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1.
Gene ; 809: 146038, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688819

RESUMO

Nitrate transporter 2 (NRT2) proteins play an important role in nitrate uptake and utilization in plants. The NRT2 family has been identified and functionally characterized in many plants. However, no systematic identification of NRT2 family members has been reported in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In this study, six MeNRT2 genes were identified from cassava genome and named as MeNRT2.1-2.6 according to their chromosomal locations. Phylogenetic tree showed that NRT2 proteins were divided into four main subgroups, which was further supported by their gene structure and conserved motifs. All six MeNRT2 genes are randomly distributed on 4 chromosomes (LG8, LG11, LG13, and LG17), two tandem duplicated genes (MeNRT2.3/MeNRT2.4) and a pair of segmental duplicated gene (MeNRT2.1/MeNRT2.2) was detected. Subsequently, expression profiles of MeNRT2 genes in eight different tissues and in response to nitrate deficient treatment were analyzed. The results showed that the MeNRT2 genes had differential expression patterns. All of MeNRT2 genes induced by nitrate deficiency, of them the MeNRT2.2 had the highest expression level after treatment. Arabidopis transformed with MeNRT2.2 gene showed higher fresh weight than wild type plants in response to N starvation, suggesting that MeNRT2.2 play important role in adapting to low nitrogen. Taken together, our results provide the reference for further analyses of the molecular functions of the MeNRT2 gene family, but also some candidate genes for developing nitrogen efficient crops.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manihot/genética , Filogenia , Arabidopsis/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Manihot/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Sintenia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7317, 2021 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916523

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a poorly studied class of transcripts with emerging roles in key cellular processes. Despite efforts to characterize lncRNAs across a wide range of species, these molecules remain largely unexplored in most eukaryotic microbes, including yeast pathogens of the Candida clade. Here, we analyze thousands of publicly available sequencing datasets to infer and characterize the lncRNA repertoires of five major Candida pathogens: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida auris and Candida glabrata. Our results indicate that genomes of these species encode hundreds of lncRNAs that show levels of evolutionary constraint intermediate between those of intergenic genomic regions and protein-coding genes. Despite their low sequence conservation across the studied species, some lncRNAs are syntenic and are enriched in shared sequence motifs. We find co-expression of lncRNAs with certain protein-coding transcripts, hinting at potential functional associations. Finally, we identify lncRNAs that are differentially expressed during infection of human epithelial cells for four of the studied species. Our comprehensive bioinformatic analyses of Candida lncRNAs pave the way for future functional characterization of these transcripts.


Assuntos
Candida/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Genômica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Candida/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Sequência Conservada , Células Epiteliais , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Sintenia , Transcriptoma
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 598, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) plays a key enzyme role in the inositol signal transduction system and has essential functions in plants in terms of growth, development, and stress responses. However, systematic studies on the wheat PIP5K gene family and its relation to male sterility have not been reported yet. RESULTS: Sixty-four TaPIP5K genes were identified. The TaPIP5K genes contained similar gene structures and conserved motifs on the same branches of the evolutionary tree, and their cis-regulatory elements were related to MeJA-responsiveness. Furthermore, 49 pairs of collinearity genes were identified and mainly subjected to purification selection during evolution. Synteny analyses showed that some PIP5K genes in wheat and the other four species shared a relatively conserved evolutionary process. The expression levels of many conservative TaPIP5K genes in HT-ms anthers were significantly lower than that in Normal anthers. In addition, HT-ms anthers have no dehiscence, and levels of OPDA and JA-ILE are significantly lower at the trinucleus stage. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the PIP5K gene family may be associated with male sterility induced by HT, and the reduction of JA-ILE levels and the abnormal levels of these genes expression may be one reason for the HT-ms anthers having no dehiscence, ultimately leading to the abortion of the anthers.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Fertilidade , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/fisiologia , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Família Multigênica , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/fisiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sintenia , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258003, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618832

RESUMO

Serrasalmidae has high morphological and chromosomal diversity. Based on molecular hypotheses, the family is currently divided into two subfamilies, Colossomatinae and Serrasalminae, with Serrasalminae composed of two tribes: Myleini (comprising most of pacus species) and Serrasalmini (represented by Metynnis, Catoprion, and remaining piranha's genera). This study aimed to analyze species of the tribes Myleini (Myloplus asterias, M. lobatus, M. rubripinnis, M. schomburgki, and Tometes camunani) and Serrasalmini (Metynnis cuiaba, M. hypsauchen, and M. longipinnis) using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to understand the chromosomal evolution of the family. The four species of the genus Myloplus and T. camunani presented 2n = 58 chromosomes, while the species of Metynnis presented 2n = 62 chromosomes. The distribution of heterochromatin occurred predominantly in pericentromeric regions in all species. Tometes camunani and Myloplus spp. presented only one site with 5S rDNA. Multiple markers of 18S rDNA were observed in T. camunani, M. asterias, M. lobatus, M. rubripinnis, and M. schomburgkii. For Metynnis, however, synteny of the 18S and 5S rDNA was observed in the three species, in addition to an additional 5S marker in M. longipinnis. These data, when superimposed on the phylogeny of the family, suggest a tendency to increase the diploid chromosome number from 54 to 62 chromosomes, which occurred in a nonlinear manner and is the result of several chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, the different karyotype formulas and locations of ribosomal sequences can be used as cytotaxonomic markers and assist in the identification of species.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Citogenética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariótipo , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Sintenia/genética
5.
Nat Genet ; 53(10): 1493-1503, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594040

RESUMO

How two subgenomes in allo-tetraploids adapt to coexistence and coordinate through structure and expression evolution requires extensive studies. In the present study, we report an improved genome assembly of allo-tetraploid common carp, an updated genome annotation of allo-tetraploid goldfish and the chromosome-scale assemblies of a progenitor-like diploid Puntius tetrazona and an outgroup diploid Paracanthobrama guichenoti. Parallel subgenome structure evolution in the allo-tetraploids was featured with equivalent chromosome components, higher protein identities, similar transposon divergence and contents, homoeologous exchanges, better synteny level, strong sequence compensation and symmetric purifying selection. Furthermore, we observed subgenome expression divergence processes in the allo-tetraploids, including inter-/intrasubgenome trans-splicing events, expression dominance, decreased expression levels, dosage compensation, stronger expression correlation, dynamic functionalization and balancing of differential expression. The potential disorders introduced by different progenitors in the allo-tetraploids were hypothesized to be alleviated by increasing structural homogeneity and performing versatile expression processes. Resequencing three common carp strains revealed two major ecotypes and uncovered candidate genes relevant to growth and survival rate.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Carpa Dourada/genética , Tetraploidia , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Variação Genética , Cariótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Sintenia/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639024

RESUMO

With no lysine (K) (WNK) kinases comprise a family of serine/threonine kinases belonging to an evolutionary branch of the eukaryotic kinome. These special kinases contain a unique active site and are found in a wide range of eukaryotes. The model plant Arabidopsis has been reported to have 11 WNK members, of which WNK8 functions as a negative regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we found that the expression of WNK8 is post-transcriptionally regulated through an upstream open reading frame (uORF) found in its 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). This uORF has been predicted to encode a conserved peptide named CPuORF58 in both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. The analysis of the published ribosome footprinting studies and the study of the frameshift CPuORF58 peptide with altered repression capability suggested that this uORF causes ribosome stalling. Plants transformed with the native WNK8 promoter driving WNK8 expression were comparable with wild-type plants, whereas the plants transformed with a similar construct with mutated CPuORF58 start codon were less sensitive to ABA. In addition, WNK8 and its downstream target RACK1 were found to synergistically coordinate ABA signaling rather than antagonistically modulating glucose response and flowering in plants. Collectively, these results suggest that the WNK8 expression must be tightly regulated to fulfill the demands of ABA response in plants.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Biossíntese de Proteínas , /genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sintenia
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 413, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. RESULTS: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Éxons , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sintenia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576120

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze a great number of biochemical reactions and play vital roles in plant growth, development and secondary metabolism. As yet, the genome-scale investigation on P450s is still lacking in the model legume Medicago truncatula. In particular, whether and how many MtP450s are involved in drought and salt stresses for Medicago growth, development and yield remain unclear. In this study, a total of 346 MtP450 genes were identified and classified into 10 clans containing 48 families. Among them, sixty-one MtP450 genes pairs are tandem duplication events and 10 MtP450 genes are segmental duplication events. MtP450 genes within one family exhibit high conservation and specificity in intron-exon structure. Meanwhile, many Mt450 genes displayed tissue-specific expression pattern in various tissues. Specifically, the expression pattern of 204 Mt450 genes under drought/NaCl treatments were analyzed by using the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Among them, eight genes (CYP72A59v1, CYP74B4, CYP71AU56, CYP81E9, CYP71A31, CYP704G6, CYP76Y14, and CYP78A126), and six genes (CYP83D3, CYP76F70, CYP72A66, CYP76E1, CYP74C12, and CYP94A52) were found to be hub genes under drought/NaCl treatments, respectively. The expression levels of these selected hub genes could be induced, respectively, by drought/NaCl treatments, as validated by qPCR analyses, and most of these genes are involved in the secondary metabolism and fatty acid pathways. The genome-wide identification and co-expression analyses of M. truncatulaP450 superfamily genes established a gene atlas for a deep and systematic investigation of P450 genes in M. truncatula, and the selected drought-/salt-responsive genes could be utilized for further functional characterization and molecular breeding for resistance in legume crops.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicago truncatula/enzimologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Sintenia/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576142

RESUMO

The plant disease resistance system involves a very complex regulatory network in which jasmonates play a key role in response to external biotic or abiotic stresses. As inhibitors of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, JASMONATE ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins have been identified in many plant species, and their functions are gradually being clarified. In this study, 26 JAZ genes were identified in tomato. The physical and chemical properties, predicted subcellular localization, gene structure, cis-acting elements, and interspecies collinearity of 26 SlJAZ genes were subsequently analyzed. RNA-seq data combined with qRT-PCR analysis data showed that the expression of most SlJAZ genes were induced in response to Stemphylium lycopersici, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA). Tobacco rattle virus RNA2-based VIGS vector (TRV2)-SlJAZ25 plants were more resistant to tomato gray leaf spots than TRV2-00 plants. Therefore, we speculated that SlJAZ25 played a negative regulatory role in tomato resistance to gray leaf spots. Based on combining the results of previous studies and those of our experiments, we speculated that SlJAZ25 might be closely related to JA and SA hormone regulation. SlJAZ25 interacted with SlJAR1, SlCOI1, SlMYC2, and other resistance-related genes to form a regulatory network, and these genes played an important role in the regulation of tomato gray leaf spots. The subcellular localization results showed that the SlJAZ25 gene was located in the nucleus. Overall, this study is the first to identify and analyze JAZ family genes in tomato via bioinformatics approaches, clarifying the regulatory role of SlJAZ25 genes in tomato resistance to gray leaf spots and providing new ideas for improving plant disease resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Família Multigênica , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Sintenia/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576289

RESUMO

MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) have fundamental roles in regulating floral organ formation and flowering time in flowering plants. In order to understand the function of MIKC-type MADS-box family genes in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja, we first implemented a genome-wide analysis of MIKC-type MADS-box genes in C. paliurus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships, chromosome location, conserved motif, gene structure, promoter region, and gene expression profile were analyzed. The results showed that 45 MIKC-type MADS-box were divided into 14 subfamilies: BS (3), AGL12 (1), AP3-PI (3), MIKC* (3), AGL15 (3), SVP (5), AGL17 (2), AG (3), TM8 (1), AGL6 (2), SEP (5), AP1-FUL (6), SOC1 (7), and FLC (1). The 43 MIKC-type MADS-box genes were distributed unevenly in 14 chromosomes, but two members were mapped on unanchored scaffolds. Gene structures were varied in the same gene family or subfamily, but conserved motifs shared similar distributions and sequences. The element analysis in promoters' regions revealed that MIKC-type MADS-box family genes were associated with light, phytohormone, and temperature responsiveness, which may play important roles in floral development and differentiation. The expression profile showed that most MIKC-type MADS-box genes were differentially expressed in six tissues (specifically expressed in floral buds), and the expression patterns were also visibly varied in the same subfamily. CpaF1st24796 and CpaF1st23405, belonging to AP3-PI and SEP subfamilies, exhibited the high expression levels in PA-M and PG-F, respectively, indicating their functions in presenting heterodichogamy. We further verified the MIKC-type MADS-box gene expression levels on the basis of transcriptome and qRT-PCR analysis. This study would provide a theoretical basis for classification, cloning, and regulation of flowering mechanism of MIKC-type MADS-box genes in C. paliurus.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Família Multigênica , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sintenia/genética
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 423, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The GRAS gene family plays crucial roles in multiple biological processes of plant growth, including seed development, which is related to seedless traits of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). However, it hasn't been fully identified and analyzed in litchi, an economic fruit tree cultivated in subtropical regions. RESULTS: In this study, 48 LcGRAS proteins were identified and termed according to their chromosomal location. LcGRAS proteins can be categorized into 14 subfamilies through phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure and conserved domain analysis revealed that different subfamilies harbored various motif patterns, suggesting their functional diversity. Synteny analysis revealed that the expansion of the GRAS family in litchi may be driven by their tandem and segmental duplication. After comprehensively analysing degradome data, we found that four LcGRAS genes belong to HAM subfamily were regulated via miR171-mediated degradation. The various expression patterns of LcGRAS genes in different tissues uncovered they were involved in different biological processes. Moreover, the different temporal expression profiles of LcGRAS genes between abortive and bold seed indicated some of them were involved in maintaining the normal development of the seed. CONCLUSION: Our study provides comprehensive analyses on GRAS family members in litchi, insight into a better understanding of the roles of GRAS in litchi development, and lays the foundation for further investigations on litchi seed development.


Assuntos
Litchi/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Litchi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , RNA de Plantas , Sementes/genética , Sintenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 408, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a warm-season legume crop and belongs to the papilionoid subfamily of the Fabaceae family. China is the leading producer of mung bean in the world. Mung bean has significant economic and health benefits and is a promising species with broad adaptation ability and high tolerance to environmental stresses. OSCA (hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel) gene family members play an important role in the modulation of hypertonic stress, such as drought and salinity. However, genome-wide analysis of the OSCA gene family has not been conducted in mung bean. RESULTS: We identified a total of 13 OSCA genes in the mung bean genome and named them according to their homology with AtOSCAs. All the OSCAs were phylogenetically split into four clades. Phylogenetic relationship and synteny analyses showed that the VrOSCAs in mung bean and soybean shared a relatively conserved evolutionary history. In addition, three duplicated VrOSCA gene pairs were identified, and the duplicated VrOSCAs gene pairs mainly underwent purifying selection pressure during evolution. Protein domain, motif and transmembrane analyses indicated that most of the VrOSCAs shared similar structures with their homologs. The expression pattern showed that except for VrOSCA2.1, the other 12 VrOSCAs were upregulated under treatment with ABA, PEG and NaCl, among which VrOSCA1.4 showed the largest increased expression levels. The duplicated genes VrOSCA2.1/VrOSCA2.2 showed divergent expression, which might have resulted in functionalization during subsequent evolution. The expression profiles under ABA, PEG and NaCl stress revealed a functional divergence of VrOSCA genes, which agreed with the analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of VrOSCA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the study provided a systematic analysis of the VrOSCA gene family in mung bean. Our results establish an important foundation for functional and evolutionary analysis of VrOSCAs and identify genes for further investigation of their ability to confer abiotic stress tolerance in mung bean.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vigna/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/genética
13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 644, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inversion Symmetry is a generalization of the second Chargaff rule, stating that the count of a string of k nucleotides on a single chromosomal strand equals the count of its inverse (reverse-complement) k-mer. It holds for many species, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, for ranges of k which may vary from 7 to 10 as chromosomal lengths vary from 2Mbp to 200 Mbp. Building on this formalism we introduce the concept of k-mer distances between chromosomes. We formulate two k-mer distance measures, D1 and D2, which depend on k. D1 takes into account all k-mers (for a single k) appearing on single strands of the two compared chromosomes, whereas D2 takes into account both strands of each chromosome. Both measures reflect dissimilarities in global chromosomal structures. RESULTS: After defining the various distance measures and summarizing their properties, we also define proximities that rely on the existence of synteny blocks between chromosomes of different bacterial strains. Comparing pairs of strains of bacteria, we find negative correlations between synteny proximities and k-mer distances, thus establishing the meaning of the latter as measures of evolutionary distances among bacterial strains. The synteny measures we use are appropriate for closely related bacterial strains, where considerable sections of chromosomes demonstrate high direct or reversed equality. These measures are not appropriate for comparing different bacteria or eukaryotes. K-mer structural distances can be defined for all species. Because of the arbitrariness of strand choices, we employ only the D2 measure when comparing chromosomes of different species. The results for comparisons of various eukaryotes display interesting behavior which is partially consistent with conventional understanding of evolutionary genomics. In particular, we define ratios of minimal k-mer distances (KDR) between unmasked and masked chromosomes of two species, which correlate with both short and long evolutionary scales. CONCLUSIONS: k-mer distances reflect dissimilarities among global chromosomal structures. They carry information which aggregates all mutations. As such they can complement traditional evolution studies , which mainly concentrate on coding regions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Genômica , Inversão Cromossômica , Cromossomos/genética , Eucariotos , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Sintenia
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15592, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341414

RESUMO

A near-complete diploid nuclear genome and accompanying circular mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes have been assembled from the elite commercial diatom species Nitzschia inconspicua. The 50 Mbp haploid size of the nuclear genome is nearly double that of model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, but 30% smaller than closer relative Fragilariopsis cylindrus. Diploid assembly, which was facilitated by low levels of allelic heterozygosity (2.7%), included 14 candidate chromosome pairs composed of long, syntenic contigs, covering 93% of the total assembly. Telomeric ends were capped with an unusual 12-mer, G-rich, degenerate repeat sequence. Predicted proteins were highly enriched in strain-specific marker domains associated with cell-surface adhesion, biofilm formation, and raphe system gliding motility. Expanded species-specific families of carbonic anhydrases suggest potential enhancement of carbon concentration efficiency, and duplicated glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis pathways across cytosolic and organellar compartments may enhance peak metabolic output, contributing to competitive success over other organisms in mixed cultures. The N. inconspicua genome delivers a robust new reference for future functional and transcriptomic studies to illuminate the physiology of benthic pennate diatoms and harness their unique adaptations to support commercial algae biomass and bioproduct production.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Diatomáceas/genética , Diploide , Genoma , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Diatomáceas/classificação , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma Mitocondrial , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sintenia/genética
15.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 601, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While recent advances in genomics has enabled vast improvements in the quantification of genome-wide diversity and the identification of adaptive and deleterious alleles in model species, wildlife and non-model species have largely not reaped the same benefits. This has been attributed to the resources and infrastructure required to develop essential genomic datasets such as reference genomes. In the absence of a high-quality reference genome, cross-species alignments can provide reliable, cost-effective methods for single nucleotide variant (SNV) discovery. Here, we demonstrated the utility of cross-species genome alignment methods in gaining insights into population structure and functional genomic features in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatas), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), relative to the domestic cat (Felis catus). RESULTS: Alignment of big cats to the domestic cat reference assembly yielded nearly complete sequence coverage of the reference genome. From this, 38,839,061 variants in cheetah, 15,504,143 in snow leopard and 13,414,953 in Sumatran tiger were discovered and annotated. This method was able to delineate population structure but limited in its ability to adequately detect rare variants. Enrichment analysis of fixed and species-specific SNVs revealed insights into adaptive traits, evolutionary history and the pathogenesis of heritable diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The high degree of synteny among felid genomes enabled the successful application of the domestic cat reference in high-quality SNV detection. The datasets presented here provide a useful resource for future studies into population dynamics, evolutionary history and genetic and disease management of big cats. This cross-species method of variant discovery provides genomic context for identifying annotated gene regions essential to understanding adaptive and deleterious variants that can improve conservation outcomes.


Assuntos
Felidae , Alelos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Gatos , Felidae/genética , Genômica , Sintenia
16.
PLoS Genet ; 17(8): e1009705, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437539

RESUMO

Whole-genome duplication and genome compaction are thought to have played important roles in teleost fish evolution. Ayu (or sweetfish), Plecoglossus altivelis, belongs to the superorder Stomiati, order Osmeriformes. Stomiati is phylogenetically classified as sister taxa of Neoteleostei. Thus, ayu holds an important position in the fish tree of life. Although ayu is economically important for the food industry and recreational fishing in Japan, few genomic resources are available for this species. To address this problem, we produced a draft genome sequence of ayu by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and constructed linkage maps using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Syntenic analyses of ayu and other teleost fish provided information about chromosomal rearrangements during the divergence of Stomiati, Protacanthopterygii and Neoteleostei. The size of the ayu genome indicates that genome compaction occurred after the divergence of the family Osmeridae. Ayu has an XX/XY sex-determination system for which we identified sex-associated loci by a genome-wide association study by genotyping-by-sequencing and whole-genome resequencing using wild populations. Genome-wide association mapping using wild ayu populations revealed three sex-linked scaffolds (total, 2.03 Mb). Comparison of whole-genome resequencing mapping coverage between males and females identified male-specific regions in sex-linked scaffolds. A duplicate copy of the anti-Müllerian hormone type-II receptor gene (amhr2bY) was found within these male-specific regions, distinct from the autosomal copy of amhr2. Expression of the Y-linked amhr2 gene was male-specific in sox9b-positive somatic cells surrounding germ cells in undifferentiated gonads, whereas autosomal amhr2 transcripts were detected in somatic cells in sexually undifferentiated gonads of both genetic males and females. Loss-of-function mutation for amhr2bY induced male to female sex reversal. Taken together with the known role of Amh and Amhr2 in sex differentiation, these results indicate that the paralog of amhr2 on the ayu Y chromosome determines genetic sex, and the male-specific amh-amhr2 pathway is critical for testicular differentiation in ayu.


Assuntos
Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas/métodos , Osmeriformes/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Sintenia
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 147, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: hes genes are chordate homologs of Drosophila genes, hairy and enhancer of split, which encode a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional repressor with a WRPW motif. Various developmental functions of hes genes, including early embryogenesis and neurogenesis, have been elucidated in vertebrates. However, their orthologous relationships remain unclear partly because of less conservation of relatively short amino acid sequences, the fact that the genome was not analyzed as it is today, and species-specific genome duplication. This results in complicated gene names in vertebrates, which are not consistent in orthologs. We previously revealed that Xenopus frogs have two clusters of hes5, named "the hes5.1 cluster" and "the hes5.3 cluster", but the origin and the conservation have not yet been revealed. RESULTS: Here, we elucidated the orthologous and paralogous relationships of all hes genes of human, mouse, chicken, gecko, zebrafish, medaka, coelacanth, spotted gar, elephant shark and three species of frogs, Xenopus tropicalis (X. tropicalis), X. laevis, Nanorana parkeri, by phylogenetic and synteny analyses. Any duplicated hes5 were not found in mammals, whereas hes5 clusters in teleost were conserved although not as many genes as the three frog species. In addition, hes5 cluster-like structure was found in the elephant shark genome, but not found in cyclostomata. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the hes5 cluster existed in the gnathostome ancestor but became a single gene in mammals. The number of hes5 cluster genes were specifically large in frogs.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Filogenia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sintenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética
18.
J Mol Evol ; 89(7): 494-512, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297154

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms not only influence the overall daily routine of organisms but also directly affect life activities to varying degrees. Circadian locomotor output cycle kaput (Clock), the most critical gene in the circadian rhythm feedback system, plays an important role in the regulation of biological rhythms. Here, we aimed to elucidate the evolutionary history of the clock gene family in a taxonomically diverse set of vertebrates, providing novel insights into the evolution of the clock gene family based on 102 vertebrate genomes. Using genome-wide analysis, we extracted 264 clock sequences. In lobe-finned fishes and some basal non-teleost ray-finned fishes, only two clock isotypes were found (clock1 and clock2). However, the majority of teleosts possess three clock genes (two clock1 genes and one clock2 gene) owing to extra whole-genome duplication. The following syntenic analysis confirmed that clock1a, clock1b, and clock2 are conserved in teleost species. Interestingly, we discovered that osteoglossomorph fishes possess two clock2 genes. Moreover, protein sequence comparisons indicate that CLOCK protein changes among vertebrates were concentrated at the N-terminal and poly Q regions. We also performed a dN/dS analysis, and the results suggest that clock1 and clock2 may show distinct fates for duplicated genes between the lobe-finned and ray-finned fish clades. Collectively, these results provide a genome-wide insight into clock gene evolution in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Vertebrados , Animais , Peixes/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Genoma/genética , Filogenia , Sintenia/genética , Vertebrados/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4489, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301952

RESUMO

Ancient polyploidization events have had a lasting impact on vertebrate genome structure, organization and function. Some key questions regarding the number of ancient polyploidization events and their timing in relation to the cyclostome-gnathostome divergence have remained contentious. Here we generate de novo long-read-based chromosome-scale genome assemblies for the Japanese lamprey and elephant shark. Using these and other representative genomes and developing algorithms for the probabilistic macrosynteny model, we reconstruct high-resolution proto-vertebrate, proto-cyclostome and proto-gnathostome genomes. Our reconstructions resolve key questions regarding the early evolutionary history of vertebrates. First, cyclostomes diverged from the lineage leading to gnathostomes after a shared tetraploidization (1R) but before a gnathostome-specific tetraploidization (2R). Second, the cyclostome lineage experienced an additional hexaploidization. Third, 2R in the gnathostome lineage was an allotetraploidization event, and biased gene loss from one of the subgenomes shaped the gnathostome genome by giving rise to remarkably conserved microchromosomes. Thus, our reconstructions reveal the major evolutionary events and offer new insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrate genomes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lampreias/genética , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tubarões/genética , Sintenia , Vertebrados/classificação
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 350, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lycium Linn. (Solanaceae) is a genus of economically important plants producing fruits and leaves with high nutritional value and medicinal benefits. However, genetic analysis of this plant and molecular breeding for quality improvement are limited by the lack of sufficient molecular markers. RESULTS: In this study, two parental strains, 'Ningqi No. 1' (Lycium barbarum L.) and 'Yunnan Gouqi' (Lycium yunnanense Kuang et A.M. Lu), and 200 F1 hybrid individuals were resequenced for genetic analysis. In total, 8,507 well-selected SNPs were developed, and a high-density genetic map (NY map) was constructed with a total genetic distance of 2,122.24 cM. A consensus genetic map was established by integrating the NY map and a previously published genetic map (NC map) containing 15,240 SNPs, with a total genetic distance of 3,058.19 cM and an average map distance of 0.21 cM. The 12 pseudochromosomes of the Lycium reference genome were anchored using this consensus genetic map, with an anchoring rate of 64.3%. Moreover, weak collinearities between the consensus map and the pepper, potato, and tomato genomes were observed. Twenty-five stable QTLs were identified for leaf- and fruit-related phenotypes, including fruit weight, fruit longitude, leaf length, the fruit index, and the leaf index; these stable QTLs were mapped to four different linkage groups, with LOD scores ranging from 2.51 to 19.37 and amounts of phenotypic variance explained from 6.2% to 51.9%. Finally, 82 out of 188 predicted genes underlying stable QTLs for fruit-related traits were differentially expressed according to RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A chromosome-level assembly can provide a foundation for further functional genomics research for wolfberry. The genomic regions of these stably expressed QTLs could be used as targets for further fine mapping and development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). The present study provided valuable information on saturated SNP markers and reliable QTLs for map-based cloning of functional genes related to yield and morphological traits in Lycium spp.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Frutas/genética , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Lycium/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Sintenia/genética
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