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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026875

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate factors associated with social anxiety disorder among the Lebanese population, construct a new model associating these factors, and compare its uniformity with a theoretical framework.Methods: A total of 789 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey study. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale was used to assess fear and avoidance. The study was conducted from November 2017 to March 2018.Results: Depression (ß = 0.229, P = .013), emotional exhaustion/work fatigue (ß = 0.275, P = .001), and experiencing a divorce (ß = 15.413, P < .001) were significantly associated with higher social phobia. Higher self-esteem (ß = -0.427, P = .048) and higher relationship management (ß = -0.381, P = .001) were significantly associated with lower social phobia.Conclusions: This study provides crucial information about the psychological factors of social anxiety among the Lebanese population. Divorce, depression, and emotional exhaustion/work fatigue were associated with higher social anxiety. Low self-esteem and better relationship management were associated with lower social anxiety. Psychotherapy interventions may be beneficial to reduce depression and work fatigue and improve emotional intelligence and self-esteem.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Alcoolismo , Adulto , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Medo , Humanos
2.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 13, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lebanon is passing through an economic crisis leading to a decreased monthly income within a couple and more couple's dissatisfaction. Furthermore, many studies postulate that the different types of attachment styles affect the romantic relationship experienced between adults. The main objectives of our study were to (1) validate the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) and Couple Satisfaction Index-4 (CSI-4) scales, and (2) assess the association between attachment styles and couple satisfaction and evaluate the mediating role of alexithymia in these associations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 445 Lebanese participants (April-May 2021). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out using SPSS AMOS v.24 on the couple satisfaction index and Toronto alexithymia scales' items. A linear regression was conducted, taking the couple satisfaction index as the dependent variable. RESULTS: The CFA results of the CSI-4 scale indicated an excellent fit (χ2/df = 3.845/2 = 1.92, TLI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.046 [95% CI 0.001-0.115] (pclose = 0.436) and CFI = 0.998). The CFA of the TAS indicated a good/acceptable fit (χ2/df = 422.31/132 = 3.2, TLI = 0.89, RMSEA = 0.07 [95% CI 0.063-0.078] (pclose < 0.001) and CFI = 0.91) (items 4 and 8 were removed due to low factor loading (< 0.4)). Being married and higher secure attachment style were significantly associated with more couple satisfaction, whereas older age, higher household crowding index, more alexithymia and mode depression were significantly associated with less couple satisfaction. In addition, alexithymia mediated the association between secure attachment style and couple satisfaction, between preoccupied attachment style and couple satisfaction and between dismissing attachment style and couple satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Couple's satisfaction is positively associated with secure attachment style. In addition, alexithymia plays a mediating role between couple's satisfaction and attachment styles. Upcoming studies should determine if other mental illnesses play a mediating role between attachment style and couple satisfaction.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Aglomeração , Características da Família , Humanos
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(1): 305-312, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While the rate of survival has increased in the past decade, the diagnosis of breast cancer is an extremely stressful experience for patients and it is associated with the manifestation of several psychological problems. To examine the effect of a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the quality of life and emotional disturbance of women with breast cancer. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled clinical trial. Samples were 48 women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and had undergone mastectomy and chemotherapy. Study variables were measured before and after the intervention and 1 month after the end of the intervention as a follow-up. Controls received nothing and were just followed-up. Repeated measure ANOVAs were used to compare the effectiveness of the intervention on the study variables. RESULTS: The results of 32 women were analyzed. The increase in quality of life scores was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There were also significantly lower changes in the depression, anxiety, and stress scores of the intervention group (P < 0.05). However, the changes in the score of death anxiety were not significantly lower in the intervention group in comparison to controls (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Group cognitive behavioral therapy was effective in the improvement of quality of life and decreases some aspects of emotional disturbance. Findings of this study suggest that women with breast cancer can benefit from group CBT. Yet, some aspects of the mental health of these women may need more attention and individualized methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: IRCT20100911004728N4.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Sintomas Afetivos , Ansiedade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948872

RESUMO

The psychological characteristic of having difficulty expressing emotions, known as alexithymia, is associated with hypervigilance to pain and is considered one of the risk factors for chronic pain. The correlation between alexithymia and hypervigilance to pain can be observed even in healthy individuals. However, the factors influencing this correlation remain unknown. We explored the dopamine system, which is known to be involved in emotion and pain. The dopamine-degrading enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has a genetic polymorphism known to influence dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. COMT polymorphism reportedly affects various aspects of pain and increases pain sensitivity in Met allele carriers. Therefore, we investigated whether the correlation between alexithymia and hypervigilance to pain is influenced by COMT polymorphism in healthy individuals. The results revealed a significant positive correlation between the "difficulty describing feelings" of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the "attention to changes in pain" of the pain vigilance and awareness questionnaire in COMT Met carriers but not in Val/Val individuals. This finding suggests that the correlation between alexithymia and hypervigilance to pain is influenced by COMT polymorphism.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Catecol O-Metiltransferase , Sintomas Afetivos/genética , Ansiedade , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Dor/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948900

RESUMO

The diffusion of the internet and technological progress have made gambling on online platforms possible, also making it more anonymous, convenient, and available, increasing the risk of pathological outcomes for vulnerable individuals. Given this context, the present study explores the role of some protective and risk factors for problematic gambling in online gamblers by focusing on the interaction between alexithymia, dissociation, and family functioning. A sample of 193 online gamblers (Mage = 28.8 years, SD = 10.59; 17% females, 83% males) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Twenty-Items Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Dissociative Experience Scale-II, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-IV through an online survey. MANOVA, ANOVA and moderated mediation analyses were carried out to analyse the data. Significant differences in cohesive family functioning, alexithymia and dissociation have been found between online gamblers with problematic, at-risk or absent levels of gambling disease. Furthermore, the results showed a significant and positive association between alexithymia and problematic online gambling, partially mediated by dissociation, with the moderation of cohesive family functioning. Such data may have relevant clinical implications, highlighting the interaction of some core personal and environmental variables that may be involved in the etiology of online pathological gambling and could be kept in mind to tailor preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dissociativos , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948969

RESUMO

Aggressive behaviors can serve different functions, which might be understood by distinguishing between reactive (RA) and proactive (PA) aggression. Few studies were conducted on adolescents' family precursors and emotional processes associated with RA or PA. Accordingly, the current study compared RA and PA by evaluating their association with adolescents' attachment to parents and alexithymia. N = 453 Italian adolescents aged 15-19 years (Mage = 16.48; SD = 0.69; 33.6% males) participated in the study filling in self-report measures. Results showed that PA and RA are significantly associated and that PA was higher among males. Moreover, four mediational models were performed to assess the influence of adolescents' attachment to mothers vs. fathers on RA or PA, considering the mediating role of alexithymia. Gender was included as a covariate. Mediational models' results showed a direct and indirect effect, through lower alexithymia, of adolescents' attachment to mothers and fathers on RA. Differently, only attachment to mothers showed a direct effect on PA, while attachment to fathers only an indirect effect, mediated by lower alexithymia, on PA was shown. Findings support the greater relevance of emotional processes for RA while highlighting the differential contribution of adolescents' attachment to mothers vs. fathers upon PA. Implications are discussed, and suggestions for future research are provided.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos , Adolescente , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Autorrelato
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898643

RESUMO

The long-standing hypothesis that emotions rely on bodily states is back in the spotlight. This has led some researchers to suggest that alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by altered emotional awareness, reflects a general deficit in interoception. However, tests of this hypothesis have relied on heterogeneous assessment methods, leading to inconsistent results. To shed some light on this issue, we administered a battery of self-report questionnaires of interoception and alexithymia to three samples from Italy, the U.S., and Singapore (N = 814). Correlation and machine learning analyses showed that alexithymia was associated with deficits in both subjective interoceptive accuracy and attention. Alexithymics' interoceptive deficits were primarily related to difficulty identifying and describing feelings. Interoception showed a weaker association with externally-oriented thinking as operationalized by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and no association with the affective dimension of alexithymia later introduced by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ). We discuss our results with reference to the theoretical and psychometric differences between these two measures of alexithymia and their shortcomings. Overall, our results support the view that interoceptive deficits are a core component of alexithymia, although the latter cannot be reduced to the former.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Interocepção , Adolescente , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychopathology ; 54(6): 282-290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749373

RESUMO

Despite being a longstanding and well-established concept, alexithymia is unfamiliar for many clinicians. This article aimed to address the alexithymia concept from a clinical perspective based on a review of the research on alexithymia intervention. Several strategies are proposed to help clinicians better work with alexithymic clients in psychotherapy. Alexithymia assessment, its impact on the therapeutic alliance, and the difficulties in emotional tasks are highlighted points. Considering alexithymia will inform clinicians' current diagnosis and conceptualization and provide specific targets and venues for intervention, increasing the effectiveness of psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Aliança Terapêutica , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Emoções , Humanos , Psicoterapia
9.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 846-855, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are commonly occurring conditions, either alone or together (MDD-SAD). Recent research linked insecure attachment and alexithymia to MDD and/or SAD, indicating that the way affected individuals relate interpersonally and their ability to identify and communicate emotions are pertinent issues. The current study investigated the mediating role of alexithymia in the relationship between insecure attachment and severity of MDD and SAD symptoms. METHOD: Using the SCID-I, participants (N=159) were identified as MDD-only (n=43), MDD-SAD (n=56), or a healthy control (n=60). Participants completed measures of adult attachment, depression, social anxiety and alexithymia (defined as difficulty identifying and describing feelings). A two-step mediation analysis approach recommended by Shrout and Bolger determined if alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment-depression and attachment-social anxiety. RESULTS: While alexithymia was high in MDD-only and MDD-SAD groups, individuals with MDD-SAD had significantly greater difficulty describing feelings. Alexithymia was a full mediator between attachment avoidance and depression, but only a partial mediator between attachment anxiety and depression. Meanwhile, alexithymia was a partial mediator for both attachment dimensions and social anxiety. LIMITATIONS: Causal inferences regarding insecure attachment, alexithymia, and MDD and SAD cannot be assumed given the cross-sectional data. The 'externally oriented thinking' component in alexithymia was also excluded from analyses due to low reliability. CONCLUSION: The results suggest emotional awareness and expression play a role in the illness severity for MDD and SAD-particularly in those with high attachment avoidance, offering a possible target for treatment and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Humanos , Análise de Mediação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2053795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621306

RESUMO

Objective: Alexithymia, as a fundamental notion in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, is characterized by deficits in emotional processing and, consequently, difficulties in emotion recognition. Traditional tools for assessing alexithymia, which include interviews and self-report measures, have led to inconsistent results due to some limitations as insufficient insight. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to propose a new screening tool that utilizes machine learning models based on the scores of facial emotion recognition task. Method: In a cross-sectional study, 55 students of the University of Tabriz were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and their scores in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Then, they completed the somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the facial emotion recognition (FER) task. Afterwards, support vector machine (SVM) and feedforward neural network (FNN) classifiers were implemented using K-fold cross validation to predict alexithymia, and the model performance was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and F1-measure. Results: The models yielded an accuracy range of 72.7-81.8% after feature selection and optimization. Our results suggested that ML models were able to accurately distinguish alexithymia and determine the most informative items for predicting alexithymia. Conclusion: Our results show that machine learning models using FER task, SCL-90-R, BDI-II, and BAI could successfully diagnose alexithymia and also represent the most influential factors of predicting it and can be used as a clinical instrument to help clinicians in diagnosis process and earlier detection of the disorder.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
11.
J Psychosom Res ; 150: 110629, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to investigate the stability of alexithymia from adolescence to young adulthood, as well as the association between alexithymia, peer relationships, and symptoms of depression and dissociation. METHODS: The participants (n = 755, aged 13-18 years) were assessed with self-rated questionnaires and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at baseline in 2005 and on follow-up in 2011. RESULTS: The changes in the TAS-20 total score (t = -12.26) and the scores for its subscales, difficulty identifying feelings (DIF) (t = -4.04), difficulty describing feelings (DDF) (t = -5.10), and externally oriented thinking (EOT) (t = -18.23), were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the change indicating absolute stability were small for DIF (-0.15) and DDF (-0.19), medium for TAS-20 total (-0.45), and large for EOT (-0.66) scores. Moderate correlations in test-retests with Spearman's ρ (TAS-20 total 0.46, DIF 0.41, DDF 0.39, EOT 0.43) indicated relative stability, whereas low intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) (respectively 0.41, 0.39, 0.37, 0.37) indicated poor reliability of test-retests. In regression analyses, poor relationships with peers, loneliness, and symptoms of depression and dissociation at baseline associated with alexithymia at baseline and on follow-up. Unlike EOT, increases in the TAS-20 total, DIF, and DDF scores during the 6-year follow-up associated with baseline symptoms of depression and dissociation. CONCLUSIONS: Alexithymia in adolescence is not always a reliable predictor of alexithymia in young adulthood. Mental health symptoms appear to affect the consistency of alexithymia during adolescent development.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Depressão , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Emoções , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 508, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is overwhelming evidence for a strong association between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology. This study aimed to investigate the mediation roles of alexithymia, sensory processing sensitivity, and emotional-mental processes in the relationship between childhood traumas and adult psychopathology. METHODS: The sample consisted of 337 people (78.9% female, 21.1% male) aged between 20 and 64 years. Participants filled the scales online via a Google form. Reading Mind in the Eyes (EYES), Sensory Processing Sensitivity Scale (SPS), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used. PROCESS (Model 4) macro was used to examine the mediating role of sensory processing sensitivity, alexithymia, and the EYES test results in the relationship between childhood trauma and psychopathology. RESULTS: The results of mediation analysis demonstrated that sensory processing sensitivity and alexithymia mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology. However, the EYES test (mentalization) did not mediate in this relationship. CONCLUSION: This study shows that childhood traumas may relate to more psychological symptoms in individuals with high sensory processing sensitivity and alexithymia. Our study may contribute to the understanding of what may lead to a person's vulnerability to experiencing psychological symptoms after childhood trauma. It may be crucial that future treatment and intervention programs should include sensory sensitivity and alexithymia. Sensory processing sensitivity and alexithymia can be examined in the treatment of psychological problems of individuals who have experienced childhood trauma.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Sintomas Afetivos , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 445-450, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656877

RESUMO

Studies on the theory of mind (TOM) and alexithymia in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have yielded inconsistent results. Also, the relationship between TOM abilities and alexithymia facets as two domains of social cognition has not been studied in BPD. This study aimed to fill this gap. Participants were 50 outpatients with BPD and 50 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Assessments performed using Reading the Mind in Eyes Task (RMET), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Faux Pas Task (FPT), and Digit Span subtest of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Results showed that BPD patients scored lower on overall FPT (p < .001) and its cognitive (p < .001) and affective TOM (p < .001) subtests but were comparable with healthy controls in emotion recognition ability assessed by RMET (p = .241). The BPD group also scored significantly lower in overall alexithymia (p < .001) and subscales of difficulty identifying feelings (DIF; p < .001) and difficulty describing emotions (DDF; p = .001). However, they performed similarly to the healthy control group in externally oriented thinking (EOT; p = .164). Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between EOT and RMET in the BPD group (r = -0.33, p < .05). No association, however, was found between FPT and RMET. This study suggests that BPD patients are impaired in the complex TOM abilities and have lower self-awareness of emotions, but their recognition of others' emotions is intact. Also, the results demonstrate that a heightened level of EOT is associated with difficulties in facial emotion recognition in BPD patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Teoria da Mente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682393

RESUMO

The scientific literature has shown the key role played by attachment to parents and peers and difficulties in recognizing, processing, and regulating emotions (i.e., alexithymia) in the (mal-)adaptive psychological response to the COVID-19 pandemic during late adolescence. No study has yet explored the complex interplay between these variables. We recruited a sample of 454 late adolescents (Mage = 22.79, SD = 2.27) and assessed attachment to parents and peers, alexithymia, and peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19 through self-report instruments. Attachment to fathers and peers, but not to mothers, and alexithymia significantly predicted levels of peritraumatic distress. Alexithymia fully and partially mediated the effect of, respectively, attachment to mothers and attachment to peers on peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19. These findings suggested that intervention programs focused on the promotion of peer social relationships, supportive parent-adolescent relationships, and the ability to recognize and discriminate one's own and others' emotions are needed in helping late adolescents to face the current health emergency and preventing short- and long-term psychopathological consequences related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Psychosom Res ; 150: 110634, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe hypoglycemia complicates insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes, with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) being a major risk factor. We explored associations between the personality traits, alexithymia and perfectionism, and cognitive barriers to hypoglycemia avoidance described in IAH, and evaluated their prevalence in people with and without IAH. METHODS: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Ninety adults with type 1 diabetes, 54 hypoglycemia aware and 36 with IAH, completed validated questionnaires exploring alexithymia (Total Alexithymia Scale [TAS-20]) and perfectionism (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale [FMPS]); and cognitive barriers related to hypoglycemia avoidance (Attitudes to Awareness Questionnaire [A2A]. RESULTS: Alexithymia and perfectionism scores correlated positively with cognitive barriers associated with IAH. Specifically, alexthymia scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.265; p = .02, n = 77) and the 'Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia Normalised' factor (r = 0.252-0.255; p = .03, n = 77). Perfectionism scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.525; p < .001, n = 66). Overall, IAH participants were significantly more likely to score at the high end for alexithymia (17.6% vs. 1.9%, p = .008, n = 87) and at the extreme ends (high and low) for perfectionism (69.0% vs. 40.0%, χ2 (1) = 6.24, p = .01, n = 77). CONCLUSION: These novel data showing associations between alexithymia and perfectionism scores and maladaptive health beliefs in IAH suggest the intriguing possibility that personality traits may contribute to the risk of IAH, perhaps through their influence on incentives to avoid hypoglycemia. If confirmed, measuring such traits may help tailor early adjunctive psychological intervention to reduce hypoglycemia burden for people with IAH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Perfeccionismo , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Humanos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256888, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529656

RESUMO

Ultrarunning requires extraordinary endurance but the psychological factors involved in successful ultrarunning are not well understood. One widely held view is that fluctuations in mood play a pivotal role in performance during endurance events. However, this view is primarily based on comparisons of mood before and after marathons and shorter running events. Indeed, to date no study has explicitly examined mood changes during a competive ultramarathon. To address this issue, we measured mood fluctuations in athletes competing in the Hardmoors 60, a 100 km, single day continuous trail-ultramarathon, and examined how variation in mood related to performance, as measured by completion time. The key finding was that the variability of athletes Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score was significantly and positively correlated with completion time, consistent with the idea that mood is an important factor in determining race performance. Athletes also experienced a significant increase in tension immediately prior to race onset. This effect was more pronounced in less experienced athletes and significantly attenuated by measurement stage 1 at 35.4 km, which suggests the effect was driven by the release of pre-competition anxiety. Depression, anger and TMD were significantly lower at the pre-race measurement compared to the baseline measurement taken the week before. Consistent with previous studies, there were also significant increases in fatigue, anger and TMD during the race. The data are interpreted in terms of the Psychobiological model of endurance and may have broader implications for the understanding of endurance performance in other domains.


Assuntos
Afeto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Corrida de Maratona/psicologia , Resistência Física , Adulto , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 220: 103422, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592586

RESUMO

Individuals vary in emotion recognition ability (ERA), but the causes and correlates of this variability are not well understood. Previous studies have largely focused on unimodal facial or vocal expressions and a small number of emotion categories, which may not reflect how emotions are expressed in everyday interactions. We investigated individual differences in ERA using a brief test containing dynamic multimodal (facial and vocal) expressions of 5 positive and 7 negative emotions (the ERAM test). Study 1 (N = 593) showed that ERA was positively correlated with emotional understanding, empathy, and openness, and negatively correlated with alexithymia. Women also had higher ERA than men. Study 2 was conducted online and replicated the recognition rates from Study 1 (which was conducted in lab) in a different sample (N = 106). Study 2 also showed that participants who had higher ERA were more accurate in their meta-cognitive judgments about their own accuracy. Recognition rates for visual, auditory, and audio-visual expressions were substantially correlated in both studies. Results provide further clues about the underlying structure of ERA and its links to broader affective processes. The ERAM test can be used for both lab and online research, and is freely available for academic research.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Individualidade , Sintomas Afetivos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
18.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 101(11): adv00590, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518893

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to detect demographic and clinical factors associated with affective symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe atopic dermatitis. First, one-way analyses of variance and correlations were performed to compare a large set of qualitative and quantitative clinical variables. Three final multivariable regression models were performed, with depression/anxiety subscales and Dermatology Life Quality Index scores as dependent variables, and the factors that were statistically significant on univariate analyses as independent ones. More severe anxiety symptoms and poorer quality of life (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with more severe depressive symptoms. Female sex and disturbed sleep (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with more severe anxiety. Finally, previous treatment with cyclosporine (p = 0.03) or methotrexate (p = 0.04), more severe depressive symptoms (p < 0.01), itch (p = 0.03), impaired sleep (p < 0.01) and perceived severity of dermatological illness (p < 0.01) were significant predictors of low quality of life. This study shows a complex interplay between the severity of atopic dermatitis, poor quality of life and presence of clinically relevant affective symptoms. These results will help dermatologists to identify patients who need psychiatric consultation within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Sintomas Afetivos , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 416-421, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment, including neglect, can affect an individual's mental health. However, there is a gap in current literature investigating the long-term, dynamic effects of childhood neglect on adult affective symptoms (AS). METHOD: Data were used from the National Child Development Study (a British 1958 birth cohort). Childhood neglect was prospectively measured at ages 7 and 11. Five distinct trajectories of AS have been derived previously, using data from the Malaise Inventory Scale (at ages 23, 33, 42 and 50): 'no symptoms', 'persistent mild/moderate symptoms', 'low and increasing symptoms', 'high and increasing symptoms' and 'high and decreasing symptoms' (John et al., 2019). Multinomial logistic regressions were used to explore whether childhood neglect was associated with AS trajectory membership, while adjusting for a number of covariates. RESULTS: Results revealed that childhood neglect was significantly associated with 'high and decreasing', 'high and increasing' and 'persistent mild/moderate' AS trajectories from young adulthood through midlife. There was no association with the 'low and increasing' AS trajectory. When testing for at age specific effects, neglect experienced at age 7 only, or at age 11 only, was predictive of 'high and decreasing symptoms' trajectory, whereas neglect experienced at both ages was predictive of 'persistent mild/moderate symptoms' trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood neglect has negative long-lasting effects on trajectories of adult mental health. This finding has important implications for early intervention for individuals who have experienced childhood neglect.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256983, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473768

RESUMO

Sleep loss is reported to influence affective processing, causing changes in overall mood and altering emotion regulation. These aspects of affective processing are seldom investigated together, making it difficult to determine whether total sleep deprivation has a global effect on how affective stimuli and emotions are processed, or whether specific components of affective processing are affected selectively. Sixty healthy adults were recruited for an in-laboratory study and, after a monitored night of sleep and laboratory acclimation, randomly assigned to either a total sleep deprivation condition (n = 40) or a rested control condition (n = 20). Measurements of mood, vigilant attention to affective stimuli, affective working memory, affective categorization, and emotion regulation were taken for both groups. With one exception, measures of interest were administered twice: once at baseline and again 24 hours later, after the sleep deprived group had spent a night awake (working memory was assessed only after total sleep deprivation). Sleep deprived individuals experienced an overall reduction in positive affect with no significant change in negative affect. Despite the substantial decline in positive affect, there was no evidence that processing affectively valenced information was biased under total sleep deprivation. Sleep deprived subjects did not rate affective stimuli differently from rested subjects, nor did they show sleep deprivation-specific effects of affect type on vigilant attention, working memory, and categorization tasks. However, sleep deprived subjects showed less effective regulation of negative emotion. Overall, we found no evidence that total sleep deprivation biased the processing of affective stimuli in general. By contrast, total sleep deprivation appeared to reduce controlled processing required for emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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