 52(11): 2005-2007, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404120

RESUMO

Singapore surrendered to the Japanese invasion in February 1942 after its water supply collapsed. At the suggestion of the colonial medical authorities, an emergency typhoid immunisation campaign was then begun using locally manufactured vaccine from extemporary materials; within 3 months, >600 000 had been immunised. Comparison with prewar statistics suggests that a postsurrender typhoid fever epidemic was prevented despite an increase in other enteric infections. Public health crises with disrupted supply chains may make locally manufactured vaccines of increasing importance in the future.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas , Humanos , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Singapura/epidemiologia , Vacinação
7.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103311, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335844

RESUMO

This infodemiological study utilized Relative Search Volumes (RSV) from Google Trends. It determined changes in public interest in mental health after the implementation of the mental health laws of Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand using search volumes from 2004 to 2021. It found that public interest in mental health increased in Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore after implementing their mental health laws. On the contrary, public interest in mental health continued to decrease in Thailand despite its mental health law implementation. This can be explained by the unequal prioritization of mental health among these countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste , Indonésia
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1031229, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408011

RESUMO

Macau, Hong Kong and Singapore are all facing increasing population aging. Those aged 65 and over make up the old-age population. The working-age population refers to the population aged 15 to 64. Conventionally, the burden of population aging is measured by the Old-Age Dependency Ratio, which is the ratio of the old-age population to the working-age population. As life expectancy rises, depending exclusively on age to calculate the burden of aging hinders the development of effective anti-aging strategies. The working-age population's education and the elderly's health affect the aging burden's support and generator, respectively. Including them in the calculation gives us a fuller view of the burden of aging. Objective: To compare the population aging burden in Macau, Hong Kong, and Singapore by including working-age population education and elderly health. Methods: The overall, working-age and old-age population and proportion, as well as the Old-Age Dependency Ratio of Macau, Hong Kong, and Singapore, were collected from the World Bank database. The life expectancy at 65 was extracted from the 2022 World Population Prospect. The tertiary education rate of the working-age population and the self-rated health status of the old-age population were retrieved from governments' statistical reports. We then calculated the Education-Health Adjusted Old-Age Dependency Ratio, a set of four equations showing the support of the working-age population on the old-age population, where OADRh_t and OADRuh_t represent the burden of healthy and unhealthy old-age population on the working-age population with tertiary education; similarly, OADRh_nt and OADRuh_nt indicate the burden placed on the working-age population without tertiary education by healthy and unhealthy old-age population. Lastly, for comparison with the conventional Old-Age Dependency Ratio, we generated the Weighted Education-Health Adjusted Old-Age Dependency Ratio. Results: Hong Kong has the greatest old-age population proportion and Old-Age Dependency Ratio, yet its growth rates are moderate and stable, ranging from 0 to 4% and 0 to 6%, respectively. Macau and Singapore experienced sharper changes in old-age population proportion and the Old-Age Dependency Ratio, with Macau's Old-Age Dependency Ratio varying between -2.66 and 8.50% and Singapore's ranging from -1.53 to 9.70%. Three cities showed different patterns in four Education-Health Adjusted Old-Age Dependency Ratio indicators. In Macau, the OADRh_nt and OADRuh_nt increased by 0.4 and 6.2, while the OADRh_t and OADRuh_t decreased by 13.5 and 15.3 from 2004 to 2016. In Hong Kong, only the OADRuh_t fell by 9.4, and the other three increased from 2003 to 2015. In Singapore, the OADRh_nt and OADRh_t increased by 3.8 and 1.0, while OADRuh_nt and OADRuh_t decreased by 1.2 and 3.9 from 2007 to 2011. The Weighted Education-Health Adjusted Old-Age Dependency Ratios are all smaller than the conventional Old-Age Dependency Ratio in the three regions, particularly in Singapore. The Weighted Education-Health Adjusted Old-Age Dependency Ratio of Singapore was reduced by 9.5 to 30.5% compared with the conventional Old-Age Dependency Ratio, that of Hong Kong reduced by 6.2 to 22.5%, and that of Macau reduced by 4.4 to 16.1%. Conclusion: This is the first study to compare the aging burden in Macau, Hong Kong, and Singapore in connection to working-age population education and elderly health. With the new assessment, the burden of population aging in three regions has been reduced, showing that improving the education of the working-age population and maintaining older people's wellbeing can assist authorities to deal with population aging, especially in Macau and Hong Kong.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Humanos , Idoso , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Macau , Singapura/epidemiologia , Escolaridade
10.
Health Promot Int ; 37(5)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287520

RESUMO

Diabetes is a major public health concern in Singapore, and the Singapore Government declared a 'War on Diabetes', which included a nationwide public health campaign. It is important to identify what sources of diabetes information reach the general population, whether this differs by socio-demographic characteristics and if the sources of information influence knowledge of diabetes to aid the successful dissemination of health information. Two thousand eight hundred ninety-five respondents were part of a population-based cross-sectional study conducted from February 2019 to September 2020. Respondents rated on a five-point scale whether they had obtained information on diabetes from eight different information sources, and responses were dichotomized into 'endorsed receiving information' or 'not endorsed receiving information'. Poisson regression models were conducted with the 'endorsement of receiving information' from each source as the outcome and socio-demographic variables as predictors. 95.9% of the study population had received information on diabetes from at least one source, and the mean number of sources was 4.2 ± 2.0. The leading source was media articles (82.1%), followed by health promotion videos/advertisements (77.9%), online websites (58.5%), books (56.5%), healthcare professionals (55.0%), radio (54.4%), public forums (27.7%) and support groups (15.5%). Endorsing a greater number of informational sources was associated with being younger, belonging to Malay or Indian instead of Chinese ethnicity, and having diabetes. An intensive nationwide diabetes awareness campaign successfully reached the public in Singapore with specific sources of information depending on socio-demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that diabetes information campaigns should utilize multiple channels for dissemination considering the different socio-demographic subgroups.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Etnicidade , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Singapura/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e061318, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the combined effects of behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation, on one hand, and locus of control, on the other hand, on different categories of smoking behaviour (non-smoking, ex-smoking, occasional smoking, daily smoking). DESIGN: This study adopted a cross-sectional design. Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics, smoking patterns, behavioural inhibition/behavioural activation systems and locus of control. SETTING: The study was conducted across four companies from the transportation, cooling plant and education sectors in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred sixty-nine male working adults were included in the final sample. RESULTS: Corroborating previous research, a logistic regression model examining behavioural inhibition/behavioural activation systems revealed that the fun-seeking aspect of behavioural activation was a unique predictor in distinguishing non-smokers from daily smokers (OR=1.24, p=0.012). By contrast, in a separate model examining locus of control, external locus of control was found to be a unique predictor in distinguishing non-smokers from daily smokers (OR=1.13, p<0.001). In addition, a third model combining both behavioural inhibition/behavioural activation systems and locus of control found that only external locus of control remained a significant predictor (OR=1.12, p<0.001). Further analyses revealed a mediating effect of external locus of control on the relationship between fun-seeking and smoking behaviour. That is, the increase in the odds of daily smoking due to fun-seeking was explained by external locus of control (direct pathway OR=1.20, p=0.058; indirect pathway OR=1.04, p<0.050). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, fun-seeking through its influence on external locus of control indirectly affects daily smoking behaviour, suggesting a more complex relationship than shown in previous research.


Assuntos
Controle Interno-Externo , Fumar , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Singapura/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fumar/epidemiologia
12.
Age Ageing ; 51(10)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the association between changes in diet quality from mid-life to late-life and healthy ageing. METHODS: We included 12,316 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years at baseline (1993-1998) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Diet quality was measured using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores at baseline and follow-up 3 interviews (2014-2016). Healthy ageing was assessed at follow-up 3 interviews, and was defined as absence of specific chronic diseases, good mental and overall self-perceived health, good physical functioning and absence of cognitive impairment, limitations in instrumental activities of daily living or function-limiting pain. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between changes in DASH scores and healthy ageing. RESULTS: Compared with participants who maintained relatively stable DASH scores, a >10% decrease in DASH score was associated with a 16% (95% CI, 4-26%) lower likelihood of healthy ageing, whereas a >10% increase in DASH score was associated with a 19% (95% CI, 3-37%) higher likelihood of healthy ageing. Compared with participants who were in the low-score group consistently, participants who increased their DASH scores from moderate-score at baseline to high-score at follow-up 3 had a 53% (95% CI, 21-92%) higher likelihood of healthy ageing, whereas those who were in the high-score group consistently had 108% (95% CI, 71-152%) higher likelihood of healthy ageing. CONCLUSIONS: Improving diet quality from mid- to late-life was associated with a higher likelihood of healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas , Singapura/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , China
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293917

RESUMO

Air pollution exposure may increase the demand for emergency healthcare services, particularly in South-East Asia, where the burden of air-pollution-related health impacts is high. This article aims to investigate the association between air quality and emergency hospital admissions in Singapore. Quasi-Poisson regression was applied with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) to assess the short-term associations between air quality variations and all-cause, emergency admissions from a major hospital in Singapore, between 2009 and 2017. Higher concentrations of SO2, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO were positively associated with an increased risk of (i) all-cause, (ii) cardiovascular-related, and (iii) respiratory-related emergency admissions over 7 days. O3 concentration increases were associated with a non-linear decrease in emergency admissions. Females experienced a higher risk of emergency admissions associated with PM2.5, PM10, and CO exposure, and a lower risk of admissions with NO2 exposure, compared to males. The older adults (≥65 years) experienced a higher risk of emergency admissions associated with SO2 and O3 exposure compared to the non-elderly group. We found significant positive associations between respiratory disease- and cardiovascular disease-related emergency hospital admissions and ambient SO2, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations. Age and gender were identified as effect modifiers of all-cause admissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Singapura/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hospitais , China
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275854, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215259

RESUMO

What is the effect of declaring a pandemic? This research assesses behavioral and psychological responses to the WHO declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, in Hong Kong, Singapore, and the U.S. We surveyed 3,032 members of the general public in these three regions about the preventative actions they were taking and their worries related to COVID-19. The WHO announcement on March 11th, 2020 created a quasi-experimental test of responses immediately before versus after the announcement. The declaration of the pandemic increased worries about the capacity of the local healthcare system in each region, as well as the proportion of people engaging in preventative actions, including actions not recommended by medical professionals. The number of actions taken correlates positively with anxiety and worries. Declaring the COVID-19 crisis as a pandemic had tangible effects-positive (increased community engagement) and negative (increased generalized anxiety)-which manifested differently across regions in line with expectancy disconfirmation theory.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapura/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275920, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing global health problem. In Singapore, the prevalence of Type 2 DM is rising, but comprehensive information about trends in DM-related complications is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We utilized the Singapore Health Services (SingHealth) diabetes registry (SDR) to assess trends in DM micro and macro-vascular complications at the population level, explore factors influencing these trends. METHODS: We studied trends for ten DM-related complications: ischemic heart disease (IHD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and strokes, diabetic eye complications, nephropathy, neuropathy, diabetic foot, major and minor lower extremity amputation (LEA). The complications were determined through clinical coding in hospital (inpatient and outpatient) and primary care settings within the SingHealth cluster. We described event rates for the complications in 4 age-bands. Joinpoint regression was used to identify significant changes in trends. RESULTS: Among 222,705 patients studied between 2013 and 2020. 48.6% were female, 70.7% Chinese, 14.7% Malay and 10.6% Indian with a mean (SD) age varying between 64.6 (12.5) years in 2013 and 65.7 (13.2) years in 2020. We observed an increase in event rates in IHD, PAD, stroke, diabetic eye complications nephropathy, and neuropathy. Joinpoints was observed for IHD and PAD between 2016 to 2018, with subsequent plateauing of event rates. Major and minor LEA event rates decreased through the study period. CONCLUSION: We found that DM and its complications represent an important challenge for healthcare in Singapore. Improvements in the trends of DM macrovascular complications were observed. However, trends in DM microvascular complications remain a cause for concern.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Doença Arterial Periférica , Amputação , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e057522, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the effectiveness of contact tracing using real-time location system (RTLS) compared with the conventional (electronic medical records (EMRs)) method via an emerging infectious disease (EID) outbreak simulation exercise. The aims of the study are: (1) to compare the time taken to perform contact tracing and list of contacts identified for RTLS versus EMR; (2) to compare manpower and manpower-hours required to perform contact tracing for RTLS versus EMR; and (3) to extrapolate the cost incurred by RTLS versus EMR. DESIGN: Prospective case study. SETTING: Sengkang General Hospital, a 1000-bedded public tertiary hospital in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: 1000 out of 4000 staff wore staff tags in this study. INTERVENTIONS: A simulation exercise to determine and compare the list of contacts, time taken, manpower and manpower-hours required between RTLS and conventional methods of contact tracing. Cost of both methods were compared. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: List of contacts, time taken, manpower required, manpower-hours required and cost incurred. RESULTS: RTLS identified almost three times the number of contacts compared with conventional methods, while achieving that with a 96.2% reduction in time taken, 97.6% reduction in manpower required and 97.5% reduction in manpower-hours required. However, RTLS incurred significant equipment cost and might take many contact tracing episodes before providing economic benefit. CONCLUSION: Although costly, RTLS is effective in contact tracing. RLTS might not be ready at present time to replace conventional methods, but with further refinement, RTLS has the potential to be the gold standard in contact tracing methods of the future, particularly in the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Pandemias , Sistemas Computacionais , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Humanos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(9): 531-539, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wheeled recreational devices (WRDs) include tricycles, bicycles, scooters, inline skates, skateboards, longboards and waveboards, and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and nature of injuries sustained by children from WRD use, and risk factors for severe injury. METHOD: We described injuries relating to WRD use in children <18 years who presented to the emergency department of an Asian tertiary hospital between 2016 and 2020. Demographic data, site and nature of the injury, and historical trends were analysed. Risk factors for severe injury (defined as fractures or dislocations), Injury Severity Score ≥9, and injuries resulting in hospitalisation, surgery or death were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 5,002 patients with 5,507 WRD-related injuries were attended to over the 5-year study period. Median age was 4.7 years. Injuries related to bicycles (54.6%) and scooters (30.3%) were most frequent, followed by skateboards and waveboards (7.4%), inline skates (4.7%), and tricycles (3.0%). Injuries occurred most frequently in public spaces. Soft tissue injuries (49.3%) and fractures (18.7%) were the most common diagnoses. Upper limb (36.4%) and head and neck (29.0%) regions were the most common sites of injury. Among the patients, 1,910 (38%) had severe injuries with potential morbidity. On multivariate analysis, heavier children of the school-going age who use either scooters, skateboards or inline skates are more prone to severe injuries. Involvement in a vehicular collision was a negative predictor. CONCLUSION: WRD use in children can result in severe injuries. Wrist and elbow guards, as well as helmets are recommended, along with adequate parental supervision.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
19.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(9): 540-552, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189699

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated sex and ethnic differences in the incidence, clinical characteristics and 1-year mortality of patients with newly diagnosed AF in a multi-ethnic population. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with AF from 2008 to 2015 was based on medical claims, casemix and subvention data submitted to the Ministry of Health. Patients with AF were matched with controls without AF for age (3-year bands), sex and ethnicity, and categorised as middle-aged (45-64 years) or elderly (≥65 years) among major ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malay and Indian). RESULTS: Among 40,602 adults with AF (elderly 74%), Malays had the highest age-standardised incidence rate of AF, followed by Chinese and Indians; and the rate was higher in men. Despite having the worst cardiovascular risk profile, Indians had the lowest prevalence and incidence of AF. The 1-year mortality rate after newly diagnosed AF was 22-26 deaths per 100 people. Newly diagnosed AF was independently associated with increased 1-year all-cause mortality among middle-aged (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 9.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.36-11.20) and elderly adults (AOR 3.60, 95% CI 3.40-3.80) compared with those without AF. Sex differences in mortality among patients with AF were limited to elderly adults (men: AOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.24), while Indians were associated with a 30% increased odds of mortality compared with Chinese regardless of age (middle-aged: AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.548 elderly: AOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.22-1.45). CONCLUSION: Variations in incidence, clinical profile and 1-year mortality of patients with AF in a nationwide cohort were influenced by sex and ethnicity. Newly diagnosed AF portends a worse prognosis and is a marker of high mortality within the first year.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Etnicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
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