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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 154: 106989, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059072

RESUMO

Histamine receptors belonging to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate the diverse biological effects of biogenic histamine. They are classified into four phylogenetically distinct subtypes H1-H4, each with a different binding affinity for histamine and divergent downstream signaling pathways. Here we present the evolutionary history of the histamine receptors using a phylogenetic approach complemented with comparative genomics analyses of the sequences, gene structures, and synteny of gene neighborhoods. The data indicate the earliest emergence of histamine-mediated GPCR signaling by a H2 in a prebilaterian ancestor. The analyses support a revised classification of the vertebrate H3-H4 receptor subtypes. We demonstrate the presence of the H4 across vertebrates, contradicting the currently held notion that H4 is restricted to mammals. These non-mammalian vertebrate H4 orthologs have been mistaken for H3. We also identify the presence of a new H3 subtype (H3B), distinct from the canonical H3 (H3A), and propose that the H3A, H3B, and H4 likely emerged from a H3 progenitor through the 1R/2R whole genome duplications in an ancestor of the vertebrates. It is apparent that the ability of the H1, H2, and H3-4 to bind histamine was acquired convergently. We identified genomic signatures suggesting that the H1 and H3-H4 shared a last common ancestor with the muscarinic receptor in a bilaterian predecessor whereas, the H2 and the α-adrenoreceptor shared a progenitor in a prebilaterian ancestor. Furthermore, site-specific analysis of the vertebrate subtypes revealed potential residues that may account for the functional divergence between them.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Receptores Histamínicos H3/genética , Receptores Histamínicos H4/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Filogenia , Receptores Histamínicos H3/química , Receptores Histamínicos H4/química , Receptores Muscarínicos/química , Receptores Muscarínicos/genética , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Sintenia/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236436, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716946

RESUMO

Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- are monophasic S. Typhimurium variants incapable of producing the second-phase flagellar antigen. They have emerged since the mid-1990s to become one of the most prevalent Salmonella serotypes causing human disease world-wide. Multiple genetic events associated with different genetic elements can result in the monophasic phenotype. Several jurisdictions have reported the emergence of a Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- clone with SGI-4 and a genetic element (MREL) encoding a mercury resistance operon and antibiotic resistance loci that disrupts the second phase antigen region near the iroB locus in the Salmonella genome. We have sequenced 810 human and animal Canadian Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolates and determined that isolates with SGI-4 and the mercury resistance element (MREL; also known as RR1&RR2) constitute several global clades containing various proportions of Canadian, US, and European isolates. Detailed analysis of the data provides a clearer picture of how these heavy metal elements interact with bacteria within the Salmonella population to produce the monophasic phenotype. Insertion of the MREL near iroB is associated with several deletions and rearrangements of the adjacent flaAB hin region, which may be useful for defining human case clusters that could represent outbreaks. Plasmids carrying genes encoding silver, copper, mercury, and antimicrobial resistance appear to be derived from IS26 mediated acquisition of these genes from genomes carrying SGI-4 and the MREL. Animal isolates with the mercury and As/Cu/Ag resistance elements are strongly associated with porcine sources in Canada as has been shown previously for other jurisdictions. The data acquired in these investigations, as well as from the extensive literature on the subject, may aid source attribution in outbreaks of the organism and interventions to decrease the prevalence of this clone and reduce its impact on human disease.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Canadá , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Sintenia/genética
3.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 91, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SIAMESE (SIM) locus is a cell-cycle kinase inhibitor (CKI) gene that has to date been identified only in plants; it encodes a protein that promotes transformation from mitosis to endoreplication. Members of the SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family have similar functions, and some are related to cell-cycle responses and abiotic stresses. However, the functions of SMRs are poorly understood in maize (Zea mays L.). RESULTS: In the present study, 12 putative SMRs were identified throughout the entire genome of maize, and these were clustered into six groups together with the SMRs from seven other plant species. Members of the ZmSMR family were divided into four groups according to their protein sequences. Various cis-acting elements in the upstream sequences of ZmSMRs responded to abiotic stresses. Expression analyses revealed that all ZmSMRs were upregulated at 5, 20, 25, and 35 days after pollination. In addition, we found that ZmSMR9/11/12 may have regulated the initiation of endoreplication in endosperm central cells. Additionally, ZmSMR2/10 may have been primarily responsible for the endoreplication regulation of outer endosperm or aleurone cells. The relatively high expression levels of almost all ZmSMRs in the ears and tassels also implied that these genes may function in seed development. The effects of treatments with ABA, heat, cold, salt, and drought on maize seedlings and expression of ZmSMR genes suggested that ZmSMRs were strongly associated with response to abiotic stresses. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to conduct a genome-wide analysis of members of the ZmSMR family by investigating their locations in chromosomes, identifying regulatory elements in their promoter regions, and examining motifs in their protein sequences. Expression analysis of different endosperm developmental periods, tissues, abiotic stresses, and hormonal treatments suggests that ZmSMR genes may function in endoreplication and regulate the development of reproductive organs. These results may provide valuable information for future studies of the functions of the SMR family in maize.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Zea mays/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Endosperma/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Análise de Regressão , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sintenia/genética
4.
Dev Genes Evol ; 230(4): 295-304, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632492

RESUMO

Earliest craniates possess a newly enlarged, elaborated forebrain with new cell types and neuronal networks. A key question in vertebrate evolution is when and how this cerebral expansion took place. The exon-junction complex (EJC) plays an essential role in mRNA processing of all Eukarya. Recently, it has been proposed that the EJC represses recursive RNA splicing in Deuterostomes, with implication in human brain diseases like microcephaly and depression. However, the EJC or EJC subunit contribution to brain development in non-vertebrate Deuterostomes remained unknown. Being interested in the evolution of chordate characters, we focused on the model species, Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Cephalochordata) and Ciona robusta (Tunicata), with the aim to investigate the ancestral and the derived expression state of Magoh orthologous genes. This study identifies that Magoh is part of a conserved syntenic group exclusively in vertebrates and suggests that Magoh has experienced duplication and loss events in mammals. During early development in amphioxus and ascidian, maternal contribution and zygotic expression of Magoh genes in various types of progenitor cells and tissues are consistent with the condition observed in other Bilateria. Later in development, we also show expression of Magoh in the brain of cephalochordate and ascidian larvae. Collectively, these results provide a basis to further define what functional role(s) Magoh exerted during nervous system development and evolution.


Assuntos
Ciona intestinalis/genética , Anfioxos/genética , Sintenia/genética , Animais , Ciona intestinalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciona intestinalis/metabolismo , Anfioxos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anfioxos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
5.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 85, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in the active transportation of various endogenous or exogenous substances. Two ABCG2 gene subfamily members have been identified in birds. A detailed comparative study of the ABCG2 and ABCG2-like genes aid our understanding of their evolutionary history at the molecular level and provide a theoretical reference for studying the specific functions of ABCG2 and ABCG2-like genes in birds. RESULTS: We first identified 77 ABCG2/ABCG2-like gene sequences in the genomes of 41 birds. Further analysis showed that both the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of ABCG2 and ABCG2-like genes were highly conserved and exhibited high homology in birds. However, significant differences in the N-terminal structure were found between the ABCG2 and ABCG2-like amino acid sequences. A selective pressure analysis showed that the ABCG2 and ABCG2-like genes were affected by purifying selection during the process of bird evolution. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that multiple members of the ABCG2 gene subfamily exist on chromosome 4 in the ancestors of birds. Over the long course of evolution, only the ABCG2 gene was retained on chromosome 4 in birds. The ABCG2-like gene on chromosome 6 might have originated from chromosome replication or fusion. The structural differences between the N terminus of ABCG2 protein and those of ABCG2-like proteins might lead to functional differences between the corresponding genes.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Aves/genética , Evolução Molecular , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Íntrons/genética , Família Multigênica , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Seleção Genética , Sintenia/genética
6.
Nature ; 583(7816): 447-452, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499651

RESUMO

Genetic variations underlying susceptibility to complex autoimmune and allergic diseases are concentrated within noncoding regulatory elements termed enhancers1. The functions of a large majority of disease-associated enhancers are unknown, in part owing to their distance from the genes they regulate, a lack of understanding of the cell types in which they operate, and our inability to recapitulate the biology of immune diseases in vitro. Here, using shared synteny to guide loss-of-function analysis of homologues of human enhancers in mice, we show that the prominent autoimmune and allergic disease risk locus at chromosome 11q13.52-7 contains a distal enhancer that is functional in CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and required for Treg-mediated suppression of colitis. The enhancer recruits the transcription factors STAT5 and NF-κB to mediate signal-driven expression of Lrrc32, which encodes the protein glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP). Whereas disruption of the Lrrc32 gene results in early lethality, mice lacking the enhancer are viable but lack GARP expression in Foxp3+ Treg cells, which are unable to control colitis in a cell-transfer model of the disease. In human Treg cells, the enhancer forms conformational interactions with the promoter of LRRC32 and enhancer risk variants are associated with reduced histone acetylation and GARP expression. Finally, functional fine-mapping of 11q13.5 using CRISPR-activation (CRISPRa) identifies a CRISPRa-responsive element in the vicinity of risk variant rs11236797 capable of driving GARP expression. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for association of the 11q13.5 risk locus with immune-mediated diseases and identify GARP as a potential target in their therapy.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Acetilação , Alelos , Animais , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Sintenia/genética
8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 148: 106824, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294544

RESUMO

Raphidiopsis (Cylindrospermopsis) raciborskii, a globally distributed bloom-forming cyanobacterium, produces either the cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYL) in Oceania, Asia and Europe or the neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) and analogues (paralytic shellfish poison, PSP) in South America (encoded by sxt genetic cluster) and none of them in Africa. Nevertheless, this particular geographic pattern is usually overlooked in current hypotheses about the species dispersal routes. Here, we combined genomics, phylogenetic analyses, toxicity data and a literature survey to unveil the evolutionary history and spread of the species. Phylogenies based on 354 orthologous genes from all the available genomes and ribosomal ITS sequences of the taxon showed two well-defined clades: the American, having the PSP producers; and the Oceania/Europe/Asia, including the CYL producers. We propose central Africa as the original dispersion center (non-toxic populations), reaching North Africa and North America (in former Laurasia continent). The ability to produce CYL probably took place in populations that advanced to sub-Saharan Africa and then to Oceania and South America. According to the genomic context of the sxt cluster found in PSP-producer strains, this trait was acquired once by horizontal transfer in South America, where the ability to produce CYL was lost.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Cylindrospermopsis/classificação , Cylindrospermopsis/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Alcaloides , Sequência Conservada/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Família Multigênica , Sintenia/genética , Uracila/toxicidade
9.
Gene ; 747: 144674, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304781

RESUMO

Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that are structural components of cell membrane lipid, cuticular waxes and seed oil, play crucial roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Fatty acid elongases (FAEs) comprising KCS and ELO, are key enzymes for VLCFA biosynthesis in plants. Although reference genomes of Brassica napus and its parental speices both have been sequenced, whole-genome analysis of FAE gene family in these Brassica speices is not reported. Here, 58, 33 and 30 KCS genes were identified in B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively, whereas 14, 6 and 8 members were obtained for ELO genes. These KCS genes were unevenly located in 37 chromosomes and 3 scaffolds of 3 Brassica species, while these ELO genes were mapped to 19 chromosomes. The KCS and ELO proteins were divided into 8 and 4 subclasses, respectively. Gene structure and protein motifs remained highly conserved in each KCS or ELO subclass. Most promoters of KCS and ELO genes harbored various plant growth-, phytohormone-, and stress response-related cis-acting elements. 20 SSR loci existed in the KCS and ELO genes/promoters. The whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication mainly contributed to expansion of KCS and ELO genes in these genomes. Transcriptome analysis showed that KCS and ELO genes in 3 Brassica species were expressed in various tissues/organs with different levels, whereas 1 BnELO gene and 6 BnKCS genes might be pathogen-responsive genes. The qRT-PCR assay showed that BnKCS22 and BnELO04 responded to various phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses. This work lays the foundation for further function identification of KCS and ELO genes in B. napus and its progenitors.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/enzimologia , Brassica napus/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Loci Gênicos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1796, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286261

RESUMO

Chromatin looping is important for gene regulation, and studies of 3D chromatin structure across species and cell types have improved our understanding of the principles governing chromatin looping. However, 3D genome evolution and its relationship with natural selection remains largely unexplored. In mammals, the CTCF protein defines the boundaries of most chromatin loops, and variations in CTCF occupancy are associated with looping divergence. While many CTCF binding sites fall within transposable elements (TEs), their contribution to 3D chromatin structural evolution is unknown. Here we report the relative contributions of TE-driven CTCF binding site expansions to conserved and divergent chromatin looping in human and mouse. We demonstrate that TE-derived CTCF binding divergence may explain a large fraction of variable loops. These variable loops contribute significantly to corresponding gene expression variability across cells and species, possibly by refining sub-TAD-scale loop contacts responsible for cell-type-specific enhancer-promoter interactions.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Mamíferos/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/química , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Sintenia/genética
11.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 214, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cupriavidus strain STM 6070 was isolated from nickel-rich soil collected near Koniambo massif, New Caledonia, using the invasive legume trap host Mimosa pudica. STM 6070 is a heavy metal-tolerant strain that is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. pudica. Here we have provided an updated taxonomy for STM 6070 and described salient features of the annotated genome, focusing on heavy metal resistance (HMR) loci and heavy metal efflux (HME) systems. RESULTS: The 6,771,773 bp high-quality-draft genome consists of 107 scaffolds containing 6118 protein-coding genes. ANI values show that STM 6070 is a new species of Cupriavidus. The STM 6070 symbiotic region was syntenic with that of the M. pudica-nodulating Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T. In contrast to the nickel and zinc sensitivity of C. taiwanensis strains, STM 6070 grew at high Ni2+ and Zn2+ concentrations. The STM 6070 genome contains 55 genes, located in 12 clusters, that encode HMR structural proteins belonging to the RND, MFS, CHR, ARC3, CDF and P-ATPase protein superfamilies. These HMR molecular determinants are putatively involved in arsenic (ars), chromium (chr), cobalt-zinc-cadmium (czc), copper (cop, cup), nickel (nie and nre), and silver and/or copper (sil) resistance. Seven of these HMR clusters were common to symbiotic and non-symbiotic Cupriavidus species, while four clusters were specific to STM 6070, with three of these being associated with insertion sequences. Within the specific STM 6070 HMR clusters, three novel HME-RND systems (nieIC cep nieBA, czcC2B2A2, and hmxB zneAC zneR hmxS) were identified, which constitute new candidate genes for nickel and zinc resistance. CONCLUSIONS: STM 6070 belongs to a new Cupriavidus species, for which we have proposed the name Cupriavidus neocaledonicus sp. nov.. STM6070 harbours a pSym with a high degree of gene conservation to the pSyms of M. pudica-nodulating C. taiwanensis strains, probably as a result of recent horizontal transfer. The presence of specific HMR clusters, associated with transposase genes, suggests that the selection pressure of the New Caledonian ultramafic soils has driven the specific adaptation of STM 6070 to heavy-metal-rich soils via horizontal gene transfer.


Assuntos
Cupriavidus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cupriavidus/genética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mimosa/microbiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Níquel/toxicidade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhizobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizobium/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose , Sintenia/genética , Zinco/toxicidade
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 14, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BAHD acyltransferase superfamily exhibits various biological roles in plants, including regulating fruit quality, catalytic synthesizing of terpene, phenolics and esters, and improving stress resistance. However, the copy numbers, expression characteristics and associations with fruit aroma formation of the BAHD genes remain unclear. RESULTS: In total, 717 BAHD genes were obtained from the genomes of seven Rosaceae, (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus avium, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Pyrus communis and Rubus occidentalis). Based on the detailed phylogenetic analysis and classifications in model plants, we divided the BAHD family genes into seven groups, I-a, I-b, II-a, II-b, III-a, IV and V. An inter-species synteny analysis revealed the ancient origin of BAHD superfamily with 78 syntenic gene pairs were detected among the seven Rosaceae species. Different types of gene duplication events jointly drive the expansion of BAHD superfamily, and purifying selection dominates the evolution of BAHD genes supported by the small Ka/Ks ratios. Based on the correlation analysis between the ester content and expression levels of BAHD genes at different developmental stages, four candidate genes were selected for verification as assessed by qRT-PCR. The result implied that Pbr020016.1, Pbr019034.1, Pbr014028.1 and Pbr029551.1 are important candidate genes involved in aroma formation during pear fruit development. CONCLUSION: We have thoroughly identified the BAHD superfamily genes and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of their phylogenetic relationships, expansion patterns, and expression characteristics in seven Rosaceae species, and we also obtained four candidate genes involved in aroma synthesis in pear fruit. These results provide a theoretical basis for future studies of the specific biological functions of BAHD superfamily members and the improvement of pear fruit quality.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Frutas/genética , Pyrus , Rosaceae/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Odorantes , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Sintenia/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 492, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980615

RESUMO

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual crop cultivated for its protein-rich seeds. It is adapted to poor soils due to the production of cluster roots, which are made of dozens of determinate lateral roots that drastically improve soil exploration and nutrient acquisition (mostly phosphate). Using long-read sequencing technologies, we provide a high-quality genome sequence of a cultivated accession of white lupin (2n = 50, 451 Mb), as well as de novo assemblies of a landrace and a wild relative. We describe a modern accession displaying increased soil exploration capacity through early establishment of lateral and cluster roots. We also show how seed quality may have been impacted by domestication in term of protein profiles and alkaloid content. The availability of a high-quality genome assembly together with companion genomic and transcriptomic resources will enable the development of modern breeding strategies to increase and stabilize white lupin yield.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Lupinus/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Centrômero/genética , Ecótipo , Evolução Molecular , Dosagem de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Variação Genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Lupinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Sintenia/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 291: 113395, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981691

RESUMO

Duplicated cyp19a1 genes (cyp19a1a encoding aromatase a and cyp19a1b encoding aromatase b) have been identified in an increasing number of teleost species. Cyp19a1a is mainly expressed in the gonads, while cyp19a1b is mainly expressed in the brain, specifically in radial glial cells, as largely investigated by Kah and collaborators. The third round of whole-genome duplication that specifically occurred in the teleost lineage (TWGD or 3R) is likely at the origin of the duplicated cyp19a1 paralogs. In contrast to the situation in other teleosts, our previous studies identified a single cyp19a1 in eels (Anguilla), which are representative species of a basal group of teleosts, Elopomorpha. In the present study, using genome data mining and phylogenetic and synteny analyses, we confirmed that the whole aromatase genomic region was duplicated in eels, with most aromatase-neighboring genes being conserved in duplicate in eels, as in other teleosts. These findings suggest that specific gene loss of one of the 3R-duplicated cyp19a1 paralogs occurred in Elopomorpha after TWGD. Similarly, a single cyp19a1 gene was found in the arowana, which is a representative species of another basal group of teleosts, Osteoglossomorpha. In eels, the single cyp19a1 is expressed in both the brain and the gonads, as observed for the single CYP19A1 gene present in other vertebrates. The results of phylogenetic, synteny, closest neighboring gene, and promoter structure analyses showed that the single cyp19a1 of the basal teleosts shared conserved properties with both teleost cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b paralogs, which did not allow us to conclude which of the 3R-duplicated paralogs (cyp19a1a or cyp19a1b) was lost in Elopomorpha. Elopomorpha and Osteoglossomorpha cyp19a1 genes exhibited preserved ancestral functions, including expression in both the gonad and brain. We propose that the subfunctionalization of the 3R-duplicated cyp19a1 paralogs expressed specifically in the gonad or brain occurred in Clupeocephala, after the split of Clupeocephala from Elopomorpha and Osteoglossomorpha, which represented a driving force for the conservation of both 3R-duplicated paralogs in all extant Clupeocephala. In contrast, the functional redundancy of the undifferentiated 3R-duplicated cyp19a1 paralogs in elopomorphs and osteoglossomorphs would have favored the loss of one 3R paralog in basal teleosts.


Assuntos
Aromatase/genética , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Anguilla/genética , Animais , Aromatase/química , Aromatase/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Sequência Conservada , Genoma , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Sintenia/genética
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(1): 1-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768603

RESUMO

The Cucurbitaceae family hosts many economically important fruit vegetables (cucurbits) such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, pumpkin/squash, and various gourds. The cucurbits are probably best known for the diverse fruit sizes and shapes, but little is known about their genetic basis and molecular regulation. Here, we reviewed the literature on fruit size (FS), shape (FSI), and fruit weight (FW) QTL identified in cucumber, melon, and watermelon, from which 150 consensus QTL for these traits were inferred. Genome-wide survey of the three cucurbit genomes identified 253 homologs of eight classes of fruit or grain size/weight-related genes cloned in Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice that encode proteins containing the characteristic CNR (cell number regulator), CSR (cell size regulator), CYP78A (cytochrome P450), SUN, OVATE, TRM (TONNEAU1 Recruiting Motif), YABBY, and WOX domains. Alignment of the consensus QTL with candidate gene homologs revealed widespread structure and function conservation of fruit size/shape gene homologs in cucurbits, which was exemplified with the fruit size/shape candidate genes CsSUN25-26-27a and CsTRM5 in cucumber, CmOFP1a in melon, and ClSUN25-26-27a in watermelon. In cucurbits, the andromonoecy (for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase) and the carpel number (for CLAVATA3) loci are known to have pleiotropic effects on fruit shape, which may complicate identification of fruit size/shape candidate genes in these regions. The present work illustrates the power of comparative analysis in understanding the genetic architecture of fruit size/shape variation, which may facilitate QTL mapping and cloning for fruit size-related traits in cucurbits. The limitations and perspectives of this approach are also discussed.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/anatomia & histologia , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/genética , Variação Genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sintenia/genética
16.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 55-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446488

RESUMO

Cotton is the most important natural fiber used in textiles. Breeding for "three-lines", i.e., cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-based sterile (A), maintainer (B), and restorer (R) line, is a promising approach to harness hybrid vigor in cotton. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein-encoding genes play an important role in plant growth and development including restoration of CMS plants to male fertility. However, PPRs, especially those contributing to CMS and fiber development, remain largely unknown in cotton. In this study, a genome-wide identification and characterization of PPR gene family in four Gossypium species with genome sequences (G. arboreum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum, and G. barbadense) were performed, and expressed PPR genes in developing floral buds, ovules, and fibers were compared to identify possible PPRs related to CMS restoration and fiber development. A total of 539, 558, 1032, and 1055 PPRs were predicted in the above four species, respectively, which were further mapped to chromosomes for a synteny analysis. Through an RNA-seq analysis, 86% (882) PPRs were expressed in flowering buds of upland cotton (G. hirsutum); however, only 11 and 6 were differentially expressed (DE) between restorer R and its near-isogenic (NI) B and between R and its NI A line, respectively. Another RNA-seq analysis identified the expression of only 54% (556) PPRs in 0 and 3 day(s) post-anthesis (DPA) ovules and 24% (247) PPRs in 10 DPA fibers; however, only 59, 6, and 27 PPRs were DE in 0 and 3 DPA ovules, and 10 DPA fibers between two backcross inbred lines (BILs) with differing fiber length, respectively. Only 2 PPRs were DE between Xuzhou 142 and its fiberless and fuzzless mutant. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the validity of the RNA-seq results for the gene expression pattern. Therefore, only a very small number of PPRs may be associated with fertility restoration of CMS and genetic differences in fiber initiation and elongation. These results lay a foundation for understanding the roles of PPR genes in cotton, and will be useful in the prioritization of candidate PPR gene functional validation for cotton CMS restoration and fiber development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Gossypium/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Fibra de Algodão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sintenia/genética
17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(1): 163-177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690990

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: An excess-tillering semi-dwarf gene Hvhtd was identified from an EMS-induced mutant in barley and alternative splicing results in excess-tillering semi-dwarf traits. Tillering and plant height are important traits determining plant architecture and grain production in cereal crops. This study identified an excess-tillering semi-dwarf mutant (htd) from an EMS-treated barley population. Genetic analysis of the F1, F2, and F2:3 populations showed that a single recessive gene controlled the excess-tillering semi-dwarf in htd. Using BSR-Seq and gene mapping, the Hvhtd gene was delimited within a 1.8 Mb interval on chromosome 2HL. Alignment of the RNA-Seq data with the functional genes in the interval identified a gene HORVU2Hr1G098820 with alternative splicing between exon2 and exon3 in the mutant, due to a G to A single-nucleotide substitution at the exon and intron junction. An independent mutant with a similar phenotype confirmed the result, with alternative splicing between exon3 and exon4. In both cases, the alternative splicing resulted in a non-functional protein. And the gene HORVU2Hr1G098820 encodes a trypsin family protein and may be involved in the IAA signaling pathway and differs from the mechanism of Green Revolution genes in the gibberellic acid metabolic pathway.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Genes de Plantas , Hordeum/anatomia & histologia , Hordeum/genética , Mutação/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Homozigoto , Mutação INDEL/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sintenia/genética
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 20): 635, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A basic tool for studying the polyploidization history of a genome, especially in plants, is the distribution of duplicate gene similarities in syntenically aligned regions of a genome. This distribution can usually be decomposed into two or more components identifiable by peaks, or local maxima, each representing a different polyploidization event. The distributions may be generated by means of a discrete time branching process, followed by a sequence divergence model. The branching process, as well as the inference of fractionation rates based on it, requires knowledge of the ploidy level of each event, which cannot be directly inferred from the pair similarity distribution. RESULTS: For a sequence of two events of unknown ploidy, either tetraploid, giving rise to whole genome doubling (WGD), or hexaploid, giving rise to whole genome tripling (WGT), we base our analysis on triples of similar genes. We calculate the probability of the four triplet types with origins in one or the other event, or both, and impose a mutational model so that the distribution resembles the original data. Using a ML transition point in the similarities between the two events as a discriminator for the hypothesized origin of each similarity, we calculate the predicted number of triplets of each type for each model combining WGT and/or WGD. This yields a predicted profile of triplet types for each model. We compare the observed and predicted triplet profiles for each model to confirm the polyploidization history of durian, poplar and cabbage. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a way of inferring the ploidy of up to three successive WGD and/or WGT events by estimating the time of origin of each of the similarities in triples of genes. This may be generalized to a larger number of events and to higher ploidies.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Sintenia/genética , Bombacaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação/genética , Populus/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816887

RESUMO

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases involved in many developmental and stress-responsive processes in plants. However, little is known about the radish LOX gene family members and their functions in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we completed a genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of RsLOX genes under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. We identified 11 RsLOX genes, which encoded conserved domains, and classified them in 9-LOX and 13-LOX categories according to their phylogenetic relationships. The characteristic structural features of 9-LOX and 13-LOX genes and the encoded protein domains as well as their evolution are presented herein. A qRT-PCR analysis of RsLOX expression levels in the roots under simulated drought, salinity, heat, and cold stresses, as well as in response to a Plasmodiophora brassicae infection, revealed three tandem-clustered RsLOX genes that are involved in responses to various environmental stresses via the jasmonic acid pathway. Our findings provide insights into the evolution and potential biological roles of RsLOXs related to the adaptation of radish to stress conditions.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Lipoxigenase/genética , Família Multigênica , Raphanus/genética , Raphanus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipoxigenase/química , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Raphanus/enzimologia , Sintenia/genética
20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 16): 585, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low diversity of the gut microbiome, often progressing to the point of intestinal domination by a single species, has been linked to poor outcomes in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our ability to understand how certain organisms attain intestinal domination over others has been restricted in part by current metagenomic sequencing technologies that are typically unable to reconstruct complete genomes for individual organisms present within a sequenced microbial community. We recently developed a metagenomic read cloud sequencing and assembly approach that generates improved draft genomes for individual organisms compared to conventional short-read sequencing and assembly methods. Herein, we applied metagenomic read cloud sequencing to four stool samples collected longitudinally from an HCT patient preceding treatment and over the course of heavy antibiotic exposure. RESULTS: Characterization of microbiome composition by taxonomic classification of reads reveals that that upon antibiotic exposure, the subject's gut microbiome experienced a marked decrease in diversity and became dominated by Escherichia coli. While diversity is restored at the final time point, this occurs without recovery of the original species and strain-level composition. Draft genomes for individual organisms within each sample were generated using both read cloud and conventional assembly. Read clouds were found to improve the completeness and contiguity of genome assemblies compared to conventional assembly. Moreover, read clouds enabled the placement of antibiotic resistance genes present in multiple copies both within a single draft genome and across multiple organisms. The occurrence of resistance genes associates with the timing of antibiotics administered to the patient, and comparative genomic analysis of the various intestinal E. coli strains across time points as well as the bloodstream isolate showed that the subject's E. coli bloodstream infection likely originated from the intestine. The E. coli genome from the initial pre-transplant stool sample harbors 46 known antimicrobial resistance genes, while all other species from the pre-transplant sample each contain at most 5 genes, consistent with a model of heavy antibiotic exposure resulting in selective outgrowth of the highly antibiotic-resistant E. coli. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the application and utility of metagenomic read cloud sequencing and assembly to study the underlying strain-level genomic factors influencing gut microbiome dynamics under extreme selective pressures in the clinical context of HCT.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Seleção Genética , Sequência de Bases , Biodiversidade , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Sintenia/genética
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